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Full text of "Standard atlas of St. Clair County, Michigan : including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county...patrons directory, reference business directory and departments devoted to general infromation"

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WITHDRAWN 




IN.@MJDIN<3 



OF THE 

Villages, Gities and Townships of the Bounty. 

Patrons Directory, Reference Business Directory and Departments 

devoted to General Information. 
Analysis ofthe System of U.S. Land Surveys, Digest of the 
System of Civil Government, etc. etc. 




(gropiled and published 



e_ 




6~ 



BY-^ 






m 










CHICAGO. 



i 



Copyright 19/6 byGeo.1, tyfa & Co. 





?J~ 3 L 



.cfaL .xJ^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



GENERAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

TITLE PAGE • 3 

TABLE OF CONTENTS •• 5 

OUTLINE MAP OF ST. CLAIR COUNTY '. 7 

MAP OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. . . -76-77 

MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. ; 80-81 

MAP OF THE WORLD .....84-85 

PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY, ST. CLAIR COUNTY... 87 
ILLUSTRATIONS '. . • • • • • 95 



ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM OF UNITED STATES LAND 
SURVEYS 

DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT..... 



PAGE 



I-II 



III-VI 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING BANKING AND 

BUSINESS METHODS Supplement VII-VIII 

ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY CHRON- 
OLOGICALLY ARRANGED Supplement X-XXIII 



ST. GbfllR COUNTY 1ND&X. 



PAGE 

ABBOTTSFORD, PLAT OF • • • 33 

ADAIR, PLAT OF • • -g 

ALGONAC, PLAT OF 28-29 

ALLENTON, PLAT OF. . 63 

ATKINSON BEACH, PLAT OF , • • • • • -.2d 

ATKINSON AND PERCIVALS ST. CLAIR RIVER 

PLAT, PLAT OF 25 

ATTApA PLAT OF •••OO 

BALTIMORE BAY PARK,' PLAT OF 66 

BEAUVAIS' CHAS. SUB.. PLAT OF 49 

BEAUVAIS' HENRY, FARM SUB., PLAT OF 49 

BEAUVAIS' BAY VIEW. SUB., PLAT OF 49 

BERLIN TOWNSHIP 46 

BERVILLE, PLAT OF f8 

BLAINE, P. 0., PLAT OF • f 

BROCKWAY, PLAT OF... 67 

BROCKW AY TOWNSHIP • ■ 30 

BROCKWAY CENTER, PLAT OF , • • • ■ -40-41 

BUENA VESTA PARK, PLAT OF 25 

BURTCHVILLE TOWNSHIP. 
CAP AC, PLAT OP....' .... 

CASCO TOWNSHIP 

CEDARCROFT, PLAT OF... 
CEDAR WOOD. PLAT OF. . . . 
CHERRY BEACH, PLAT OF 
CHINA TOWNSHIP 



35 
. ...70 
.. .56 
....26 
....62 
....59 
....57 



CICOTTE AND VERNIER'S LONG ISLAND SUB., 

PLAT OF • ••••49 

CLAY TOWNSHIP 60-6J 

CLYDE TOWNSHIP 43 

ggi&N'&ra-OF D.'b: HARRINGTON ■ 

ESTATE • • £» 

COTTRELLVILLE TOWNSHIP 59 

DAVIS' SUB., PLAT OF. 71 

DESMOND BEACH, PLAT OF 26 

EAST CHINA TOWNSHIP • 57 

EMMET TOWNSHIP.-: ., 39 

InLAR GED P PLATOF PART OF SECTIONS 4 AND " ' " 

Q Cf.AY TOWNSHIP 53 

FNLARGED PLAT OF PART OF P. C. NOS. 309, 
202. 301, 196, 132, 191, AND 190, CLAY TOWN- 



SHIP. 



.52-53 



ENLARGED PLAT OF TRACTS FRONTING ON ST. 

CLAIR RIVER, COTTRELLVILLE TOWNSHIP 48-49 
ENLARGE^ PLAT OF TRACTS FRONTING ON ST. 

CLAIR RIVER, EAST CHINA TOWNSHIP. 62 

ENLARGED PLAT OF TRACTS FRONTING ON 

ANCHOR BAY. IRA TOWNSHIP. 52-53 

ENLARGED PLAT OF PART OF SECTIONS 19, 20, 

21 AND 22. ST. CLAIR TOWNSHIP. ........... .52 

FARGO, PLAT OF . . . ....■■•. 35 

FORD'S RIVER FRONT, PLAT OF 29 

FORT GRATIOT TOWNSHIP 44 

GOODELLS. PLAT OF... ..... ■•■■•■•■■• • *1 

GRANDE POINTE, SUB. NO. 1, PLAT OF 71 

GRANDE POINTE, SUB. NO. 2, PLAT OF ,...74 

GRANDE POINTE, SUB. NO. 3. PLAT OF 71 

GRANDE POINTE, SUB. NO. 4, PLAT OF 74 

GRANT TOWNSHIP • 34 

GRANT CENTER, PLAT OF 62 

GRATIOT BEACH. PLAT OF 26 

GRATIOT CENTER, PLAT OF ...33 

GREENWOOD TOWNSHIP ' . . - : ..:... • 31 

HAMLIN'S. HENRY, PLAT, PLAT OF 49 



Page 
HARRINGTON, D. B., ESTATE, COMMISSIONER'S 

PLAT OF. 26 

IDLEWILD, PLAT OF •■ 63 

IRA TOWNSHIP 58 

JEDDO, PLAT OF ..-.59 

KEEWAHDIN BEACH, PLAT OF 26 

KENOCKEE TOWNSHIP .' .42 

KIMBALL TOWNSHIP 51 

LABOUNTY AND VERNIER'S SUB., PLAT OF 49 

LAKELAND BEACH, PLAT OF 66 

LAKEPORT, PLAT OF 63 

LAKE VIEW BEACH, PLAT OF 26 

LAMB P. O. AND STATION, PLAT OF 62 

LYNN TOWNSHIP ...27 

LYON'S SUB., PLAT OF... 74 

MACLEAN, THE BESSIE, SUB., PLAT OF 62 

MCLEAN'S, A., SUB., PLAT OF..... 63 

MAPLE LEAF, PLAT OF , 71 

MARINE CITY, PLAT OF 32-33 

MARYSVILLE, PLAT OF 58 

MEMPHIS, PLAT OF 48-49 

MOORE'S RIVERSIDE PLAT, PLAT OF .59 

MT. CROWLEY. PLAT OF 62 

MUSSEY TOWNSHIP 38 

NEW BALTIMORE, PLAT OF. . , m 

OAK GROVE SUB., PLAT OF 74 

O'BRIEN'S SUB., PLAT OF 71 

OWANA BEACH, PLAT OF 29 

PARISOT AND VERNIER'S LAKESIDE ADDITION, 

PLAT OF -.49 

P C. NO. 5, PART OF, PLAT OF (HARSEN'S IS- 
LAND) • 74 

PEARL BEACH, PLAT OF ..29 

POINT DU CHENE, PLAT OF. 29 

PORT HURON, CITY OF, PLATS OF 

NORTH PART OF 10-11 

NORTH CENTRAL PART OF 14-15 

CENTRAL PART OF 18-19 

SOUTH CENTRAL PART OF 22-23 

SOUTH PART OF 25 

PORT HURON TOWNSHIP. 44-45 

RANDOLPH'S BEACH, PLAT OF.. ...29 

RILEY TOWNSHIP 47 

RILEY CENTER, PLAT OF 41 

ROSE FARM SUB., PLAT OF 49 

RUSSELL ISLAND, PLAT OF..... 29 

ST. CLAIR, PLAT OF ....36-37 

ST. CLAIR TOWNSHIP... 55- 

ST CLAIR COUNTY, OUTLINE MAP OF 7 

ST CLAIR FLATS SURVEY, PLATS OF 64-65-68-69-72-73 

SANS SOUCI, PLAT OF 74 

SCHNOOR'S SUB., PLAT OF ...49 

SEURYNCK'S, AMANDUS, BAY VIEW SUB., PLAT 

OF • 49 

SHADY SIDE, PLAT OF 63 

SMITH CADY AND GRAHAM'S FIRST ADDITION 

TO HARSEN'S ISLAND, PLAT OF 71 

SMITH'S CREEK, PLAT OF .... 66 

SMITHVILLE. PLAT OF 66 

SMITH AND BEDFORD'S BAY VIEW SUB., PLAT 

OF 49 

SOUTH PORT HURON, PLAT OF 25 

THORNTON, PLAT OF .35 

VICKSBURG, PLAT OF 58 

WALES TOWNSHIP 50 

YALE, PLAT OF 40-41 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 
Avoca Meat Market, Ayoca 103 

Baker, R. G. and H. EL, Store of 105 

Baker, Simon M 99. 

Bates, Julius N --95 

Beach, Fred H 95 

Beard, F. A ■'..: 97 

Bennett, Lewis T 95 

Betts, G ... .- 101 

Bishop, Wui., Farm Buildings 107 

Blackney, B. T 97 

Bradway, Judson 97 

Brown , Harvey. 101 

Brown, Jas. H 101 

Cadillaqua Hotel, Anchorville 103 

Cady, Burt D..... 97 

Carless, Thomas, Fair View Farm 103 

Carrigan, Thomas, and Family 99 

Carrigan, Thomas, Residence of.., 107 

Cavanaugh, Win. A 95 

Christie, J. R., Residence of ';.,.. 103 

Christie, M. J., Residence of 105 

City Hall, Algonac 101 

City Hall and St. Clair Offices.. 97 

City Hospital, Port Huron .....101 

Commissioners of Highways, Burtchville 

Township 101 

Conkli-n, J. W., Farm Residence 103 

Cope, Orner D... 97 

Curtis, D 101 

Custom House and Post Office, Port Huron. .101 

Dancey, J. H. 95 

Engel, Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph 99 

Engel, Rudolph, Residence of 103 

Fenner, Alfred , 99 

Ferry Boats, Black River, Port Huron 103 

Fort Gratiot Light House, Port Huron 103 

Foster, Frank, Home of . 107 

Gery, Rev. B 99 

Gibson, J. T., Home of : ....105 

Hannan, W. W 97 

Harris, C ....' 101 

Herbert, Norman B 95 

High School, Port Huron 101 



Page 

Hill, F. H., Farm Residence of 105 

Huron Avenue, Port Huron, View of 103 

Irwin, John Wm 95 

Jarvis, R. C 97 

Jennings, Max 97 

Jones, Bert, Scene on Farm of ....105 

Kelley, Roger, Farm Buildings. 107 

Kelley, Mr. and Mrs, Royal 99 

Krantz, Gregory 99 

Lathrop, Mrs. E., Farm Home 107 

Law, Eugene F. . 95 

Lawson, Henry, Scene on Farm of 107 

Leach, Alva 97 

Leach, Corey, Residence of 105 

Mclntyre, Mr. and Mrs. A ..99 

McLouth, Sydney C. 97 

Maccabees Temple, Port Huron 101 

Mackay, Angus G 97 

Main Street, Algonac 101 

Marine City Floral House 105 

Martin, David D 95 

Martin, Samuel .' 99 

Military Street, Port Huron '. 103 

Moore, Alex 95 

Moore, R. R 97 

Osborne, Benton 99 

Pamptopee, Mr. and Mrs. Steve and 

Daughter 99 

Parker, Fred W., Residence of ..105 

Persels, John, Hotel of .105 

Petz, F. A., Farm Home ..105 

Pine Grove Park, Soldiers and Sailors 

Monument 103 

Prior, Joseph, Scene on Farm 107 

Public Library, Port Huron 101 

Reese Garage, Jeddo 107 

Reimer, Henry, Scene on Farm 107 

Reish, G. W., Residence of 103 

River Scene at Algonac 107 

Riverview Hotel, Marine City 105 

Rochon, A. J 95 

Hvan, Albert P 95 



Pace 

St. Clair County Savings Bank 101 

St. Clair Tunnel, Port Huron 103 

Saph, Hale P .97 

Savage, Geo. L., Farm Residence 107 

Schoolcraft, E. J 97 

Scouten, Mr. and Mrs. Alvah and Son 99 

Shea, Patrick, Residence of 107 

Shearsmith, Walter, Residence of 105 

Simpson, Chas. F. and Family 99 

Smith, Jehn Jr., Residence of 105 

Spooner, J... 101 

Stevenson, Albert E 97 

Stewart, Shirley 95 

Stockwell, Elmer E 97 

Stommel, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob 99 

Street Scene, Algonac 101 

Sturdevant, Wm., Blacksmith Shop 107 

Sulphite Fibre Works, Port Huron 103 

Tarte, Chas. J 95 

Taylor, Robert S 95 

Thomas, Wm 97 

Thompson, George H — 99> 

Tosch, Albert 97 

Vincent, V 101 

Wagner, Carl A.. 99 

Ward Fountain, Pine Grove Park 103 

Water Street, Port Huron 101 

Water Works, Port Huron 103 

Watson, Geo. C 95 

Werner, Aug., Scene on Farm of 105 

Whitmore, E. R. and Staff .....101 

Wills, Wm., Cattle of ....105 

Wilson, J. F. ., 95 

WittlifT, Frank J 97 

Wittliff, John S 97 

Wright, Hoyt & Co., Port Huron... 99 

Y. M. C. A., Port Huron 101 

Zaetsch, A. J 99 

Zaetsch, T. H., Scene on Farm... 107 

Zimmermann Bros 99 

Zimmermann, Chas. F 99 

Zimmermann, Fred W 99 

Zimmermann, John F ..99 

Zimmermann, Milton F 99 



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26 



DESMOND BEACH 

KEEWAHDIN BEACH 

GRATIOT BEACH 

fort <?/?Ar/or rwp. 

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COMMISSIONERS PLAT OF 

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PORT HURON TWH 



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THORNTON 

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52 

ENLARGED PLAT 

OF PART OF 

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PLAT OF PART OFP.C.N9-5 

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Dimensions* of the J2arth« 

mm: 

iCqaatoi-iai Diameter. ...„.,,. ,.-,.,.. ?,92&i; 

■Earth's Axis , 7,89M 

Circumference at Equator , .24,889.?, 

Areas of the Earth. 

Bq. Miles 

Land Surface ,,, ..... 52,158,001 

^Vater Surface 147,000,000 



Total 




...190.158,00 




Oceans, 






Sq. Miles, 


SQ. Mil©. 


Pacific..,, 


. .71,000,000 Antarctic. . . 


8,500,01*, 


Itlantic . 


..35,000,0*0 Arctic 


4,500,00!/ 


Indian. .„ 


. O 28,000,000 





Principal Salt Lakes. 

iftke or Sea. Country. Area Sq. M. Elev., Ft, 
Caspian Sea Asia 180,000 84 below sea. 



Sea of Aral.... 
Belkash .... 



..Asia 26,300 



Maracaibo So. Am, 

Eyre Australia. 

Titicaca So. Am. 

Issik-kul Asia. 

Koko-nor „.....,, Asia. 

Van Asia. 

Great Salt Lake.N.Am. 
Urumiah. , . . . „ ....Asia, 

Dead Sea ^....Asia. 

ni...„.„ oc Africa. 



Asia 12,500 



8,000 
4,000 

3,800 12,847 
2,466 5,300 



26 abore se*, 
700 ** ** 
130 M * 

70 



N.Am. 

........Eur, 



2.040 '970 

2,000 5,465 " «• 

1,875 4,200 °* » 

1 R 730 4,000 •• ** 

444 1,312 below ee©, 

850 8,700 above sea* 

Principal Freshwater Lakes* 

Lake or Sea, Country, Sq. M* ft. abov 

Sea Level, 
Superior. .,,,„.,,..„..., K". Am. 
Victoria Nyanza. „.„,>„„,..,„ Afr, 

MiehigaE..... N. Am. 

Huron., .,.....„„„... N.Am. 

Tanganyika.. .....Afr. 

Baikal. .................... Asia. 

JrreatBear N. Am. 

Nyassa. .«,,... ....Afr. 

Tchad.. ....c.» D ..... Afr. 

Great Slave....... N. Am. 

Bangweolo, ........ , Afr. 

Winnipeg..... ........ ,.N, Am. 

Erie... ST. Am. 

Lake of the Woods N. Am. 

Albert Nyanza. . . . , Afr. 

iUdoga Eur. 

Ontario....... N.Am. 

Athabaaka N.Am. 

Nicaragua 

Onega , 

Tungting........ 

Wenrer 

Champlain. 

Dembea. ....,..,, 

Wetter 

Managua N. Am. 

Balaton, (Platten Sea) ..... Eur. 

Geneva, (or Leman) Eur 

Constance,(or BodenSea).Eur, 

Garda " 

Maggiore 

Neufcbatel.... 

George ,.. 

Cayuga 

Lucerne 

gurich. .,,..„. 
Come ., 



tfames. 
Mississippi-Missouri 

KUe............ 

Amazon-Maranoa .. 

Yangtze-Kiang, 

Congo...,,..... 

Ob...'..... 

Hoangho , 

Lena..... 

Niger. .......... 

Yenesei 

Plata-Parana... 

Mackenzie , 

Amur 

Yolga 

St, Lawrence. . . 

Yukon 

Arkansas... 
Jkmbesi...., 
Indus 

Brahmaputra-Sanpu. ••*■ 
Bio Grande del Norte, 
Danube... 

Mekong 

Saskatchewau-Nelsoa 
Euphrates.......... 

Orinoco 

Colorado 

Ganges........ 

Amu. 

San Francisco 

Sir-Daria 

Jrawaddy .......... 

Columbia., 

Dnieper 

Para, or Tocantina < 

Darling 

Doa 

Tigris , 

Murray., 

Orange, op CJariep. . 

Senegal 

Ural.or Jatk 

Gambia 

Bhme , 

Ohio 

Churchill, op Mississippi Canada, 

Magdalena...., — 

Parananiba. . . , 
Fraser. ♦.,„... 

Loire 

Kibe 

Oder 

Bhone. .,......, 

Tagus.. ,,«...., 

Vistula 

Seine 

Susquehanna . 

Potomac 

Garonne....,,, 

Quadiana 

lacrameuto... 

Ebro.* oofl ,.. 
Keva.. .„<,.., 
Thames. ... 

Eudso&..,«.< 



Armies of the World, 

Russia, 

France ' 

Germany.. - .. 

Austria-Hungary - ..,..- 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Turkey.. . . . . 

China , 

Japan 

Abyssinia , 

Switzerland 

Spain 

United States , 

Afghanistan , 

Belgium ■ 

Servia 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Mexico 

Bourn ania 

Bulgaria 

Norway. , 

Netherlands 

Nepal 

Greece 

Brazil , 

Persia ... .. 

Korea.. 

Kongo Independent State- 

Chile 

Egypt 

Denmark 

Morocco.. 

Bokhara 

Slam „ 

Venezuela....... 

Argentina 

Guatemala............. *,.. 

Costa Rica 

Uruguay, 

Peru. . . . 

Ecuador. 

Cuba...., 

Salvador, 

Bolivia. 

Nicaragua.. 

Paraguay. . 

Colombia., 

Haiti, 

<± * ^R av *®» of *** World. 

Great Britain 

Russia 

France, 

Japan 

Germany. 

United States. 

Italy..... 

Netherlands 

Turkey 

Austria-Hungary . «. . 
Sweden 

Chile 

Greece.... 
Denmark. 
Spain 



COUNTRIES- CAPITALS. AREA. COMMERCE 

Square" Miles POPULATION. with the 

Uaited States. 

Argentina Buenos Aires 1,319,247- ^,022.024 $9,808,521 

Australasia Melbourne 2,972,57^, 3,771,71$ 28,101,784 

Austria-Hungary Vienna 240,942 45,405,267 6,672,580 

Belgium Brussels n,373 7.o74»9 Id 43,5I5>H2 

Bolivia La Paz 567,430 1,852,657 76,926 

Brazil Rio de Janeiro 3,209,878 14,333,915 11,155,565 

Bulgaria Sofia 38,080 3>744,283 

Canada, 'Dominion of Ottawa 3,653,946 5,371,315 123,472,416 

Chile Santiago 290,829 2,712,145 3.753,222 

China Pekin 4,218,401 . 426,047,325 22,698,282 

Colombia Bogota 47 x > 2 73 3>538,6or 2,923404 

Costa Rica San Jose 23,000 312,81b 1,697,043 

Cuba Havana 44,000 1,572,797 21,769,572 

Denmark Copenhagen 15,289 2.464,770 14,812,000 

East Indies, Dutch Batavia 736,400 36,000,000 2,210,963 

Ecuador Quito 120,000 1,271,861 1,347,850 

Egypt Cairo 400,000 9,821,045 667*577 

France Paris 204,092 39>n 8 ,99o 70,497,327 

Germany ^ Berlin 208,830 $9,495,000 174,264,495 

Great Britain and Ireland London 120,979 41,607,552 523,773,397 

Greece Athens 25,014 2433,806 369,919 

Guatemala New Guatemala 48,290 1,647,300 {,128,418 

Haiti Port au Prince 10,204 872,000 ^956,343 

Honduras Tegucigalpa 46,250 587,500 969,963 

India -..-..,..,. ....... ...... Calcutta 1.766.642 204,361,056 £.866,683 



NATIONAL DEBTS. 
Total. Per Capita. 

$479,765,265 $100.08 



1,084,605444 

1,107,464,025 

544,052,979 

6,180,602 

540,693,936 

62428,200 

271,829,000 

107,304,151 
613,140,000 

14,494792 
14,603,556 



66,033,849 

5,746,628 

500,743,871 

5,856,706,403 

698,849400 

3,885,166,333 

I59»787J36 

12,142,334 

27,961,249 

96,249,77* 

M02.Q05.I39 



287.54 
24.39 
81.28 

34° 

3772 
16.67 
49-3* 
35**7 

4° 

3.62 

46.66 
26.61 

'4.77 

51.44 
150.32 

".94 

§2.59 
65.65 
7.37 
21.61 
224.19 
•3.74 



REVENUE. 
Total. 

$ 62,723,000 

1*0,755,000 
75,896,000 

122,657,000 
3,614,000 

137,295,000 
18,917,000 
58,05 1,000 
38,684,000 

62,710,000 



2,820,000 

18,791,000 

20,306,000 

61,934,000 

5,208,000 

60,051,000 

695,276,000 

495*853,000 

737»5 2 6,ooo 

14,664,000 

2,046,000 

7,327,000 

**373»ooo 



Per Capita, 

£13.08 

37.32 

1.67 

18.32 

1.99 

9.58 

• 5.05 

10.64 

t2.68 

•*5 

9.01 

"•95 

8.24 

*-73 

4.32 
6.17 

17.85 
847 

1767 
6.02 
1.24 

5.66 

i.77 

5^6 



EXPENDITURE. COUNTRIES. 

Total. Per Capita 

0,757,000 $12.09 

37.65 Italy ._ R om c 110,646 

I.67 Japan , Tokio 162,655 

*74© Korea Seoul 82,000 

1-97 Mexico Mexico 767,005 

6.93 Netherlands The Hague 12,648 

5.03 Nicaragua ....... v Managua 49,200 

9.45 Norway Christiania 124,445 

16.22 Paraguay . . . Asuncion 157,000 

J7 Persia Teheran 628,000 

V*o £ e ™ '•; * -Lima 695/733 

».o8 Portugal Lisbon 36,038 

^•4o Roumama Bucharest 48,307 

M4 Russia St. Petersburg 8,660,394 

i.o5 Salvador San Salvador 7,225 

3>5ff Santo Domingo Santo Domingo 18,045 

575 Servia . . Belgrade 19,050 

17*84 Siam Bangkok 300,000 

9.82 Spam Madrid 197,670 

21.57 ' Sweden . . . Stockholm 172,876 

5.88 Switzerland ...... Bern 15,976 

1.3 Turkey .- Constantinople 1,118,000 

8.42 United $tate,<=- Washington 3,025,600 

3,E J Uruguay ... ai Montevideo 72,210 

, Venezuela Caracas 593,943 



142,148,000 
75,896,000 

116,500,000 
3,663,000 
99,366,000 
18,853,000 
50,759,000 
44,001,000 
71,896,000 

2,812,000 

19* 5 J 5,coo 

20,792,000 

66,750,000 

4,540,000 

56,511,000 

695^250,000 

553,220,000 

897,790,000 

14,327,000 

2,169,000 

7,341,000 

1,264,000 

346440,00a 



CAPITALS. AREA COMMERCE 

Square Miles, POPULATION,, with the 

United States. 



33,218,32 

46,732,841 
12,000,000 

«3»6o5»9i9 

5*43o,o8l 

500,000 

2,240,032 

630,000 

9,000,000 

4,610,000 

5»423*i32 

5*956,690 

129,004,514 

1,006,848 

610,000 

2,493,770 

5,000,000 

88,891,574 
5,221,29 s 

3,315,443 
40,441,000 

76,303^387 

978,04$ 

2.350,000 



$33*I35>5I2 
21,622,603 

257,130 

42,227,786 

74,576,164 

1,364,518 



NATIONAL DEBTS. 
Total. Per Capita. 



$2,560,605,000 
261,857,143 



14,815 

2,573* 2 89 

2,915,897 

138,635 

7,518,177 

868,329 
2,700,371 



15,976,788 

9»53o,i37 

203*357 

354457 



175,945,345 

463,150,904 

5*590,636 

7o,376,355 

11,223,805* 

16,737,500 

23»i59*7oo 

819,800,580 

272,774*5oi 

3,414,061,734 

3,696472 
26,219449 
80,806,223 



1,549,812 
3.736,726 



2,061,389,972 

92,833*336 

17,400,567 

723,125400 

925,011,637 

127,362,827 

49,335,64? 



$78.85 
5-71 

12.99 

86,62 

11.18 

31.09 

17.65 

1.76 

5.02 

151.02 

46.13 

24.21 

3.67 

42.98 

31.86 

110.72 

17.86 

5.18 

29.00 

11.51 

532.81 

20.8i 



REVENUE. 


EXPENDITURE. 


Total. 


Per Capita, 


Total. 


Per Capit? 


$375,000,000 


$11.54 


$ 356402,000 


$10.9^ 


I33*o39»ooo 


2.90 


i3 2 * 8 95*ooo 


2.8 S 


5,362,000 


1-45 


5,361,000 


44 


29,171,000 


2.15- 


27,819,000 


2.04 


61,526,000 


n.50 


61,468,000 


1 149 


2403,000 


•74 


2,393*ooo 


4.78 


27,000,000 


11.93 


27,259,000 


12.16 


11,007,000 


1.73 


11,007,00s 


i.74 


7,300,000 


77 


7,300,000 


.81 


7,533»ooo 


I.63 


7,016,000 


1.52 


57,336,000 


10.56 


62,170,000 


II.46 


42,114,000 


T.12 


38,906,000 


6.73 


1,101,107,000 


7.81 


3,116,095,000 


8.65 


3,281,000 


3-26 


3,274,000 


3-25 


1,910,000 


3.13 


1,722,000 


2.82 


13,019,000 


5-37 


14,086,000 


5.65 


13,823,000 . 


2.76 


13,640,000 


2.72 


197,077,000 


10.58 


187,846,000 


I0.09 


49,712,000 


9.56 


49,593,000 


9-54 


20,691,000 


6.16 


20,563,000 


6.20 


81450,000 


3-26 


81,089,000 


2.00 


694,621,000 


8,64 


640,323,000 


8.39 


16,703,000 


742 


15,032,000 


15-37 


d.8 1 8,000 


1-97 


5,026,000 


2.14 




j&ailroad Mileage of the 

COtmTKIHS. 

^FEICA: 

Abyssinia 

Algeria 

Angola 

British Central Africa. 

British East Africa 

Cape Colony 

Dahomey.. 

Egypt 

Eritrea „ ..... 

French. Guinea 

French Somallland 

German East Africa ■ 

German Southwest Africa 

Gold Coast 

Ivory Coast 

Kamerun 

Kongo Indep endent State 



"World* 

MILSS. 



Madagascar , 

Mauritius , 

Natal , 

Northern Nigeria 

Orange Kiver Colony 

Portuguese East Africa. , 

Rhodesia 

Senegal 

S enegambia 

Sierra Leone 

Togoland 

Transvaal ,,.... 

Tunis 

Uganda 



181 

l,92t> 

300 

5P 

58* 

3,6S8 

14 
1,188 

48 

81 
180 
21? 
59:* 
163 
110 

16 
300 
126 

80 
122 
814 

24 
80S 
27 1 
1,096 
16S 
849 
22ff 
121 
1,44* 
590 

81 



Total.... -• 1M6« 



ASIA: 

Afghanistan 

Baluchistan ,.<,...„. 

Bokhara * 

B orneo 

Ceylon 

China ••• 

Dutoii East Indies 

Federated Malay States. 

Formosa 

/rench Indo-China 

Japan 

Korea ■ 

Laos 

Manchuria ■ 

Philippineisiands 

Portuguese India 

Russia in Asia 

Siam. ' 

Straits Settlements. , 

Turkey in Asia 

Total • 

' USTRALASIA: 

New Caledonia. 

Hew South Wales 

New Zealand 

Queensland 

South Australia ■ 

Tasmania 

Victoria • 

Western Australia 

Total 

a'tTROPE: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Bulgaria 

Denmark 

Finland 

France... 

Germany 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Greece,.. 

Italy 

Luxemburg 

Malta, Jersey and Man (Tslands). . 

Montenegro 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia in Europe 

Servia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland. 

Turkey in Europe 

Total 

*ORTH AMERICAS 

Costa Rica 

Dominion of Canada 

Guatemala 

Hawaii *•-- 

Honduras 

Mexico 

Newfoundland and Labrador 

Nicaragua 

Salvador 

United States 

Total 

H3TJTH AMERICA: 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British Guiana 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

French Guiana 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezue]a 

Total 

*VEST INDIES: 

Barbados. = 

Cuba 

Haiti o.... 

Jamaica » 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Trinidad 

Total 

Granfi Total.., cc, 

telegraph Mileage of the. 
Countries. 

United States.... , ., 

Russia , 

France 

Germany... „ -...,.. 

india 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Mexico , 

Austria-Hungary.. 

Dominion of Canada 

Argentina 

Italy 

Turkey „ 

■spain 

Sweden 

Japan 

Brazil ." 

New South Wales.. 

China 

Chile 

Norway 

Queensland 

Colombia 

Phili ppine Islands. 

l)u tch East Indies 

Cape Colony 

New Zealand 

French Indo-China 

Algeria 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

South Australia 

Persia 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Rhodesia :... , 

Greece 

Switzerland 

Venezuela 

Madagascar 

Bulgaria „ 

Peru , 

Bolivia...... 

Guatemala 

Siam- 

Honduras 

Nicaragua...... ' 

Formosa 

Egypt 

Ecuador .. 

Transvaal ;..... 

Portuguese East Africa , .. 

Denmark 

Tasmania , 

Korea ;... 

Tunis 

Newfoundland and Labrador. 

Servia 

Federated Malay States 

Cuba 

Salvador 

Bosnia and Herzegovina... , 

Natal "; 

Dahomey , 

Orange River Colony , 

Ceylon , 

Angola 

British EastAfriea , 

Uruguay. 

Senegal.... 

Trinidad , 

Northern Kigeria , 



9D 
3.281 
2,48f 
3,092 
1,89£ 
620 
3,45M> 
2,26Vr 

Tl,15* 



, 84,261 

2,848 

67S 

1,020 

1,994 

2,014 

28.26C 

. 34,0*2 

22,614 

90f 

10,068 

826 

68 

100 

1,811 

1,548 

1,486 

2,295 

86,452 

874 

8,656 

7,631 

2,898 

1,269 

193,623 

340 
20,487 

475 

128 

69 

12,209 

««9 

210 

100 

217,250 

251,927 



13,000 

700 

10,408 

104 

2,875 

487 

255 

60 

47 

156 

1,259 

1,210 

529 

80,09(* 



28 

.... 1,623 

4t 

184 

168 

l;0 

..... 81 

.... 2 S 26S 

.... 56Uff 

World 

Miles 

.... 252,694 

... 9-«,9ii5 

... 96,040 

. . . 87,035 

. , , 59,692 

... 52,518 

... 45,397 

... 89,563 

... 87,481 

... 30,000 

. . . 27,640 

... 25,700 

. . . 21,030 

... 18,854 

... 16,483 

... 15.150 

... 14,491 

... 14,000 

... 11,080 

... 10.S55 

... 10,186 

... 10,000 

8,00(* 

... 7,988 

... 7,966 

7,944 

... 7,496 

7,410 

... S,596 

... 6,199 

... «,038 

... 6,99ft 

... 5,312 

... 4,33(, 

... 4,296 

... 4,110 

3,963 

3,915 

... 3,896 

... 3,883 

... 3,450 

... 3,270 

... 3,220 

... 8,100 

... 3,100 

... 2,900 

... 2,825 

... 2,730 

... 2,600 

... 2,578 

2,564 

... 2 445 

... 2,368 

... 2,367 

... 2,187 

... 2,170 

... 3,140 

2,079 

- .. 2,040 

... 2,03f 

... l,98e 

... 1,92C 

... 1,817 

>.. 1,793 

,.. 1,725 

... 1,480 

,.. 1.43ft 

... 1,335 

►.. 1,817 

... 3U270 

... £,,241 

... 1,147 

... 1.14® 



PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY 



-OF- 



St. Clair County, Michigan 



EXPLANATION -The date followang a name indicates the length of time the party has been a resident in the county. The abbreviations are as follows: S. for 
Section- T. for Township; P. G. for Post-office address. When no Section Number or Township is given, it will be understood that the party resides within the 
limits o'f the village or city named, and, in such cases, the post-office address is the same as the place of residence, unless otherwise stated. 



Abbey, E. E., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 18, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek 
Abraham Chris., Dealer in Coal, Cement, Lime, Plaster, Sand, Tile, 

Brick and Cement Blocks, P. O. Capac. 
Aikman Bakery Co., 1301-09 10th St., Port Huron, Established 1904. 
Algonac Savings Bank, General Banking, Algonac. 1872. 
American Beef Harvester Co., Port Huron 
Amey, J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 5, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. North 

'street. 
Andreae, C. O., Banking, P. O. Avoca 

Apley, Thos. Sr., Farmer, S..24, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Arden, DeMoss E., Sailor, P. O. St. Clair. ^ 

Arnold, A., Flour Mill and Electric Light Plant, S. T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1848. 
Asman, John, Secretary Business Men's Association, Port Huron. 
Asman, C. W., Florist, St. Clair. 

Atkins, Burt, Farmer, S. 36, T. Clyde, P. O. Port Huron. 
Asman, C. W., Florist, Saint Clair. , 

Atkins, Burt, Farmer, S. 36, T. Clyde, P. O Port Huron. 
Atkins F. E. C, Farmer, S. 34, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. 1855 
Atkins L & Co , General Insurance, Port Huron. Established 1884. 
Atkins! Lewis, Farmer, S. 28, T. Grant, P. CX Atkins 
Atkinson Mrs. Mary M., Land Owner, Port Huron. 185^. ■ 

IS Alex, Holland Farmer, P. C. 252, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 

City 1864. 
Austin, J. D., Liverv, 316 Water St., Port Huron. 1852 
Avers, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T Clay, P O Algonac 
Avery, Elmer, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 24, T. Burtchville, P. O. North 

Street. 1907. 
Avery, Lincoln, Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. 1860. 
Axford, Lloyd L., Attorney-at-Law, Detroit. 



Bacon C. W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 12, T. China, P. O. St. Clair. 
Baird,' Henry R., Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. 1876. Mr. Baird has 

served as City Attorney of St. Clair. ,„„„„,„ 

Baird, W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 36, T. Kimball, P. O. Port Huron. 

lOCQ 

Baker, R. G. and H. H., Jewelers and Opticians, P. O. Marine City. 
Baker, Robt., Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 243, T. East China, P. O. 

Marine City 
Baker, S. and Son, Cooperage, S. T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine City 
Baker! Wm., Farmer and Blacksmith, P. C. 358, T. East China, P. O. 

'Marine City. 1889. 
Balden, Alvin, Breeder, S. 15, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Baldock, William, Farmer, S, 33, T. Clyde, P. O. Abbottsford 
Baldwin, John A., Farmer, Contractor and Engineer, S. 7, T. Port Huron, 

P.O. Port Huron. 1885. . „„-,„... 

Balfour R. W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. China, P. O. St. Llair. 
Baimer,' Andrew, Farmer, S. 33, T. Grant, P. O. Atkins 
Bammel, Joe, Jr., Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 598, T. Cottrellville, 

P. O. Marine City. 1864. 

^^fj^ed'i.^^^^nd^ckx&iser, *■ C - 310 > T - Kast China ' P ' °* 

Barthel, H. P., Granite and Marble Works, 1104-1112 Griswold St., Port 

Huron. 1888. . 

Bascum, A. M., Ice Dealer, P. O. St. Clair 1912 
Basel, Geo., Farmer and Gardener, S. 8,. T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 
Bates, J. N., Insurance, P. O. Marine City. 1883. 
Bauman, Win., Farmer, S. 20, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Beach, Fred H., County Treasurer, Port Huron. 
Bean, Noah B., Farmer, S. 16, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. _ ■ 
Beard, Campbell & Co., Wholesale and Retail Hardware, 312-314 Huron 

Ave., Port Huron. Established 1893. 
Beard Fred A., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 8, T. Clyde, P. O. Atkins 
Beardslev, L. A., Fruit and Poultry, S. 2, T. Clay, P 0. Algonac 1914. 
Becker, "Geo. W., Mayor and Cigar Manufacturer, S. T. Cottrellville, 

P. O. Marine City. 1896. . 

Beckwith, Geo., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 26, T. St. Clair, P. U. bt. 

Clair. 1876 
Beier, Herman, Farmer, S. 12, T. Casco, P. O. Adair. .... 

Benedict, C. L,, Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. 1875. Mr. Benedict has 

served as Police Judge for a number of years. 
Berk John H., Deputy County Treasurer, Port Huron. 
Bernard, H. D., Farmer, S. 31, T. Wales, P. O. Wales. 
Biddlecomb, Frank, Farmer, P. O. Goodells. 

Biland, G., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 1910. 
Billinfes, Fred, Livery, P. O. Avoca. 
Bishop, Wm., Farmer, S. 18, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb. 
Black, D. J., Farmer, S. 28, T. Greenwo- d, P. O. Avoca. 
Black, John L-, Mavor and Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron 1878. ^ Mr* 

Black has served as Justice of Peace, Circuit Court Commissioner 

and Judge of Probate. 
Blackney, E, T., County School Commissioner, Port Huron. 18*4. 



Blank, Frank, Farmer, S. 36, T. Lynn, P. O. Capac. 1881. 

Blood, C. E., Dry Goods, Marine City. 

Blood & Hart, Dry Goods and Coal Yard, P. O. Marine City. 

Boman Geo. W., Farmer, S. 25, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 

Boman, John, Proprietor Boman Home, P. C. 697, T. Ira, P. O. Anchor- 

ville. 
Boner, Guy, Restaurant, S. 2, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 
Boulier, Lewis, Farmer, S. 24, T. Ira, P. O. Fair Haven. 
Bowen, Geo., Farmer, S. 11, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 
Bower, Wm., Furniture and Undertaking, P. O. Marine City. 1879. 
Bowers, John, Proprietor Bowers Hotel, P. C. 627, T. Ira, P. O. Anchor- 

ville. 
Boyce Hardware Co., Port Huron. Established 1862. 
Boyd, John A., Farmer, S. 10, T. Grant, P. O. Jeddo. 
Bradway, Judson, Real Estate, Fire Insurance, Mortgages and Loans, 

Detroit. Established 1903. 
Brandenberg, Christ, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 23, T. Kimball, P. U. 

Port Huron. 1881. 
Brennan, Chas. J., Farmer, S. 7, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac 
Brenner, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 307, T. St. Clair, P. U. 

St. Clair. 1909. 
Bricker, Geo., Farmer, S. 9, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Briggeman, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. St. Clair, P. O.. 

St. Clair. 1886. 
Brinkman. F. A., Farmer, S. 24, T. Kenochee, P. O. Abbottsford. 
Brinkman! H. K., Postmaster, P. O. Avoca. 
Brown, Allen, Farmer and Mill, P. O. Berville. 
Brown, C. S., Merchant, S. 25, T. Berlin, P. O. Berville. 1859. 
Brown, Herman, Carpenter and Builder, P. O. Marine City. 1857. 
Brown, James H., Farmer, Stockraiser and Highway Commissioner, S. 

29, T. Burtchville, P. O. North Street. 1882. 
Brown, Myron, Farmer, S. 13, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus 
Buchler, C. F., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1870. 
Buck, E. J., Physician and Surgeon, P. O. Capac. 

Buckeridge Cartage Co., Storage, Carting and Trucking, Port Huron. 
Buckeridge, H. B., Editor, Port Huron. 

Burns, Bernard, Farmer, S. 2, T. Riley, P. O. Emmett. # 

Burns, Ed., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 10, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 

City. 1875. 
Burns, Peter, Farmer, S. 22, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Burr, F. H., General Hardware, Farm Implements, Buggies, Wagons, 

Paints and Oils, Lenox. 1908. 
Burr,. Lewis, Farmer, S. 30, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
Burtless, W. E., Physician, P. O St. Clair. 

Business Men's Association, Port Huron. . 

Butlin, E. J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 9, T. China, P. O. St. Clair. 



Cady, Burt D., Attornev-at-Law, Port Huron. 1874. 

Cain, Edward, Farmer, S. 18, T. Columbus P. O. Memphis. 

Cain, Michael, Farmer, S. 16, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 

Cameron, Roderick, Farmer, S. 7, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 

Cameron, Wm., Farmer, S. 18, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 

Campbell, Howard, Farmer, S. 10, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 

Campbell, James W., Farmer, S. 11, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 

Campbell, R. S., Insurance, Port Huron. 1867. 

Campbell, Seth E., Farmer, S 10, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 

Campbell, W. A., Farmer, S. 13, T. Lynn, P. O. Yale. 1868. 

Capac Garage, The, L. L. Wheeler, Manager, Capac. 

Capac Journal, The, Noble Hunter, Editor, Capac. 

Capac Paper Co., Manufacturers Strawboard Paper, Capac. 

Capac Savings Bank, General Banking, Capac. 

Carl, W. J., Farmer, S. 18, T. Grant, P. O. Avoca. 

Carless, Thomas, Farmer, S. 34, T. Brockway, P. O. Yale. 

Carlisle, H. B., Manufacturer, Port Huron. Established 1885. 

Carlyle, A. N., Farmer, S. 1, T. Emmett, P. O. Emmett. 

Carpo, G., Farm Owner and Car Inspector, S. 21, T. Clyde, P. O. Port 

Carrigan, Thomas, Farmer, Stockraiser and Gardener, S. 15, T. Fort 

Gratiot, P. O. Port Huron. 1852. # 

Carnahan, Joseph, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 20, T. Kimball, P. O. 

Smiths Creek. 1894. 
Caughill Richard, Farmer, S. 20, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Cavanagh, W. A., Farmer and Township Supervisor, S. 11, T. Brockway, 

P. O. Yale. 
Cavanaugh, James, Farmer, S. 31, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett. 
Center Lumber Co., Lumber, Building Material, and Tiles, Port Huron. 

Established 1902. . 

Chamberlain, J. C, City Clerk and Electrical Contractor, St. Clair. 
Chamberlain, M. K., Sailor, Marine City. 1870. 
Chapman, W. F., Dock Builder and House Mover, P. O. Algonac. 
Chase. Ira E., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 28. T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1876. 
Chase, James, Farmer, S. 17, T. Clyde, P. O. Atkins. ^ 

Christie Charles S., Farmer, S. 8, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1868. 
Christie', J. R., Farmer, S. 16, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. 1884. - 



Christie, M. J., Farmer, S. 16, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. 1872. 

Cisky, Otto R., Real Estate and Insurance, Port Huron. 

Clark, D. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1875. 
Clark, James, Farmer, S. 20, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Clausen, Geo. H., Farmer, S. 18, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb. 
Clemens, Nelson, Farmer, S. 3, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. , 
Coady, Thos., Farmer, S. 30, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett. 
Coddington, Steven B., County Auditor, Capac. 
Coe, James L., Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. 1872. 
Colmann, Folkert, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 191, T. Clay, P. O. 

Algonac. 1878. 
Commercial Bank, General Banking, Port Huron. 
Commercial and Savings Bank, General Banking, St. Clair. 
Conat, George W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 36, T. Burtchville, P. O. 

Atkins. 1862. ^ , 

Conklin, J. W., Farmer, S. 12, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Conley, Wm., Justice of Peace, Algonac. 1896. 
Cook," J. O., Farmer, S. 9, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Cope, Omer D. & Co., Real Estate and Insurance, St. Clair. 
Cornwell, John, Farmer, S 16, T. Riley, P. O. Emmett. 
Cottrell, R. A., Coal and Wood, Marine City. 1851. _ 

Cowan, Alex, Farmer and Representative, S. 1, T. Clyde, P. O. North 

Street. ^ -, ' 

Cowles, A. W., Farmer, S. 14, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 
Crake, Henry, Farmer, S. 16, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 
Crocker, Samuel, Surveyor and Civil Engineer, P. C. 190, T. Clay, P. O. 

Algonac. 1893. 
Crowley, W. H., Garage and Machine Shop, Marine City. 
Crist, Francis, Farmer, S. 2, T. Brockway, P. O. Yale. 
Cuthbertson, Wm., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 2, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 



Dagg, R. J., Farmer, S. 15, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 

Dancey, J. H., Physician and Surgeon, P. O. Capac. 

Dane, Wm. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Burtchville, P. O. Jeddo. 

Darling, David, Farmer, S. 3, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells. 

Davidson, Wilbur F. & Co., Insurance and Real Estate, Port Huron. 

Dell, John, Farmer, S. 24, T. Kenochee, P. O. Abbottsford. _ _ 

Delor, Fred, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 306, T. China, P. O.St. Clair. 

De Lude, David, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1850. 
Demars, S. H., Farmer, S. 23, T. Ira, P. O. Fair Haven. 
Detroit United Railway, Detroit. 

Dickie, Geo., Farmer, S. 23, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 

Diem, Otto, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 26, T. China, P. O. Marine City. 
Dietlin, Jos., Fanner- and Engineer on Lakes, S. 26, T. China, P. O. 

Marine City. 1880. . , „ „ ^ ^ -^ 

Dingman, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 20, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1870. 
Doelle, Henry H., Farmer, S. 11, T. Brockway, P. O. Yale. 
Dove Andrew, Farmer, S. 36, T. Kenochee, P. O. Goodells. 
Dove, Wm., Farmer, S. 26, T. Kenochee, P. O. Goodells. 
Drechsler, Herman, Farmer, S. 11, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Duchane, C. J., Farmer, Stockraiser and School Director, S. 22, T. China, 

P.'o. Marine Citv. 1870. 
Dunn, Wm., Farmer, S. 1, T. Kenochee, P. O. Atkins. 
Dunn, James, Lumber and Building Material, Port Huron. 
Dunn, Wm., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 19, -T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1895. _ 

Dunning, Russell A., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 24, T. Burtchville, P. O. 

Blaine. 1894. 
Dunsmore, E., Farmer, S. 32, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett. 
Dupee, William, Farmer, S. 13, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Dupont, John, Proprietor Dupont Hotel, Marine City. 1872. m 

Dust, Rov J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 7, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Fair 

Haven. 1890. 



Eastern Michigan Edison Co., Light and Power, 18 Washington Ave., 
Detroit. . n „,. . . „, . 

Eichhorn, Phil, Proprietor Union Hotel and President Michigan State 
School for Blind, Port Huron. Mr. Eichhorn has served as Repre- 
sentative and Assistant Postmaster. 

Elliott, B. S., Farmer, S. 15, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1911. 

Elliott, Loran C, City Clerk, Port Huron. 1890. 

Elsholz, John, Farmer, S. 10, T. Casco, P. O. Adair Mar :„^ 

Emig, David, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 16, T. China, P. O. Marine 

Engel, Rudolph, Farmer, S. 27, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca. 1864. 
Ernst, George L-, Commissioner of Finance, Port Huron. 1SW. 
Expositor, The, Newspaper, Yale. 



Farmer, J. L., Livery, Marine City. _ 

Fawx, Enoch, Retired Farmer, St. Clair. 1852. 



88 



PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. 



Fenner, Alfred, Farmer and Trucking, S. 6, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1890. 
Fenton, O., S. 31, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 

Ferrett, Ernest, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Burtchville, P.O. Jeddo. 
Field, Wm., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 7, T. Burtchville, P. O. Jeddo. 
Finley, W. R., Farmer, S. 36, T. Kenochee, P. O. Goodells. 
First National Bank, General Banking, Yale. 
First National Exchange Bank, General Banking, Port Huron. Established 

1870. 
Fischer, C, A., Farmer, S. 5, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 
Fish, Arthur, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 7, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1882. 
Fitzgearld, Michael, Farmer, S. 20, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 
Fitsgibbon, David A., Attorney-at-Law and State Senator, Port Huron. 
Fleming, Jos., Farmer, Gardener and Road Commissioner, S. 26, T. 

Kimball, P. O. Port Huron. 1875. 
Fleming, Robt., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1879. 
Folkerts, James, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 31, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 
Foster, Frank, Farmer, S. 4, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1876. 
Foster, Louis, Building Contractor and Manufacturer of Cement Work, 

Port Huron. 1889. 
French, Geo., Dairy, Farmer and Road Commissioner, S. 28, T. Fort 

Gratiot, P. O. Port Huron. 1877. 
Fuller, Edwin, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Burtchville, P. O. Jeddo. 

1861. 
Furguson, E. R., Manager of Keewahdin Park, S. 15, T. Fort Gratiot, 

P. O. Keewahdin or Port Huron. 



Gardner, John B., Farmer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 

Gardner, Wm. J., Farmer, S. 35, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca. 

Gee Cee Co., Specialties, 2601 Conner St., Port Huron. 

Geel, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, . T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1866. 
George, Thos. H., Attorney-at-Law. Port Huron. 1871. 
German- American Savings Bank, General Banking, Port Huron. Estab- 
lished. 1906. 
Gershaw, August, Farmer, S. 25, T. Wales, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Gery, Rev. B., Pastor of Algonac St. Catherine Church, Algonac. 1895. 
Gibson, J. T., Retired Builder, San Souci. 1889. 
Gilbert, J. W. , Grocer, Algonac. 

Gilbert, S. Porter, Embalmer and Funeral Director, St. Clair. 1853. . 
Gill, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 5, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 

City. 1890. 
Gillett, Martin, Farmer and Gardener, S. 4, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1854. 
Gleason, D. F., Farmer, S. 11, T. Emmett, P. O. Kmtnett. 
Gleason, Ed., Farmer, S. 10, T. Emmett, P. O. Emmett. 
Gleason, John M., Lawyer, Port Huron. 1866. 
Goodwillie, David, City Treasurer, Port Huron. 
Goodwin, J. S., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 3, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1898. 
Goodyear, J. W., Lumber, S. 18, T. China, P. O. Adair. 1911. 
Gottschalk, Frank, Farmer, S. 27, T. Lynn, P. O. Capac. 1884. 
Gould, John L., General Store and Farmer, S. 17, T. Clyde, P. O. Atkins. 
Gracy, Herman, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. St. Clair, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1882. 
Graham, G., General Worker, S. 20, T. Burtchville, P. O. North Street. 

1865. 
Green, J. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 18, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1899. 
Greenberg, Carl, Farmer, S. 36, T. Columbus, P. O. Adair. 
Gregg, Jas. B., Farmer, S. 19, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb. 



Hagen, Henry, Farmer, S. 5, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 

Hahn, Andrew, Farmer, Stockraiser and Manager Cheese Factory, S. 4, 

T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine City. 1868. 
Halpin, John, Farmer, Stockraiser and Justice of Peace, S. 25, T. East 

China, P. O. Marine City. 1873. 
Hamilton, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 8, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1907. 
Hannan Real Estate Exchange, Real Estate Dealers and Brokers, De- 
troit. Established 1883. 
Hara, P. J., Farmer, S. 20, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett. 
Harris, Robert, Thresher, P. O. Memphis. 
Hart, Hugh H., Judge of Probate, Port Huron. 
Hart & Scott, Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, St. Clair. Established 

1900. 
Hart, W. M., Farmer, S. 36, T. Wales, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Harrington Hotel Co., Proprietor Hotel Harrington, Port Huron. Es- 
tablished 1896. 
Harrison, Wm., Farmer, S. 31, T. Emmett, P. O. Capac. 
Hartman, Henry, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1914. 
Hartwig Bros., Farmers, S. 9, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
» Hartwig, Robert, Farmer, S. 8, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Harvey, F. J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 

1909. 
Hastings, Geo. N., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 13, T. Kimball, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1912. 
Haulter, K. A., Real Estate Dealer and Chemist, Algonac. 1911. 
Hayden & Co., General Insurance, Port Huron. Established 1898. 
Hayes, Chas., Farmer, S. 31, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Hayes, Geo., Farmer, S. 30, T Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Hayes, Paul, Farmer, S. 32, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca. 
Haynes Lumber Co., Wholesale and Retail Lumber, Port Huron. Estab- 
lished 1885. 
Heeke, Ernest, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 13, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1871. 
Heinmiller, John, Farmer, S. 5, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Henry Bros., Farmers, S. 33, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
Herbert, Norman B., Notary Public, Yale. 
Hildesheim, A., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. China, P. O. St. Clair. 

1866. 
Hill, F. H., Farmer, S. 9, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 
Hill, Frank, Farmer, S. 8, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1885. 
Hill, J., Farmer, S. 4 and 8, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1860. 
Hill, Otto L-, City Commissioner, Wholesale and Retail Lumber, Port 

Huron. 1878. 
Hillock, Thos. E-, Farmer, S. 10, T. Lynn, P. O. Yale. 1889. 
Hitchings, M. O., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 19, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

North Street. 1877. 
Hitchings, W. E., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 17, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

North Street. 1865. 
Hodge, W. G., Manufacturer, S. 10, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 1899. 
Hoffman, Frank, Farmer, Port Huron. 1859. 
Hoffman, J. J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. Port Huron, P. O. 

Port Huron. .1861. 
Hollis, Ed., Farmer, S. 25, T. Wales, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Holt, Geo., Farmer, S. 8, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Hornberger, A. G., Harness, St. Clair. 1891. 

Home Manufacturing Co., Manufacturers Sash Doors and Interior Finish- 
ings, Port Huron. Established 1897. 



Home Outfitting Co., The, Furniture, Stoves and Rugs, Port Huron 

Established 1913. 
Hoogestraat, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Clay, P. O Pearl 

Beach. 1889. 
Hovey, C. A., Life Insurance, Port Huron. 1885. 
Howard Furniture Co., The, House Furnishers, Port Huron. Established 

1884. 
Hubble, Jas., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths 

Creek. 1855. 
Humphrey, Wm. B., Farmer, S. 29. T. Wales, P. O. Lamb. 
Hurst, Geo., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 26, T. St. Clair, P. O. St. Clair. 

Hurst, Wm. G., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 35, T. St. Clair, P. O. St. 

Clair. 1876. 
Hyde, B. B., Wholesale and Retail Flour, Feed, Hav, Grain, etc., Port 

Huron. Established 1891. 
Hydorn, H. S., Farmer, S. 11, T. Brockwav, P. O. Yale. 



Inches, J. W., Physician, St. Clair. 1885. 

Ingles, David P., Deputy Custom House Collector, St. Clair. 1856 

Irwin, John William, Civil Engineer, Mt. Clemens. 

Israel, Wm. H., Photographer, Port Huron. 

Israel Studio of Photography, 1102 Military St., Port Huron. Established 



Jackson, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 18, T. St. Clair P O St 

Clair. 1914. ' U ' &t * 

Jackson, James, Farmer, S. 30, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett 
Jacobi, August, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 598, T. Cottrellville P O 

Marine City. 1872. ' ' 

Jarvis Co. The, Builders and Pavers Supplies, Port Huron. Established 

1906. 
Jennings, Max, Jeweler, St. Clair. 1893. 
Johnsick, Fred, Farmer, Stockraiser and Car Inspector, S. 30 T Port 

Huron, P. O. Port Huron. 1915. 
Jones, Bert, Farmer, S. 30, T. Rilev, P. O. Berville, R. F. D 1 
Justin, Isaac, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 2, T, St. Clair, P. O. St. Clair. 

1844. 
Justin, Milford, Farmer, Stockraiser, Well Driller, S. 13, T St Clair 

P. O. St. Clair. 1872. ' 



Kaatz, Herman, Farmer, S. 16, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 
Kammer, A. F., Farmer, S. 22, T. Casco, P. O. Anchorville 
Keller, Otto, Farmer, S. 10, T. Casco, P. O. Adair. 
Kelley, Roger, Farmer, S. 21, T. Lynn, P. O. Capac 
Kelley, Royal, Farmer, S. 33, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Kennedy, Neil, Supervisor, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 22 T. St Clair 
P. O. St. Clair. 1866. ' ' 

Kern '^- 79 Brewin ^ Co " Bowers, 523 River St., Port Huron. Established 

Kersten, August, Farmer, S. 11, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1877 
Kersten, Frank, Farmer, S. 24, T. Berlin, P. O. Berville 1877 
Kerstm, W. A., Farmer, S. 4, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac 
Ketelhut, Albert, Farmer, S. 9, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac 
Keys, David. Farmer, S. 29, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale 
King, Geo. W., Farmer, S. 12, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells 
Kingott, John, Farmer, P. O. Capac. 

Kitchen, Moses, Farmer, S. 2, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells 
Klug, H W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 5, T. Kimball, ' P. O Abbotts- 
ford. 1886. ' 
Klumpp, Fred C, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 24, T. Burtchville P O 
Blaine. 1877. » ' U * 
Knight, Anderson, Farmer, S. 30, T. Clyde, P. O. Abbottsford 
Knoll, Chas., Farmer, S. 15, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac 
Knoll, Frank S., Breeder, S. 14, T. Mussey, P. O Capac 
Koehler, Henry, Farmer, S. 10, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville 
Krause, Arthur, Farmer, S. 6, T. Casco, P, O. Lenox. 
Krantz, Gregory, Farmer, Stockraiser, Contractor and* Builder S 22 T 
China, P. O. Marine City. 1850. ' * 



LaBounty, H. M., Merchant, S. 15, T. Ira, P. O. Fair Haven 

Lacroix, Peter L., Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C 2 T Clav *P n Q.n 

Souci. 1871. ' ' y ' ■ U ' ban 

Lacroix, Wm., Real Estate, P. C. 2, T. Clay, P. O. San Souci. . 1S47 
Lambert, Geo., (Jos. Lambert & Co. ,) Lumber, Coal Etc S 31* T 

Kimball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 1891. ' 

Lang Chas., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, T. Burtchville, P. O. North 

otreet. 
Lang, Squire, Bank Cashier, P. O. Jeddo. 

Lapien, Herman C, Farmer, S. 34, T. Greenwood, P O Yale 
Large, Henry, General Merchandise, Capac. 
Lashbrook, Roy, Farmer, S. 22, T. Wales P O Wales 
Lathrop. Miss Helen E., School Teacher, S. 13, T. Berlin, P O Berville 
Law, Eugene F., Circuit Judge, Port Huron. 1883 
Lawson, Henry, Farmer, S. 2, T. Kenochee, P. O Avoca 
^ ayle \?™ W -' Farmerand Stockraiser, S. 2, T. China, P. O. St. Clair 
Leach Bros., Lumber, Capac. 

Leach Corey, Farmer and Breeder, S. 34, T. Lynn P O CaDac 
Leatorno, Peter, Farmer, Stockraiser and Gardener', S 10 T Kimball 

P. O. Smiths Creek. 1888. ' ' ' 

Lee, Wm. O. Co., Manufacturers, Port Huron. Established 1909 
Lee, Wm. O., City Supervisor and Manufacturer, Port Huron 1904 
Leithead, Robt., Farmer, S. 30, T. Wales, P. O Lamb 
Lemke, Walter, Hotel, P. C. 2, T. Clay, P. O. San Souci. 1910 
Limberg FA., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. Port Huron, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1897. 
Limberg, Herman, Farmer, S. 32, T. Port Huron, P. O. Marysville. 1889 
Limberg, O. F., Farmerand Stockraiser, S. 31, T. Port Huron P O 

Port Huron. 1890. ' x ' . 

Lipke, Barney, Farmer, S. 13, T. Casco, P. O. Adair 
Livingston, Jas. & Co., Flax Mills, Yale. 
Low, James, Farmer, S. 13, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus 
Lowell, Walter S., Farmer, S. 29, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond 
Lyons, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 243, T East China V n 
Marine City. 1884. ' * u * 



WcCabe, H. P., Banker, Emmett. 

McCollum, Alex, Groceries and Merchandise, S. 32, T. Port Huron P O 

Port Huron. 1905. 3 ' 

McCue, Dr. C. Physician, Goodells. 
McDonald, John A , Farmer ana Stockraiser, P. C. 243 T East China 

P. O. Marine City 1881. ' ^ 1Ua ' 

McDonald, T. K , Township Clerk, Farmer and Stockraiser "p C 302 

T. East China, P. O. Marine City. 1889 ' ' 

McDonald, W. A., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 21, T. Fort Gratiot P O 

Port Huron. 1888. ' ' 

McFall, R. W., Hotel, P. O. Capac. 



McGeorge, W. W., Farmer, S. 9, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac, R. F. D. 3 

1868. 
McGregor, Geo., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 7, T. East China P n 
St. Clair. 1878. ' U ' 

Mclntyre, Angus, Farmer, Stockraiser and Supervisor, S 36 T Rnr^Ti 
ville, P. O. Atkins. 1852. ' nurlca - 

McKenzie, Robt., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 8, T. Wales, P. O Emmett 
McLaren, John, Farmer, S. 17, T. Emmett, P. O. Emmett. 
McLaughlin, Michael, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T," Port Humn 

P. O. Port Huron. 1855. 
McLean, Andrew, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 3, T. Clay, P. O Algonac 
McLouth, Sydney C, Vessels and Salt, P. C. 187, T Cottrellville P O* 

Marine City. 1884. ' * 

McManus, Father, J. P., Pastor St. Stephens Catholic Church Port 

Huron. 1891. 
McMurtrie, Stephen, Farmer, S. 24, T. Lvnn, P. O. Yale 1867 
McNutt, Esbon, Farmer, S. 20, T. Riley, 'p. O. Berville, R F D 1 
McVicar, Dr. A. D., Dentist, Memphis. 

MacDonald, Dan, Grocer, S. 22, T. Fort Gratiot, P O Port Rnrnn 

1906. ■ . ' ' 

MacDonald, H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T Port Huron P n 

Port Huron. 1902. ' 

Mackay, Angus G., Loans, Real Estate, Stocks, Etc., Port Huron 1869 
Mackey, J. F., Farmer, S. 17, T. Kenochee, P. O. Emmett. 
Macomb County Savings Bank, General Banking, Lenox and Richmond 
Maedel, Edward, Jr., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 6, T. China P n Arl^iV* 
1900. ' ' Auair - 

Mann, M. H., Furniture, Stoves, Ranges, Etc., Port Huron 1896 
Marine City, 

Marine City News, Printing, Marine City. 
Marine Savings Bank, General Banking, Marine City. 
Martin, David D., Register of Deeds and Farmer, S. 31, T Mussev P O 

Port Huron. 1872. ' ' 

Matthews, R. H., Garage and Machine Shop, Marine City. 1901 
Maynard, Byron, Farmer, S. 23, T. Grant, P. O. Blaine. 
Maynerd, Fred, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. Burtchville P O 

North Street. 1870. ' 

Meikle, W. H., Farmer, S. 15, T. Lynn, P. O. Yale, R. F D 1 1872 
Meldrum, Chas. H., Proprietor Cadallac House, S. 15, T. Ira P O* 

Anchorville. * ' 

Memphis State Bank, The, General Banking, Memphis. 
Mericle, M., Farmer, P. O. Avoca. 

Merrick, Gordon, Farmer, S. 31, T. Wales, P. O. Memphis 
Merryman, F. I., Hotel Manager, S. 20, T. Burtchville, P. O. North 

Street. 
Metcalf, I. O., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 6, T. Fort Gratiot P O North 
Street. 1885. ' ' 1>iurtri 

Meyers, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. St Clair P o q*. 
Clair. 1865. ' ' U ' bt * 

Middleton, Robert, Farmer and Breeder, S. 13, T. Lynn P O Yale 
Miller, J. C, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. East China' P* O Marine 
City. 1888. * ^*™e 

Miner, J. W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 31, T. Port Huron P O Port 

Huron. 1866. ' 

Minnie, Geo., Grocery and Meat Market, Avoca. 
Moak Bros., Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Port Huron 
Model Milling Co., High Grade Flour, Grain, etc., Port Huron Fstah 
lished. 1902. ' ^ stat >- 

Moore, Burt W., Farmer, S. 24, T. Clyde, P. O. Atkins 
Moore, Frank, Jr., St. Clair Salt Co., St. Clair. 
• Moore, N. G., Farmer, S. 4, T. Grant, P. O. Jeddo. 
Moore, R. R., Sales Manager Diamond Crystal Salt Co., St Clair 1868 
Moore & Wilson, Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. Established 1902* 
Moore, W. W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Kimball P Port 

Huron. 
Moran, Angus, Farmer, S. 10, T. Wales, P. O. Goodells 
Moran, Levi, Farmer and Sailor, S. 33, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac 1872 

Moran, S. J., Superintendent of Water Works and Electric Light Plant 
iiigonac. j.yio. 

Morgan, Joe, Farmer, S. 12, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 

Morrill, W. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 26, T St Clair P O Qf 

Clair. 1853. ' r * U< bt ' 

Morraw, L. O., Farmerand Sailor, S. 33, T. Clay, P. O Algonac 1S7? 

Mott, H., Farmer, S. 10, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville Ai S onac - 1872. 
Muff ? t, Paul E., Retired Army Officer, S. 16, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville 

Mullins, A., Confectionery, Marine City. 1888. ^ncnorviue. 



Neal, H. A., Real Estate and Insurance, Algonac. 1911 

Neal, Joseph, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. T. ' St. Clair P O Smith* 

Creek. 1874. ' . ' U ' totmUl3 

Neaton, Ed., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 13, T. Emmett, P. O. Emmett 
ffiwi' Department Store, Lenox and Richmond. Estab- 

Needham, John, Farmer, S. 25, T. Wales, P. O. Smiths Creek 
Nelson, Clement, Surfman of Post Grand Life Saving- Station S 4 T 

Fort Gratiot, P. O. North Street. 1898. station, cd. % ±. 

Nelson Mills Lumber & Manufacturing Co., Lumber, Sash Doors and 

Interior Finishings, St. Clair. 1885 

Nickel Chas Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 18, T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1888. ' 

Nolan, J. E., Farmer, S. 35, T. Wales, P. O. Wales. 



Oatman, Geo., Farmer, S. 29, T. Greenwood P O Yale 
OjBrieii. John J Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Port Huron. 1869 
O'Connor, Wm., Retired, P. O. Allenton. 1862 
O'Donnell C J., Farmer, S. 8, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Ortman, Ferdinand C, Farmer and Stone Worker S 9 T Clav P n 
Algonac. 1914. " ' y ' r * u * 

Osborne^ Benton, farmer, Stockraiser and Ex-Supervisor, S. 32, T. St. 

OSb0ri Cr'eei SeP l h 884 armer "^ St0liraiser - S ' 20 > T - Kimball, P. O. Smiths 
Osterland, A., Laborer and Farmer, S. 1, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 
Otter, Chas. H., Creamery, P. O. St. Clair. 1872. 



Itllt' ? w ld 'R Gardener 'A 29 ' T - Fort Gratiot > P - O. Port Huron. 1900 
Parker, F W Farmer and Ehrector of Bank, S. T. Clay, P. O. Algonac 

Huron" "* Thres "«, S. 23, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

PearCe ColumDus E " Supervisor and Far mer, S. 11, T. Columbus, P. O. 
Pearce, William,' Farmer, S. 11, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Pearson, LeRoy, Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Port Huron. 1902 
Pelkey Alfred Farmer, S. T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine City. 1884 
Perciyal, Edward F., Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Port Huron 
Persels John, Retired Farmer, S. 20, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb 
Pesha, Mrs. L., Photographer, Marine City. 1901 
Petitpren, H. J., Merchant, S. 15, T. Ira, P. O. Fair Haven 
Petz, F. A., Breeder, S. 7, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac 
Phillips & Jenks, Attorney-at-Law, Port Huron. Established 1890 
PhotoShop, The, Wm. H. Israel, Proprietor, 202 Huron Ave. , Port Huron 



PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. 



89 



Pickard, Win., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T. Port Huron, P. 0. Port 

Huron. 1869. . 

Plaeue Wm., Farmer, S. 7, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorvide. 
Plaistow, F. J., Farmer, S. 5, T. Casco P.O. Lenox. 
Pontius D. A., Jeweler and Township Clerk, Algonac. 1901. 
Porrett, G. W., Farmer, S. 5, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox 
?orter/Geo. B.\ Hotel, S. 31, X. Kimball, P O SMthj Creeks. 1381 
Porter H. C, Farmer and Stockraiser, a. 15, 1. China, P. U. bt Clair. 
Port Huron Business University, W. C. Wollaston, Principal, Port Huron. 

Established 1906. 
Port Huron, City of. Qn _ 

Port Huron Creamery Co., Port Huron ??J abllshe V Q ? fl hli^h^ 1900 
Port Huron & Duluth Steamship Co., Port Huron. Established 1900. 
Port Huron Gas Company, 517 HuronAve., Port Huron, 
lort Huron Light and Power Co., 511 Huron Ave., Port Huron. 
Port Huron Lumber Co., Wholesale and Retail Lumber, Port Huron. 

Established 1855. . oi„;- 

Potter, Lee, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 19, T. St. Clair, P. O. St. Clair. 

1879 
Powers, Wm., Farmer and Dealer in Livestock, S. 16, T. Emmett, P. O. 

Prairie E Eugene, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 8, T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1914. 
Prev Herman, Farmer, S. 2, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Priestop, H. W., Farmer, S. 29, T. Columbus, P. O Richmond. 
Prior, Joseph, Farmer, S. 4, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Public Library, Port Huron. 
Putney, F. O., Farmer, S. 13, T. Brockway, P. O. Yale. 



Quail Geo. S., Farmer, Stockraiser and Supervisor, S. 7, T. Fort Gratiot, 

'p. O. North Street. 1863. 
£uinlan, James, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 8, 1. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1884. 
Quitter, Peter, Farmer, S. 16, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. 1911. 



Rabidue, Frank, Miller, S. 20, T. Clyde, P. O. Abbottsford. 

Ramstein Bros., Millers, Lamb. .. 

Randolph, Mrs. J. K., Farming and Stockraismg, S. 5, T. Clay, P. O. 

Algonac. 1887. 
Rattrav A. E-, Machine Shops, Algonac. 

Sines HH., Real Estate Agency, Port. Huron. Established 1906. 
Recor & Smith, Hardware, Hay, Grain, Etc., P. O. St. Clair. 
Record, L. & Son, Lumber, Marine City. 
Record, The, Newspaper, Geo. W. Allen,. Editor, Yale. 
Reese, J. W , Proprietor Jeddo Garage, Jeddo. 
Heimer, Henry, Farmer, S. 8, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 
Reish, G. W., General Store, Lamb. 

Remington, F., Farmer, S. 26, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
JRewaldt, John, Farmer, S. 15, T. Casco, P O. Adair. 
Reynolds, James, Supervisor, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, 1. Port 

Huron, P. O. Port Huron. 1871. 
Richardson, W. D., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. Clay, P. O. 

Altronac 
Richter August, Superintendent Salt Works, Marine City. 1888. ^ 

Richter,' Max, Farmer, Stockraiser and Dairyman, S. 20, T. Fort Gratiot, 

P. O. Port Huron. 1885. 
Rickert Fred, Farmer, S. 28, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
Riemer, Max, Engineer, S. 16, T. Casco, P. O^Lenox. 
Ritze, R. D., Farmer, S. 28, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Robbel, Arthur W., Marine City Floral House, Marine City. 1910 
Robertson, John M., Supervisor, S. T. Clay, P. O. Alganac. 1846. 
Robertson, May A., Insurance, Marine City. 1876. 
Robertson, William, County Treasurer, Port Huron. 1895. 
Rochon, A. J., County Auditor, Marine City. 
Roeder, Gustav, Farmer, S. 8, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Roederi John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. China, P. O. Marine 

City. 1853 
Root, W. N., Ice Dealer, Marine City. 1900. 
Ross, Gordon, City Clerk, Port Huron. 
Rosset, E., Farmer, S. 8, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Rottray, A. E., Machine Shop and Blacksmith, Algonac. 1878. 
Routley, Wm., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 21, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1885. 
Ruddock, John, Farmer, S. 36, T. Kenochee, P. O. Goodells. 
Ruemenapp, Frank, Farmer, S. 3, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Ruff, Chas W., Gardener and Farmer, P. C. 305, T. St. Clair, P. O. St. 

Clair. 1877. . nc ~ Gf 

Ruff Theo. C, Farmer, Stockraiser and Dairyman, P. C. 406, 1. bt. 

. ' Clair, P. O. St. Clair. 1871. 
Runnels, S. D., Real Estate, Port Huron. 1892. 
RuprecM, August, Farmer, S. 7, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port Huron. 

1883. , n rt „ , 

Russell, Calvin, Farmer, S. 31, T. Greenwood, P O. Yale. 
Ryan, Albert P., County Clerk, Port Huron. 1883. 
Rvder, Bruce, Farmer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 



St Clair County Official Roster — 

County Okfickrs For 1915-Hon. Eugene F. Law, Circuit Judge; 
Hon. Harvey Tappan, Circuit Judge; William Robertson, Circuit 
Court Stenographer; Albert P. Ryan, County Clerk; Michael J. 
O'Conner, Deputy County Clerk; Gertrude M. Incn, Deputy County 
Clerk- Hon Hugh H. Hart, Judge of Probate; George L. Brown 
Probate Register; Mildred E. Wright, Probate Clerk; Harrison W 
Maines, Sheriff; Stephen Windsor, Under Sheriff; Hugh Rose, 
Court Officer; Charles Maines, Turnkey; George Rushton, Deputy 
Sheriff; James Allowav, Deputy Sheriff; Fred H. Beach County 
Treasurer; Ray V. Stocks, Deputy County Treasurer; David D 
Martin, Register of Deeds; Jessie M. Hunter, Deputy Register of 
Deeds; Maud Hunter, Clerk; Shirley Stevart, Prosecuting Attorney, 
Henry Baird, Assistant Prosecuting Attorney; Elmer T. Blackne>, 
School Commissioner; Mrs. Helen F. Naumann, School Examiner; 
Frank Snyder, School Examiner; William Cavanaugh, Dram Com- 
missioner; Clara Kemp, Clerk; Robert M. Soutar, Circuit Court 
. Commissioner; Isaac S; Hughes, Circuit Court Commissioner-John 
H Sctiwickert, Jr., Coroner; Albert A. Falk, Coroner; Fred J. 
Dunford, Superintendent of Poor; Joseph E. Vincent, Superintend- 
ent of Poor; John Balfour, Superintendent of Poor; D. D. Vv orces- 

board OP AUDITORS-Dr. J. H. Dancey, Alfred Rochon, Robert 
S Taylor, Secretary. 

Board of County Road Commissioners— Walter R. Stevens, 
Chairman; D E. Lockwood, John Volker. 

REPRESENTATIVES IN THE STATE LEGISLATURE— David A. FltZ- 
gibbon State Senator, Eleventh District; Alex Cowan, Representa- 
tive, First District; James M. Haviland, Representative, Second 

Township SUPERVISORS-Berlin, John L. Shepherd, Allenton; 
Brockway, John L- Patterson, Yale; Burtchville, Angus Mclnt>re 
Atkins; Casco, John Rewaldt, Adair; China A E . Wissman Fair 
Haven; Clay, John M. Robertson, Algonac; Clyde, Fred A. *eara, 
Atkins Columbus, Robert Pearce, Columbus; Cottrellville Patrick 
Shea, Marine City; East China, A. E. Sager, Marine City; Emmett, 



Daniel O'Connell, Emmett; Fort Gratiot, George S. Quail, North 
Street* Grant J J. Norman, Atkins; Greenwood, George Oatman, 
Yale- Ira C *T Beauvais, Anchorville; Kenockee, J. G. Brown, 
Avoca; Kimball', A. E. Stevenson, Port Huron; Lynn, Thos. Shutt, 
Yale- Mussey W A. Kersten, Capac; Port Huron, James Reynolds, 
Port Huron; Riley, Michael Mclnerney, Emmett; St. Clair, Neil 
Kennedy, St. Clair; Wales, Robert McKenzie, Emmett 
Officials of the City of Port Huron, Population 18,863— John 
L Black Mayor; George L- Ernest, Commissioner; James Green, 
Commissioner; Otto Hill, Commissioner; David Montieth, Com- 
missioner; Loran C. Elliott, City Clerk; Gor Ion MacDonald Deputy 
City Clerk- David Goodwillie, City Treasurer; Burt D. Cady, City 
Attorney; Mai shall N. Petit, City Assessor; E. R Whitmore, City 
Engineer; George Chambers, Chief of Police; Frank Schaller, Chief 
Fire Department. . ^ . l _ _ . _ _ . 

Supervisors— , First Precinct; Robert Goodrich, Second 

Precinct- WilliaYn Scheffler, Third Precinct; LeRoy Deal, Fourth 
Precinct : William Smith, Fifth Precinct; Donald MacQueen, Sixth 
Precinct'; Joseph Blair, Seventh Precinct, Fred C. Hill, Eighth 
Precinct- John Irwin, Ninth Precinct; Edward Vincent, Tenth Pre- 
cinct; William O. Lee, Eleventh Precinct . 
- City of St Clair, Population 2,633 -Max Jennings, Mayor; 
Jarvis Chamberlain, Clerk; George Wolven, Treasurer; Henry 
Peasiey Supervisor First Ward; Fred Scheuricker, Supervisor Second 
Ward-" Louis Schouman, Supervisor Third Ward; Arthur T. Ash, 
Assessor; Thomas H. Sawher, City Attorney. 

City OF Marine City, Populatiom 37/0— George W. Becker, 

Mayo*" Caius H Saph, Clerk; Julius N. Bates, Treasurer; Roscoe 

R Saph Supervisor First Ward; Charles F. Zimmerman, Supervi- 

"~"sor Second Ward, C. A. Westrick, Supervisor Third Ward; John 

Breining, City Attorney. 

City OF Yale, Population 1,223— George Mclntyre, Mayor; Bert 

McDonald, Clerk; James Hutton, Treasurer; Norman B. Herbert, 

Supervisor; Harvey Drake, City Attorney 
St Clair County Abstract Co., Abstracts, Port Huron. Established 1896. 
St. Clair County Savings Bank, General Banking, Port Huron 
Sager, A. E M Veterinary and Township Treasurer, S. 36, T. East Cnma, 

'p. O. Marine City. 1908. 
Salsbury, John A., Building and Boat Repairing, Marine City 1905. 
Saph, C. H. & R. R., Justice of Peace, Notarys, Etc., Marine City. 
Saph] Hale P., Real Estate, Marine City. 
Savage, Geo. L., S. 3, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1860. 
Saxe? Allen L., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 18, T. Port Huron, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1889. 
Schawitzki, A., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. H, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1889. 
Scblinkert Fuel & Builders Supply Co., St. Clair. 
Schmidt, Chas., Farmer, S 10, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Schmidt, H. E., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 2, T. China, P. O. St. Clair. 
Schneider, A., Township Treasurer, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 22, T. 

China, P. O Marine City. 1872. 
Schneider, Jos. M., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. China, P. O. St. 

Schnoor, Mrs. B. j., Agent Detroit United Railway, S. 15, T. Ira, P. O. 

Fair Haven. 
Schook, Chas., Farmer, S. 17, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. 1879. 
School District No. 2, W. C. Merrill, Treasurer, Marine City 
Schoolcraft & Co., Real Estate and Fire Insurance Exchange, Port 

Huron. Established 1888. 
Schoolcraft, E. J., City Assessor, Port Huron. 
Schrander, Father Edward, Pastor St Augustine Catholic Church. Lenox. 

Schrikel, F., Gardener, S. 20, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. Port Huron. 1872, 

Schrimer, Roy, S. 16, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 

Schroder, C. F., Farmer, S. 34, T. Mussey, P. O Capac. 

Schultz/ Carl, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. China, P. O. Marine 

City. 1884. „ ^ AT . 

Schunck, F. M., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 23, T. China, P. O. Marine 

Schunck, John H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 15, T. China, P. O. St. 

Clair. 1871. 
Schwab, Albert, Saloon and Pop Works, St. Clair. 1866. 
Schweitzer, Peter Jr., Livery, Boarding Stable and Feed Barn, Port 

Huron. 1861. . nnn 

Scott, F. L-, Farmer, S. 16, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1880 
Scott, John W., Farmer, S. 3, T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 1878. 
Scott, Will J., Building, Marine City. 1846. 
Scouten, Alvah, Farmer, S. 30, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
Scupholm, Richard, S. 2, T Columbus, P. O. Wales. 
Sewart, A. A., Livery and Garage, St. Clair. 1880. 
Shea, Patrick, Farmer, Stockraiser, Supervisor and Surveyor, b. lo, l. 

Cottrellville, P. O. Marine City. 1851. 
Shearsmith, Walter, Farmer, S. 34, T. Lynn, P. O. Capac. 1863. 
Shepard, Will H., Farmer, S. 5, T. Kenochee, P. O. Yale. 
Shephard, James, Sexton of Cemetery, St. Clair. 1882: 
Shepherd, John L., S, 17, T. Berlin, P. O. Allenton. I860. 
Short, Henry, Farmer, S. 28, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca. 
Shultz, Steven, Farmer, S. 5, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Shutt, Thos., Township Supervisor and Farmer, S. 15, T. Lynn, P. U. 

. Yale. 1872. 
Siefert, Fred, Farmer, S. 34, T. Columbns, P. O. Richmond. 
Siegel, H. C , Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Capac. 
Silk Chas., Farmer, S. 23, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Simpson, Charles F., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 28, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1867. ^ _ _ _. 

Simpson, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1865. _ 

Simpson, Richard, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 20, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

North Street. 1875. 
Sly, R., Blacksmith, S. 20, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. Port Huron. 
Smith, Angus M., Real Estate and Farming, Algonac. 1866. 
Smith, B. J., Farmer, S. 30, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb. 
Smith Bros., Grocers, Port Huron. Established 1894. 
Smith, C. L., Farmer, S. 30, T. Wales, P. O. Lamb.. 
Smith, Fred, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 19, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1869. 
Smith, Geo. B., Farmer and Stockraiser, St. Clair. 1859. ^ ^ 
Smith, Gurley L-, Township Highway and Drainage Commissioner, S. 54, 

T. Berlin. P. O. Berville. 1889. 
Smith, H. A., Groceries, Marine City. 1878 . 

Smith, John Jr., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. China, P. O. Marine 

■ City. 1857. ^ ™ • 

Smith Jos., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 27, T. China, P. O. Marine City. 
Smith^ R., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 15, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 

Smith, 'Robt. H.\ Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 10, T. Cottrellville, P. O. 

Marine City. 1883. . ^ r . 

Smith, Steven, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 21, T. China, P. O. Marine 

City. 1856. 
Snvder, A. J., Farmer, S. 17, T. Riley, P. O Memphis. 
Soake, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

■ Huron. 1907. . 

Soulier, John B., Farmer, Pr C. 3, T. Clay, P. O. San Souci. 1891. 
South Park Lumber Co., Lumber and Building Material, Port Huron. 
South Park Manufacturing Co , Manufacturers Air Motor, Stationary 

Hoists and Brass Work, Port Huron. 
Sparling, T., Farmer, S. 17, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 1899. 
Spaulding, A. D., Farmer, S. 9, T. Grant, P. O. Jecido. 



Spencer, Melvin, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1875. 
Sperry, Arthur C, Farmer, S. 30, T. Brockway, P. O. Yale. 
Springborn, Ferdinand, Proprietor Hotel Lenox, Lenox. 1854. 
Springborn, Albert, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, T. China, P. O. 

Marine City. 1856. 
Stanton, Alex, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 17, T. Burtchville, P. O. Jeddo, 

1901. 
Stapley, C. H., Farmer, Stockraiser and Assistant Road Commissioner, 

s'. 4, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 1884. 
Stein, Albert, Farmer, S. 34, T. Clyde, P. O. Abbottsford. 
Stein, Henrv, Farmer and Milkdealer, S. 6, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port 

' Huron. 1914. 
Stein, Philip M., Farmer, S. 2, T. Kimball, P. O. Port Huron. 
Stein] Wm. A., School Director, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 3, T. Kim- 

'ball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 1872. 
Stern, H,, Farmer, S 9, T. Casco, P. O. Adair. 

Stevens, Graham & Stevens, Lawyers, Port Huron. Established 1878. 
Stevenson, A. E., General Manager of Independent Order of Forresters, 

Vice President German Bank, and Supervisor, S. 8, T. Kimball, 

P. O. Port Huron. 1869. 
Stevenson, Mrs. J., Farming, S. 20, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Stevenson, Oliver, Farmer, S. 27, T. Kenochee, P. O. Goodells. 
Stewart, Jas., Farmer, S. 11, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Stewart, Shirley, Attorney and Counsellor, Port Huron. 1883. 
Stockwell, Elmer E., Attorney, Port Huron. 1884. 
Stoffer, Henry, Farmer, S. 22, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Stoffer, M. J., Manufacturer, Capac. 
Stommel, Teresa, Farming and Stockraising, S. 19, T. St. Clair, P. O. 

St. Clair. 
Storey, Nat., Farmer, S. 16, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Strasburg, Fred, Farmer, S. 7, T. Port Huron, P. O. Port Huron. 
Streeter, Herbert, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. Kimball, P. O. 

Smiths Creek, 1911. 
Strevel, F., Farmer, S. 9, T. Grant, P. O. Blame. 
Strieter, Wm, Farmer, S. 34, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca. 
Stubbs, Joseph, Farmer, S. 13, T. Kenochee, P. O. Abbottsford. 1867. 
Sturdevant, W T m., Blacksmith, S. 31, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Sturmer, Chas. A., Wholesale and Retail Hardware, Port Huron. 1893. 
Sunday News, Newspaper, Port Huron. Established 1908. 
Sutton, W. T., Farmer, S. 34, T. Wales, P. O. Wales.. 



Tansley, G., Carpenter, Marine City. 1912. 

Tarte, Chas. J., Postmaster, Marine City. 

Taylor, Robt. S., County Auditor, Port Huron. 1886. 

Ternes, P. J., Catholic Priest, Marine City. 1895. 

Tesman, Henry, Farmer, S. — , T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 

Thatcher, E. B., Granite Works, Marine City. 1885. 

Thomas, C. O., Retired, S. — , T. East China, P. O. St. Clair. 1911. 

Thomas, S. W., Farmer and Gardener, S. 28 t T, Port Huron, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1905. 
Thomas, W., Farmer, S. 17, T. Kenochee, P. O. Avoca. 
Tibbits, Hartley, Farmer, S. 35, T. Berlin, P. O. Berville. 1872. 
Tice, D. M., Stock Buyer and Shipper, S. 32, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Tierney, Pat., Farmer, S. 13, T. Emmett, P. O. Emmett. 
Times-Herald Co., L. A. Weil, Editor, Port Huron. 
Tomlinson, George H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 16, T. Kimball, P. O. 

Smiths Creek. 1893. 
Tornav, John B., Farmer, S. 9, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Torney, Julius, Farmer, S. 9, T. Ira, P. O. Anchorville. 
Tosch, Albert, Farmer, S. 9, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Truesdell Marble & Granite Co., Port Huron. Established 1878. 
Trumble, Milton. Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T. St. Clair, P. O. St. 

Clair. 1888. 
Tyson, Fred, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. Kimball, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1882. 



Uppleger, Otto, Farmer, S. 15, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 

Uppleger, William A., Farmer, S. 20, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 



Valentine, Dr. C. J., Veterinary, S. 31, T. Kimball, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Vancomberg, Alex, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 191, T. Cottrellville^ 

P. O. Marine City. 1911. 
Van Valkenburgh, W. B., Farmer and Breeder, S. 6, T. Riley, P. O. 

Emmett. 
Veitch, Russeil, Farmer, S.,30, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 
Vernier, V., Proprietor of Hotel, S. 15, T. Ira, P. O. Fair Haven. 
Vincent, Joe E., Farmer, S. 16, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Vogelei, Chris., Farmer, S. 10, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 
Voigt, F. C, Farmer, S. 27, T. Casco, P. O. Anchorville. 
Volkman, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 31, T. China, P. O. Marine 

City. 1866. 
Voss, F., Farmer, S. 34, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale. 



Wade. B. J., Farmer, S. 28, T. Mussey, P. O. Capac. 

Wagner, Carl A., Attornev-at-Law, Port Huron. 1889. 

Wagner, Joseph, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 34, T. China, P. O. Marine 

Citv. 1871. 
Walter, Chas., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. China, P. O. Marine 

City. ^ . 

Warner, Fred, Farmer and Gardener, S. 29, T. Fort Gratiot, P. O. Port 

Huron. 1881. 
Warner, W. E., Concrete Blocks and Building Material, Algonac. 1889. 
Warren' George, Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Port Huron. 
Warren', Robert, Breeder and Dairyman, S. 35, T. Riley, P. O. Memphis. 
Warsins'ky, Albert, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 24, T. Kimball, P. O. 

Port Huron. 1891. 
Watson Geo. C, Attorney and Notary Public, Capac. 
Wellman, Thos., Attorney, 1002 Military St., Port Huron. 1859. 
Welser, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. Cottrellville, P. O. Marine 

Citv. 1870. 
Wendt, Albert, Farmer, S. 10, T. Mussey, P. O. Capace. 
Weng 'john F., Shoe Repairing, Marine City. 1868. 
Werner, A., Farmer, S. 34, T. Columbus, P. O. Richmond. 
Wesbrook, Dale, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 36, T. East China, P. O. 

Marine City. 1896. 
Wesbrook, Delos, Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 303, T. East China, P. O. 

St. Clair. 1885. . 

Wesbrook, North, Stockraiser, S. 35, T. China, P. O. Marine City. 1896. 
Westrick,' C. A. & Son, Concrete Supplies and Contracting, Marine City. 
Westrick! Fred, Farmer, S. 6, T. Casco, P. O. Lenox. 

Westrick, H. W , Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 5, T. China, P. O. St. Clair. 
Weymouth, J. B., Lawyer, Yale. 
Whitmore, fc. R-, City Engineer, Port Huron. 

Wiegand, Emih Faimer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. St. Clair, P. O. Rich- 
mond. 1885. .„ io _ 
Williams, Martin, Farmer, S. 13, T. Berlin, P. O. Berville. 1877. 
Wills Wm Farmer, Breeder and Auctioneer, S, 9. T. Berlin, P. O. Capac. 
Willson, S.' E., Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, 904 Military St.-* Port 
Huron. 1891. 



9° 



PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. 



Willy, Peter, Farmer, S. 7, T. Grant, P. O. Jeddo. 

Wilson, F. H., Banker, S. 31, T. Kimball, P. 0. Smiths Creek. 1887. 

Wilson, F. P., General Merchandise and Implements, S. 29, T. Kimball 

P. O. Smiths Creek. 1859. 
Winn, Grant, Farmer, S. 2, T. Columbus, P. O. Smiths Creek. 
Winn, W. R., Farmer, S. 10, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus. 
Wissman, A. K., Farmer, Stockraiser, Supervisor and Auctioneer, S. 31, 

T. China, P. O. Fair Haven. 1863. 
Wittliff, John S., Postmaster, Port Huron. 
Wittlifr Insurance Agency, Insurance, Port Huron. 
Wolcott, J. G., Greenhouse, S. 9, T. Clay, P. O. Algonac. 1914. 
Wolverine Rug Co., Rugs and Curtains, Port Huron. 
Wood, Everett, Farmer, S. 12, T. Keuochee, P. O. Avoca. 
Worcestor, D. D. ( Surveyor and County Highway Engineer, Port Huron. 
Worthy, Chas., Meat Market, Algonac. 1898. 
Worwick & Cromar, Real Estate, Port Huron. Established 1914. 

Wright, Hoyt & Co., General Insurance, 903 6th St., Port Huron. Estab- 
lished 1897. 
Wright, Warren, Real Estate, P. C. 255, T. St. Clair, P. O. Marysville. 



Yale State Bank, General Banking, Yale. 

Yale Woolen Mills, Yale. 

Yarger, Chas., Farmer, S. 35, T. Wales, P. O. Wales. 

Yeager Bridge & Culvert Works, Port Huron. 

Yeager, Frank, Yeager Bridge & Culvert Works, Port Huron. 



Yeager, R. I,., Farmer, S. 19, T. Riley, P. O. Riley. 

Y ° kOD 189^ e0rge E ' ' Aatomobiles > Supplies, Etc. , Port Huron. Established 

Yokom Transfer Co., Motor Vehicles, Etc., 1115-19 Military St St Clair 

Established 1909. J *' 

Young, J. w., Farmer, S. 35, T. Greenwood, P. O. Avoca 
Young, Ohmer, Farmer, S. 18, T. Grant, P. O. Avoca. 



Zaetsch, , A. J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 21, T. China, P. O. Marine 

Zaetsch, T. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 22, T. China, P O Marino 
City. 1875.. manne 

Zimmer, A. P., Farmer, S. 10, T. Columbus, P. O. Columbus 

Zimmer, Fred T., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. St. Clair P O Qt 
Clair. 1877. tot * 

Zimmer, Jacob, Farmer and Stockraiser , P. C. 307, T. St Clair V n 
St. Clair. 1867. . ' . ^ iair ' 1 ' u - 

Zimmer, John, Farmer and Fruit Grower, S. 5, T. Port Huron P O 
Port Huron. . ' ' 

Zimmer, Wm. J. t Farmer and Stockraiser, P. C. 306, T. St Clair P O 
St. Clair. 1892. ' ' 

Zimmermann Bros., Hardware, Automobiles and Carriages, St. Clair. 
Thirty years ago Fred W. Zimmermann, at the age of 23 years' 
engaged in the Hardware business in Marine City, Mich., having 
saved up a small amount of cash and made a loan for enough to 



purchase his first stock of Hardware, Paints, Oil etc His store 
was a wood building 18x50, firm name was Fred W Zimmermann 
Jr., Hardware. After a very successful period he wanted to en- 
large the business and took in as partners his brothers Charles F 
Zimmermann John F. Zimmermann and Henrv M. Zimmermann 
and organized the firm of Zimmermann Bros., with Fred W Zim 
mermann as manager, which position he holds at the present time 
The increasing business demanded larger store room and in 1900' 
they built their present two-story brick block 40x100 corner Jeff and 
Water street, property runs through entire block with Carriage and 
Auto Garage on corner of Market and Jefferson. In 1914, Fred W 
Zimmermann purchased the interest and good will of his brother" 
Henry M. Zimmermann, and took his oldest son, Milton F Zim~ 
mermann, in as a member of the firm, the continuing increasing- 
business demanded still more store room and thev have recently 
purchased the joining property to their block, which in the near- 
future will erect an addition of 20x100 feet giving them a store 
frontage of 60 feet wide by 100 feet long, when completed will give 
Zimmermann Bros, the largest and most up-to-date Hardware and 
Department Store in southern St. Clair County. 

Zobl, Joseph, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 27, T. China P O Marine Citv 

Zuelch, Jacob, Farmer, S. 8, T. Greenwood, P. O. Yale 

Zuelch, Phillip R , General Merchandise, Avoca. 

Zweng, Christian, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 11, T. Cottrellville P O 
Marine City. 1866. ' 

Zweng, Frank, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 34, T. China P. O Marine- 
City. ' " ' ' 

Zweng, Jos., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 34, T. China, P. O. Marine City. 



E. J. Ottawa, 
L. A. Weil, 



President. 
Editor, 



The Port Huron 

Times-Herald 

Port Huron, Michigan 



NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

F. P. Alcorn, 33 W. 34th Street. 

CHICAGO REPRESENTATIVE 

F. W. Henkel, People's Gas Bldg. 



C. O. Duncan, - President & Mgr. 
A. D. Bennett, - Vice President. 
H. B, Hoyt, - Sec'y & Treas. 



Port Huron 
Lumber Co. 

Established 1855 



PORT HURON, MICH. 



G. F. Connor, - President. 

Port Huron, Mich. 

Ezra Rust, - Vice President. 

B. W. Gubtil, - Sec'y and Treas. 
Saginaw, Mich. 

American 

Beet Harvester 

Company 

INCORPORATED 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



H. H. Hart, 
J. E. Scott, 



Attorney at Law, 
Surety Bonds, 



HART & SCOTT 

Real Esate, Loans 
and Insurance 

INCHES BLOCK 
Phone 110 

St. Clair, - Midi. 



YEAGER BRIDGE and 
CULVERT WORKS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Improved Concrete Culvert 
Tile 

Which is Fully Guaranteed to Stand 
Frost and Heavy Loads 

Concrete Mixers, Bridge Flooring, 

Concrete Arches, Steel Bridges, 

Beams and Channels 



Lin Avery, 
Frank Mallon, 
Sanford W. Ladd, 



President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer. 



Peter Schwitzer, Jr. 

FARMERS' FEED BARN 

Boarding, Livery and 
Sales Stable 

In Connection With Hotel Lauth 

741 WATER STREET 

Tbi,bphonb 641-F 
PORT HURON, - MICH. 



PHONE 25-J 
PORT HURON, 



fllCH. 



G. Kern 
Brewing Co. 

ESTABLISHED 1879 

Brewers, Bottlers and Exporters of 

Beer of Quality 

PURITY 

Annual Capacity 150,000 Barrels 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



Tmesdale Marble and 
Granite Company 

Established 1878 

Cemetery Memorials 
at Retail 

612 Huron Street 
PORT HURON, = MICH. 



Wildwood Jersey Herd 
Registered Jerseys 

Herd Hkaded by 
MAJESTY'S WONDER 

No. 90,717, Son of Royal Majesty. 

ASSISTED BY 

Janet's Lad of Maple Hill 

No. 120,440, Grandson of Stoke Pogis, 
of Prospect 

ALVIN BALDEN 

CAPAC, - - MICH. 



Frank W. Andreae, - President. 
Jesse A. Ropley, - Vice President. 
Edward Andreae, - Sec'y-Treas. 

Yale Woolen Mills 

YALE, MICHIGAN 

Manufacturers 

GASSIMERES 

PURE WOOL 
CURTISS & WARREN, Selling Agts. 

223 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 
45 Bast 17th St., New York. 



C Leach, a. Leach. 

L. Iv. Wheeler. 

THE CAPAC 

Garage 

Leach Bros. & Wheeler, Proprietors. 

DEALERS IN 

Auto Supplies, New and Second 
Hand Automobiles 

REPAIR WORK A SPECIALTY 
CAPAC, - - MICH. 



The 
Yale Record 

CEO. W. ALLEN, Publisher 

Established 1896 
50c PER YEAR 

Unexcelled Advertising Service 

Commercial Printing 

Of Character 

YALE, MICHIGAN 



Harrington Hotel Go. 



Chas. F. Harrington, - Pre', 1 ?.*, 

E. R. Harrington, - Vice Pre'^j 

J. W. Thompson, - Sec'y & . z li3 . 

I. A. MacDougall, - Manager. 



Hotel 

Harrington 



Port Huron, 



Mich. 



ADVERTISING. SECTION 



F. E. Beard, - - President. 

E. D. Campbell, - Vice President. 
C. F. Farr, - Sec'y and Treas. 

Beard, 
Campbell & Co. 

Wholesale and Retaii, 

Iron, Steel, Carriage Hard- 
ware and Woodwork 

BICYCLES AND BICYCLE SUNDRIES 

Buggies and Wagons, Harness 
and Robes 

312 & 314 Huron Avenue 
PORT HURON, « HIGH. 



James E. Weter, - President. 

Geo. A. Bailey, - Vice President. 
Frank W. Fenner, - Vice President. 
Frank j. Hirt, - - Cashier. 

The Macomb County 

SAVINGS BANK 

Capital $50,000 
Surplus $10,000 

Lenox and Richmond, Michigan, 



Henry F. Marx, - - President. 
A. E. Stevenson, - Vice President. 
C. C. Peck, - Vice President-Cashier. 
R. H. Kruger, - Ass't Cashier. 

GERMAN-AMERICAN 

SAVINGS BAN 



Capital Stock . . $100, 
Personal Liability $100,000 

Depository for U. S. Postal 
Savings Funds 

Port Huron, - Flich. 



The Neddermeyer 
Cempaey 

Lenox Department Store 

Dry Goods, 
Clothing, 

Ladies' Cloaks, 
Furnishings, 

Carpets, Rugs, 
and Draperies. 

Lenox P. 0., Richmond, Mich. 



James Livingston, - President. 
James McColl, - Treas. & Gen. Mgr. 

The James Livingston 

Flax Co., Ltd. 

Paid Up Capital Stock $50,000 

Manufacturers of Flax and Tow 

YALE FLAX MILLS. 

Head Office, Yai,e, Mich. 

Mills at Yale, Croswell, Fargo and 
Deckerville, Mich. 

YALE, - MICH. 



H. C. S1EGEL 

Real Estate, Loans, 
Insurance 

Musical Instruments, Automobiles, Etc. 

We Buy and Sell Real Estate 
on Commission 

Also Land Contracts and Mortgages, 
Loan Money at Reasonable Rates 

We Sell Automobile and Light- 
ning Rods 

Also Vehicles, Pianos, Organs, Phono- 
graphs, Sewing Machines, Etc. 



Capac, 



Mich. 



The Yale Expositor 

JAS. A. MENZIES, Publisher 
One Dollar Per Year in Advance 

Best Advertising Medium in Northern 
St. Clair County 

A GUARANTEED LIST OF OVER 
FIFTEEN HUNDRED 

Fine Commercial 
Work a Specialty 

Telephone No. 56 
YALE, - - MICH. 



Normal B. Herbert 

Fire aod Life 
Insurance 

Real Estate Loans, Abstracts 
Furnished 

Notary Public With Seal 

References: Any Bank or Reliable 
Business Firm in St. Clair County. 



Yale, 



Mich. 



F. D. Jenks, - - President. 

W.S. Jenks, Gen. Freight & Pas. Agt. 

Port Huron and Duluth 
Steamship Co. 

Freight and Passengers 

East Via Grand Trunk Ry. 

West Via Duluth Gateway 

Steel Steamers, 

Regular Service 

General Offices, Port Huron, Mich. 



B. B. HYDE 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



, Feed, Hay, Straw, 
Grain, Beans, Salt, 
Fertilizer, Etc. 

Phone No. 199 
Prompt Delivery 

514-516 Broad Street 
Port Huron, - Mich 



Jas. Livingston, - President. 

Jas. McColl, - Vice President. 

Wm. H: Learmont, - Cashier. 

Guy E. Beard, - Ass't Cashier. 

Yale 
State 
Bank 

Capital and Surplus $36,000.00 
Yale, - - Mich. 



H. H. Wright, 
H. B. Hoyt, 
C. E,. Boyce, 



President. 

Vice President. 

Sec'y and Treas. 



Wright, Hoyt & Co. 



INCORPORATED 



General 
Insurance 

903 Sixth Street 
Port Huron, = flich. 



S. M. Baker. 



W. S, Baker. 



W. S. Baker & Son 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Elm Hoops and 
Hardwood Lum 

MARINE CITY, 



MICH. 



The St. Clair County 
Abstract Company 

(LIMITED) 

L. T. BENNETT, Manager 

Office Over 
THE COMMERCIAL BANK 

505 Water Street 

Pnone 292 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



Herman L Stevens. 

John C. Graham.. 

Walter R. Stevens. 

Stevens, Graliam & 
Stevens 

Established 1878 

LAWYERS 

2, 3 &.4 Stevens' Block, 921 Cort St. 

Telephones: Office, 376-J. 

Residence, 579-J. 



Port Huron, 



Mich. 



H. P. Warwick, - 926 Superior St. 

Phone 593-J. 
D. Cromar, - - 413 Huron St. 

Warwick & Cromar 

Established 1894 

Farm Lands 

City Property 

Room 4 Stevens Block 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



A. B. CARLISLE 

Established 1885 
MANUFACTURER OF 

Pure Ice Cream and 
Creamery Butter 

Crushed Fruits, Extracts and Supplies 

Telephone 119 

Port Huron, - flich. 



S. Iv. Boyce, - - President. 

Jno. S. Howard. - Secretary. 

S. L. Boyce, Treas. and Gen. Mgr. 

Boyce Hardware Co. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

HARDWARE 

Paints, Oils, Etc* 

PHONE 84 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



J. T. Lynn, 
P. H. Phillips, 
V. N. Gurney, 
J. C, Sloan, 



President. 

Vice President. 

Sec'y and Treas. 

General Manager. 



Port Huron 
Light & Power 
Company 

Port Huron, - flich. 



F. J. Haynes. J. J. Haynes, 

E. A. Havnes. 



Algonac 
Savings Bank 

General Banking 

Algonac, - Mich. 



LINCOLN 

Attorney 
at Law 

Stewart Block 

Port Huron. - Mich. 



F. H. BURR 
General Hardware 

Farm Implements, Buggies & Wagons 
PAINTS AND OILS 

Lenox, - Mich. 



QuyBoner 



Wholesale and Retail 

LUMBER 

. Planing Mill 

713 River St., Port Huron, Mich. 



R. S. CAMPBELL 

GENERAL AGENT 

Massachusetts Mutual Life 

Insurance Company 

Springfield, Massachusetts. 
22 White Building 

Port Huron. - Mich. 



LEACH BROTHERS 

DEALERS IN 

Lumber, Lath and Shingles 

Brackets, Mouldings, Posts, Building 
Paper, Adrian Wire Fence, Etc. 

SILQS 

Estimates on Application 
Capac, - - Mich. 



Fruits and Oysters 

Capac* ' - Mich, 



Commercial and 
Savings Bank 

general Banking 

St. Clair, - Mich. 



IURT B. CADY 

Attorney 
at Law 



Port Huron, 



Mich. 



The Capac Journal 

Established July, 1887 
NOBLE HUNTER, Editor 

Capac, - Mich. 



H.P.BARTHEL 

Granite and 
Marble Works 

Gold Letters a Specialty 

1104-1112 Griswold St. 

Phone 1399 
Port Huron, - flich. 



CALVIN S. BR0 

DEALER IN 

Gent's Furnishings 

Boots and Shoes 

BERVILLE, - MICH. 



Buckeridge Cartage 
Company 

STORAGE, CARTING AND 
TRUCKING 



Port Huron, 



Mich. 



JAMES L COE 

Attorney 
at Law 

Hartsuff Block 
Port Huron, - Mich. 



Louis Foster 
Building Contractor 

And Manufacturer of 
Cement Work 

1307 Stanton Street 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



C. S. CHRISTIE 



DEALER IN 



Land Fertilizer 



Phone 107 



Capac, 



Mich. 



J. D. AUSTIN 

Livery and Hack 
Barns 

316 Water Street 

Telephone 174 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



ADVERTISING SECTION 






The First National 
xchange Bank 



United States 
Depository 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



David A. Fitzgibbon 

ATTORNEY 

White Block 
PORT HURON, MICH. 



Moak Bros. 

REAL ESTATE 

Loans and Insurance 



PORT HURON, MICH. 



Moore & Wilson 

ATTORNEYS 

Suite No. 3, Jenks Block 

Telephone No. 58 

PORT HURON, MICH, 



The 

Emraett 
Bank 

ofH.P.McCabe 

EMMETT, - MICH. 



THOS. H. GEORGE 

Attorney 
at Law 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



MARINE 

Savings Bank 

general Banking 
Marine City, = Mich. 



Edward F. Percival 

Real Estate, Loans 
and Insurance 



PORT HURON, MICH, 



HENRY LARGE 



DEALER IN 



Boots, Shoes and 
Dry Goods 

Fruits and Groceries 

CAPAC, - MICH, 



Hayden &. Company 
General Insurance 

And Surety Bonds 

White Bldg., Rooms 34 and 35 

Telephone 402- J 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



Pleasant Lane 

Stock . Farm 



PURE BRED 



Roan Durham Cattle 

Robert Middleton 
R. F. D. 2, Yale, Mich. 



Hotel DeBurt 

R. W. McFALL, Proprietor 
Rates $2.00 Per Day 

Livery, Feed and Sale Stable 
in Connection 



F. A. PETZ 

PROPRIETOR 

Valley Stock Farm 

Breeder of 

Clydesdale Horses & Holstein Cattle 

If you want good stock come 
and look over what I have to 
offer. 

R.F.D.No.4,Box40. CAPAC, MICH. 



JOHN M. GLEASON 

Lawyer 

Hartsuff Block 
Port Huron, - Mich. 



CAPAC, 



MICH, 



Belle River Stock Farm 

PURE BRED 

Holstein Cattle 

WM. WILLS. Rrop. 

R. F. D. No. 3 
CAPAC, - MICH. 



a vi 




at 



TSd 

ey 



And Notary Public 

CAPAC, - - MICH. 



L GOULD 



Ruby, Mich). 



P. O. Atkins, Mich. P. R. 2 



John J. O'Brien 

Real Estate 

Rentals, Loans, Insurance 

AND SURETY BONDS 

35 White Block. Phone 402-J. 

Port Huron, Mich). 



Dr. A. D. MacVicar 

Dentist 



Hours: 9 to 12 A, M.,1 to 5 P.M. 
Memphis, Michigan 



Elmer E. Stockwell 

Attorney at 
Law 

22 White Building 
PORT HURON, - - MICH. 



The Sunday News 

H. 8. Buckeridge 

Editor and Prop. 



Port Huron, 



H. H. HANN 

DEAI,ER IN 

Furniture, Stoves, Ranges 

and House Furnishing Goods 

Telephone 522 

317-319 Grand River Ave. 
PORT HURON, - MICH. 



W. B. Van Valkenburgh 



Pure Bred 



Short Horn Cattle 

R. F- D. No. 3 

Emmett, : : Mich. 



P. A. Phillips. 



W. Iv. Jenks. 



Attorneys 



STEWART BLOCK 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



S. E. WILLSON 



lc<il 



Insurance and Loans 

My Specialty: Farms and City 
Property. 

Phone 1139-L.. P. O. Box 122. 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



SHIRLEY STEWART 

Attorney and 
.... Counsellor 

Jenks Block 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



Judson Bradway 

Real Estate 

Fire Insurance, Mortgage Loans, 

Phone, Main 45 
320 Ford Building 

DETROIT, - - MICH. 



D. M. TICE 

Buyer and Shipper 

Hogs, Cattle and Sheep 

Phone 11, 2-r 

Rural No. 2. Memphis, Mich. 



Charles A. Sturmer 

Wholesale and Retail 

HARDWARE 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



mith Brothers 

Grocers 

Established 1894 

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

A SPECIALTY 
Telephone No. 26. Res. Phone 649 

308-310 Huron Avenue 
PORT HURON, - - MICH. 



Riveryiew Dairy 

Fore Bred Jerseys 

ROBERT WARREN 

Proprietor 



MEMPHIS, MICH. 



m 



Union 
.•Hotel 

PHIL EICHHORN, Prop. 

Port Huron, : Mich. 



Carl A. Wagner'" 

Attorney 
at Law 

Room 29, White Building. 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



D. D. WORCESTER 

Surveyor • 
County Highway Engineer 

Land, Highway and 
Drainage Surveying 

Port Huron, 



marine Guy 

Hews 

Marine City, Mich. 



ED. N EATON 



Wolverine Rug Co. 

J. W. BRANCH 



PROPRIETOR 



Rugs made from Brussels, Ingrain 
Carpets and Chenille Curtains 

Telephone 1838 W. 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



Leach Bros. 

BREEDERS OF 

PURE BRED 

Short Horn Cattle 

R. F. D. No. 4 
CAPAC, : : MICH. 



THE 

ome Outfitting Co. 

OTTO R. CISKY 

PROPRIETOR 

Furniture, Stoves and Rugs 

Established 1913 

525 Water St. PORT HURON, MICH. 



DEALER IN 



Farm, Stock and 
Fish Brand 

FERTILIZER 

R. F. D. 4. EMMETL MICH. 



JAY B. WEYMOUTH 

Lawyer 

NOTARY PUBLIC 

Yale, : : Mich. 



Gee Gee Co. 

Specialties 

Port Huron, Mich. 



RIS 



eneral Threshing' 



:AND: 



Portable Saw Mill 

MEMPHIS, - - MICH. 



ADVERTISING SECTION 



South Park 
Manufacturing Co. 

Machine Work of All 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Air Motor, and Stationary 
Hoists. 

Automobile Steering Gears. 

Transmission Gears. 

Brass and Aluminum Spiders. 

Brass and Aluminum Castings. 

Clutches. Brass Fittings. 

Port Huron, - filch. 



Fred W. Zimmerman. 

John F. Zimmerman. ■ 

Chas. F. Zimmerman. 

Milton F. Zimmerman. 

Twenty-Nine Successful Years Together 
Without a Change 

Zimmerman Bros. 

BIG HARDWARE 

Ship Chandlery, Engineer's Sop- 
plies, Plumbing and Steam Fitting 

Builder's Supplies, Sewer Pipe, 

Cement, Plaster and 

Lime 

12,000 Square Feet of Floor Space 

Long Distance Telephone No. 7 
MARINE CITV, - M'CH. 

H. H. Rawlings, Res Phone 1271-1R. 
C. A. Childs, Res. Phone 1433-6R. 

W. W. RAWLINGS 

REAL ESTATE AGENCY 

ESTABLISHED 1906 

MICHIGAN FARM LANDS 

Our List Includes the Best 

.Farm Bargains in the 

State 

Our Facilities for Buying and Selling 
Farm Property Are' Unexcelled 

Fire Insurance, Loans and Farm Rentals 

We Deal in Michigan Farm Land Ex- 
clusively. Our Iron Clad Guaran- 
tee With Every Purchase 

We Never Misrepresent. Do Not Buy 
or Sell Without Consulting Us 

418 Huron Avenue 

Office Phone 1260- J 
PORT HURON, - riSCH. 



Riverview Hotel 

For Summer Guests 

ALEX. ATWELL, Proprietor 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED 

Riverview Hotel is situated about 
four miles above Algonac on the bank 
of the "Majestic St. Clair River," 
between Detroit and Port Puron, just 
below Marine City. A superb view is 
afforded of this renowned river, with 
its ever-changing, never ceasing pan- 
orama of scenery — composed of every 
type of water craft, from the tiny 
yacht to the twelve thousand ton 
freighters and palatial passenger 
steamers, passing in unbroken pro- 
cessions up and down the most beauti- 
ful river on the continent. The air at 
"the Riverview" is always stirring in 
gentle, bracing currents, to which the 
rooms of "The Riverview" are expos- 
ed, rendering them cool and restful. 

The fishing; boating and bathing are excellent 
— indeed unsurpassed. The Rapid Railway 
electric cars stop at the door — '"Atwell's Stop" — 
every hour. This is a beautiful, home-like spot, 
just the place to enjoy solid summer comfort. 
Write for terms to 

ALEX. ATWELL, 
R. F. D. 2, Marine City, Micb. 



Wilbur F. Davidson Co. 

J. H. SMITH, Manager 

Insurance and 
Real Estate 

High Grade Securities 

General Insurance, Fire, Life, 

Accident, Health and 

Casuality 

SURETY BONDS 

Stocks and Bonds for Invest- 
ment 

Real Estate Loans, Collections 
and Rentals 

Improved or Unimproved City and 

Farm Property Bought, Sold 

and Exchanged 

529-31 Water Street 
Port Huron, = Mich. 



The Israel Studio 

OF PHOTOGRAPHY 
PORT HURON 

DOES 

Portrait Work, Commercial Work, 

Copying, Enlarging, Framing, 

Water Colors, Oil 

Paintings 

Photograph Banquets, Parties, Etc., 

Home Interiors, Decorations and 

Portraits in Your Home 

Finishing For Amateurs, Enlarging 

for Amateurs 

We Photograph Anything 
Anywhere 

W. H. ISRAEL 

The Photographer in Our Town 



W. J. Howard, 
T. G. Howard, 
John E. Howard, 



President. 

Manager. 

Sec'y-Treas. 



THE 

Howard Furniture Co. 

Port Huron, Mich. 
Complete House Furnishers 

Vacuum Cleaners, Sewing Machines, 

Wall Paper, Go- Carts, 

Crockery, Stoves 

The Largest Rug and Carpet Department 
in Eastern Michigan 



HANNAN 
Real Estate Exchange 

ESTABLISHED 1883 

General Real Estate 

Property Management, Insurance, 
Ground Leases, Factory Sites 

MEMBER 
Detroit Real Estate Board 

AND 

National Association of Real Estate 
Exchanges 

No. 1 MeGraw Building 
DETROIT, - HIGH. 



DIRECTORS 

W. J. Howard. T. G. Howard. 

John E. Howard. S. A. Howard. 

J. W. Carter. 



"Promptness is the Essence of All 
Good Bussiness" 

Promptness is a Feature With Us 

Marioe City 
Floral House 

A. W. ROBBEL Prop. 

Roses, Carnations, Chrysan- 
themums, Designs, 
Cot Flowers 

Palms, Ferns, Smilax and Foliage 
Plants 



ASMAN 

FLORIST 

Floral Designs, 
Potted Plants, 
Cut Flowers* 

Palms, Ferns 

Jardiniers, Floral Decorations for All 
Occasions 

Imported Canaries, Fancy Gold Fish, 
Bird Cages and Fish Globes 

323 Huron Avenue 

Phones: Floral Store, 606. 
Res. and Greenhouses, 841-Iy. 
Lakeside Greenhouses, 257-J. 

PORT HURON, -. MICH. 



H. C. Knill, Jr., 
Chas. H. Otter, 
Jno. F. Ruff. - 
Frank R. Schell, 
E. L. Vincent, 



President. 

Vice President. 

General Manager. 

Secretary. 

Treasurer. 



JULIUS N. BATES 

City Treasurer 

General 
Insurance 

HARINE CITY, - fllCH 



Port Huron 
Business University 

W. C. W0LLAST0N, Principal 

The Leading Business School 
in Michigan 

ESTABLISHED 1906 

Day and Evening Classes, 
Students Enter Any Time 

We Teach Bookkeeping Shorthand, 

Typewriting, English and All 

the Common Branches 

Our Graduates are Always Successul, 
We Have No Failures 

Majestic Building 
Port Huron, - Mich. 



ESTABLISHED 1905 

Port Huron 
Creamery Company 

INCORPORATED 
CAPITAL $150,000 

Manufacturers and Dealers 

Fancy Creamery Butter, Fresh Gathered 
Eggs and Poultry 

Central Brand Ice Cream, Perfectly 
Pasteurized Milk and Cream 

325 Court Street 

Phones 780 and 781 

Port Hu on, - Mich. 



Telephone 97 
MARINE CITY, 



MICH. 



Lewis Atkins. 



Irene M. Atkins. 



C. L. BENEDICT 

Attorney 

White Building 

PORT HURON, - MICH 



OTTO R. CISKY 

ESTABLISHED 1909 

L D. WLSON, Manager 

Real Estate and 
Insurance 

FIRE 

BONDS H3AI/TH 

TORNADO ACCIDENT DRUGGIST 

INABILITY IvIVE STOCK 

LIFE 

RENTS 

BOILERS MARINE 

LAUNCH ELEVATOR BURGLARY 

WINDSTORM AUTOMOBILE 

PLATE GLASS 

Phones: Residence, 571-Iy. 
Office, 428. 

525 WATER STREET 

Port Huron, - Mich. 



Otto L. Hill 

LUMBER 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Shingles, Lath and Cedar Posts 

White Pine, Norway Hemlock 

and Yellow Pine Finish, 

Maple Flooring 

Corner Water & Tenth Sts. 

Port Huron, - Mich 



F. D. Jenks, - - President. 

Chas. W. Welch, Sec'y, Treas. &Mgr. 

South Park 
Lumber Co* 

ESTABLISHED 1906 

' LUMBER 

LATH, SHINGLES, POSTS 

Sash, Doors, Roofing, 
Etc., Etc. 

All Under Roof— Largest Lumber 
Shed in St. Clair County 

24th and Conner St. 
Port Huron, = Mich. 



A. E. Sleeper, 
H, C. Siegel, 
Albert Tosch, 
Frank Burt, 
F.J.Burt, - 



President. 

Vice President. 

Vice President. 

Cashier. 

Ass't Cashier. 



ANGUS G. MACKAY 

Established A. D. 1875 

Loan and Real Estate 
Agent 

Improved Farms, Wild Lands, Tim- 
ber Lands, Cattle Ranches for Sale 
in the United States, Domin- 
ion of Canada and 
Mexico 

Stock, Bond and Mortgage Broker 
Port Huron, = flich. 



The Capac 
Savings Bank 

Incorporated 1898 

Capital $20,000 

Capac, = = Mich. 



GEO. E. WARR 

Real Estate, Loans aid 
Insurance 

FREE FACTORY SITES 

Beautiful Properties which will 
make comfortable and desirable homes 
have been listed with us for sale. The 
payments are most reasonable — just 
like paying rent. 

Telephone 75 

2-4 Central Block, Port Huron, Mich. 



L. ATKINS & CO. 

General Insurance 

Ocean Passage and Freight, 
Loan Agency, Rental 

NOTARY PUBLIC 

Deeds, Mortgages, Bonds and Other 

Legal Documents Prepared With 

Care and Accuracy 

Special Attention Paid to Collections in 

Europe of Claims and Inheritance 

by Power of Attorney 

Passes for and Remittance to All 
Countries Produced at Lowest Rates 

Stevens Block, 211 Huron Ave. 

PORT HURON, - MICH, 



J. T. Lynn, - - President 

A. D. Bennett, - Vice President. 
E. T. Lvnch, Secretary & Treasurer. 
J. C. Sloan, - Superintendent. 

Port Huron 

Gas Co. 

Coke, Tar, 

Stoves, Fixtures, 
Gas Appliances 

HOUSE PIPING a SPECIALTY 
Agents for the "WELSBACH LIGHT" 

517 Huron Avenue 

Phone 86 

Port Huron, - Hich. 



Frank S. Knoll 

PROPRIETOR 

Grandview Stock farm 

Breeder of Full Blood 

Holstein Cattle 

I make a business of breeding only 
the best 

The Holstein is the coming dairy 
cow. If you want to get started right 
you should come and look over what 
I have to offer you. 

One mile north and two miles east 
of Capac, Mich. Address 

CAPAC, -.. MICH. 



W. J. Johnston. 



R. P. Anderson. 



The Home 
Manufacturing Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Church and Store Fixtures, Stairoork, 
Hardwood Finish, Etc. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, 

Frames, Brackets, Posts, 

Balusters 

Office and Factory, Tenth St., 
Cor. Water 

Phone 437 
PORT HURON, - MiCH. 



The Model 

Milling Go. 

R. C. CARLTON, Mgr. 

We Grind Both Spring 
and Winter Wheat 

All Kinds of Grain Bought 

and Sold 

Office and Mill: Pine Grove Avenue 
G. T. Crossing 

Phone 721 



PORT HURON, 



M.J.ST0FFER 

Owner, Patentee and Manufacturer 
of Staffer's 

Patent Reinforced Concrete 
Arch Culverts 

I make the best, cheapest and most 
complete culverts that are now in use 
Complete estimates furnished on a] - 
plication. Many of my culverts art 
now in use in St. Clair County. They 
are not an Experiment. They are a 
proven success. Complete machine 
shop in connection. 



men. Capac, 



Mich. 



ADVERTISING SEGTION 




THE WM. O. LEE COMPANY, *$&? 

Wm. O. Lee, Proprietor, Supervisor, I !th Precinct, Port Huron; President, Custer's Michigan 
Cavalry Brigade Association; Secretary 7th Michigan Cavalry Association. 

The Wm. O. Lee Co., Manufacturers of Lee Injectors, Ejectors, 
Ball Check Valves, Hot Water Noisless Heaters, Crank Pin Oilers 
Automobile Parts and Phospher Bronze Bushings, with a specially 
equipped department for finishing and grinding Engine Pistons. 

A Modern and Well Equipped Brass and 
Aluminum Foundry. 

All in all the most modern and well equipped factory in central 
Michigan, located at Port Huron, Michigan. 




WILLIAM O. LEE. 



J. WENG & SONS 

RELIABLE FOOTWEAR 

MARINE CITY, - 



MICHIGAN. 



WILL J. SCOTT 



I 




L***f f V 



1&3 



John Weng, Sr., came to Marine City (then called New- 
port) in 1857, and started a shoe shop on Market St., where 
he did custom work. In 1895 he moved to the building shown 
w , accompanying cut, and this has been the home of 
Weng s Shoe Shop continuously from that time to the present. 
v u i 1 0c ^ ober ' 1889 > the fi ™ of J. Weng & Sons was estab- 
lished, arid this firm has been selling reliable shoes to this 
community ever since, covering a period of more than a 
quarter of a century. 

This business has grown from a small beginning till to- 
day it is the largest shoe house in the city. It has seen many 
competitors come and go, but is better prepared to serve the 
public today than ever in its long successful history. 




Manufacturer of and Dealer in 

Building Material 



HENRY R. BAIRD Chris. Abraham 

Cawyer 



White Block 
PORT HURON, MICH. 



DEALER IN 



Marine City, 



Michigan. 



Hard and Soft Coal 

Cement, Lime, Plaster, Sand, 

Tile, Brick and Cement 

Blocks 



CAPAC, 



MICH. 



The Register of Deeds' Office Shows 

That We Sell More Real Estate 

Than Any Other Firm in 

St. Clair County. 

Schoolcraft & Co/s 

REAL ESTATE AND FIRE 
INSURANCE EXCHANGE 

Plats Handled, Acreage Sub- 
divided, Rents Collected 

Houses Sold on Monthly Pay- 
ment Plan 

Money Loaned on Real Estate Security 

Jenks Block, 101-103 Huron Avenue 

Office Phone 176 

Residence Phone 79 

PORT HURON, - MICH. 



Geo. K. Yokom, Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 

Frank W. Yokom, Sec'y, Treas. and 

Soliciting Mgr. 

Yokom Transfer Co. 

Established 1909 

Motor Vehicle Transfer Service for 
Passengers, Baggage and Freight 

Taxicabs, Motor Omnibus, Touring 
Cars, Motor Trucks & Baggage Autos 

Office and Garage: 
1015-1019 Military Street, 

Opposite Hotel Harrington. 

Prompt Attention to All Orders 
Day or Night 

Telephone; 154 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



OFFICERS 
Chas. Wellman, - - President. 
S. A. Graham, Vice Pres. & Cashier. 



F. C. Wellman, 



Ass't Cashier. 



St. Clair County 
Savings Bank 

Port Huron, Mich, 

ORGANIZED 1890 



DIRECTORS 
Chas. Wellman. Phil Higer. 

L. A. Weil. W. D. Smith. 

Stephen A. Graham. Henry Marx. 



Our Facilities 

The St. Clair County Savings Bank 
affords unexcelled facilities for the 
transaction of any banking matters. 
It is conveniently located in the heart 
of the business section of Port Huron 
and its banking rooms include the 
most complete and modern equipment 
throughout. 

Deposits subject to check are invit- 
ed, either large or small, it being the 
aim of our management to extend 
every courtesy and attention to all 
patrons without regard to the size of 
their accounts. 



C.H. Jarvis, - . President. 
F. M. Hoffmann, - Vice President. 
R. C. Jarvis, - Secretary- Treasurer. 

The Jarvis Comp'y 

ESTABLISHED 1906 

Manufacturers and Distributors 

Builders' and Pavers' 
Supplies 

Cement, 
Plaster, 
Ivime, 
Brick, 
Sand, 
Gravel, 

Sewer Pipe, Etc. 

Water Proof Cement. 
Mortar Colors, 
Paints, 

Metal Lath, 
Reinforcing, 
Roofing, 

Building Papers, 

Fire Brick and Clay, 
Cement Blocks, Etc. 



310 East Water Street. 

Phone 83 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



OFFICERS 

Albert D. Bennett, - President. 
John G. O'Neill, - Vice President. 
Stanley W. McFarland, - Cashier. 
Henry W. Maitland, - Ass't Cashier. 
Edmund R. Harrington, 

Ass't Cashier. 

THE 

Commercial Bank 

Of Port Huron, Michigan. 

Established 1881 

DIRECTORS 

John G. O'Neill. 

Albert D. Bennett. 

Albert Dixon. 

Myron W. Mills. 
Samuel Iy. Boyce. 

Edmund R. Harrington. 

Stanley W. McFarland. 



T. W. McCall, 
Chas. E. Greene, 
E' A. Bartlett, 



President. 

Vice President. 

Cashier. 



S. J. Watts, President & Gen. Mgr. 
A. D. Bennett, - - Treasurer. 
F.J.Dixon, - - Secretary. 

Chris Lauth, - Vice President. 
C. W. Howitt, - Ass't Manager. 

Aikman Bakery Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Crackers and Fine Biscuits 



AZTEC CRACKERS 

Branches: 

DETROIT, MICHIOAN. 

IvAnsing, Michigan. 
New York Office, 107 Hudson Street. 

1301-1309 Tenth Street 
PORT HURON, MICH. 



The Memphis 
State Bank 

Memphis, Michigan 



DIRECTORS 

Lincoln Avery. 
J. h. Preston. 
Judson Black. 
F. R. Schell. 

T. W. McCall. 
C. K. Greene. 
E. A. Bartlett. 



OFFICERS: 



A. E. Sleeper, 
W. F. Ruh, 
W. V. Andreae, 
E. F. Fead, 
C. R, Adams, 



President. 

Vice President. 

Vice President. 

Cashier. 

Ass ! t Cashier. 



First 



Paul G. Taylor, - Pres. & Treas. 
H. S. Owen, - Vice Pres. & Sec'y. 

Center Lumber Co. 

ESTABLISHED 1902 

Lumber and Building 



National 
. Bank 

Yale, Michigan. 



DIRECTORS: 

A. E. Sleeper. E. F. Fead. 

W. F. Ruh. W. V. Andreae. 

T. U. Wharton. N. B. Herbert. 

Lincoln Avery. 



1701 Stone Street 

Telephone No. 266 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



John S. Wittliff. Frank J. Wittliff. 

THE WITUFF 

INSURANCE AGENCY 

INSURANCE 

In All Its Branches 

Suite 8-10 White Block 

Phones 4 and 354-J 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



«» 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 95 



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W 



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-**4*, 










CHAS. J. TARTE, 
Postmaster, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 



NORMAN B. HERBERT, 
Fire Insurance, Real Estate and 

Loans, 

YAI«E, MICH. 



WM. A. CAVANAUGH, 
Drain Commissioner, 

YALE, MICH. 



GEO. C. WATSON, 
Attorney at Law, 

CAPAC, MICH. 



LEWIS T. BENNETT, 

Manager of St, Clair County Abstract 

Co., 

PORT HURON, MICH, 







, %«% 






«.'- 1 ^w:Xi^'Vh^^*^rt^tst.*^ , ^£i&I\^s&3s 





FRED H. BEACH, 

County Treasurer, St. Clair County, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



CITY HALL AND ST. CLAIR COUNTY OFFICES, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



JOHN WILLIAM IRWIN, 
Civil Engineer, 

MT. CLEMENS, MICH. 





















ALEX MOORE, 

Attorney at Law, Member of the 

firm of Moore & Wilson, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



J. F. WILSON, 

Attorney at Law, Member of the 

firm of Moore & Wilson, 

PORT HURON, MICH 



ROBERT S. TAYLOR, 
Auditor, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



A. J. ROCHON, 
Auditor, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 



J. H. DANCEY, 

Auditor, 

CAPAC, MICH. 









■'•:•'■>. '^-4^ vis 







ALBERT P. RYAN, 
County Clerk, St. Clair County, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



DAVID D. MARTIN, 
Register of Deeds, St. Clair County, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



SHIRLEY STEWART, 

Prosecuting Attorney, St. Clair 

County, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



JULIUS N. BATES, 
City Treasurer and General Insurances 

MARINE CITY, MICH* 



EUGENE F. LAW, 
Circuit Judge, 

PORT HURON, MICM, 



fWi 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 97 



tm 



t'if^'-' 




F. A. BEARD, 
R. F. D. No. 2, 

ATKINS, MICH. 



<? *' 



tf 



>"h 






:*?>• 






E. J. SCHOOLCRAFT, 
101 Huron Ave , 

PORT HURON, MICH. 












P2 



*A fc 



FRANK J WITTLIFF, 

Secretary WittlifT Insurance Agency, 

Incorporated, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




:k 



*** 






JOHN S. WITTLIFF, 

Postmaster and President of Wittliff 

Insurance Agency, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




W. W. HANNAN, 
McGraw Bid., 

DETROIT, MICH. 












BURT D. CADY, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



SYDNEY C. McLOUTH, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 



JUDSON BRADWAY, 

DETROIT, MICH. 



ANGUS G. MACKAY, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



R. R.MOORE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 








ELMER E. STOCKWELL, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



HALE P. SAPH, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 



OMER D. COPE, 

ST. CLAIR, MICH. 



ALBERT E. STEVENSON, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



E. T. BLACKNEY, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




!Bk,./-S^ *'. .■ 





m$& . f ■'■<'■ ; « 










R. C. JARVIS, 
PORT HURON, MTCH. 



WM. THOMAS, 

AVOCA, MICH. 



MAX JENNINGS, 

ST. CLAIR, MICH. 



ALBERT TOSCH, 

CAPAC, MICH. 





ilSlli^t 


''ft 


t ' v ; 


Si 


ffipfi 




' ■ 




^ 




ALVA 

■CAPAC 


LEACH 

, MICH. 




■ 



ffl 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 99 



«W 



IF 



3^^¥; 






r 



.?**" 



u 



k^ 



&£kA 



BENTON OSBORNE, 
R. F. D. No. 2, 

ST-. GLArlR, MICH. 




SAMUEIy MARTIN, 

CAPAC, MICH. 



CHAS. F. SIMPSON AND FAMILY GROUP, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




A J. ZAETSCH, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

MARIN-E CITY, MICH. 




GEORGE H. TOMLINSON, 
R. F. D. No. 2, 

SMITHS CREEK, MICH. 





"fff^M ™ fWr t^Ptl^M^SSM' 




WRIGHT, HOYT & COMPANY, 

Insurance, 903 Sixth Street, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




CARIv A. WAGNER, 
Mr. Wagner served as Judge of Police 
Court, City of Port Huron, 1895 to 
1903, Capt. of Co. '%" 33rd 
Mich. Vo. Inf. during the Spanish- 
American war and was in action be- 
fore Santiago, Cuba, July 1st and 
2nd, 1898, Inspector of small arms 
practice, Mich., National Guard, 
1903 to 1904 and Brigadier General 
and Inspector General Michigan 
National Guard, 1905 to 1911. 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




ZIMMERMANN BROS., 
Dealers in Hardware, 
Fred W. Zimmermann, 
John F. Zimmermann, 

Chas. F. Zimmermann, 
Milton F. Zimmermann, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 





MR. AND MRS. ROYAL KELLEY, 

CAPAC, MICH. 



THOMAS CARRIGAN AND FAMILY 
GROUP, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



SIMON M. BAKER, 
Mr. Baker was born Oct. 5th, 1833; 
then moved to Marine City in I860, 
where he operated a wagon shop 
until 1878, with his son, W. S. 
Baker, he then started in the Mill 
business under the firm name of 
S. M. Baker & Son. 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 




REV. B. GERY, 

ALGONAC, MICH 




ALFRED FENNER, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




STEVE PAMPTOPEE, WIFE AND 
DAUGHTER, 

ATKINS^ MICH. 




MR. AND MRS. RUDOLPH ENGEL, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

AVOCA, MICH. 




GREGORY KRANTZ, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 




MR. AND MRS. ALVAH A. 

SCOUTEN AND SON, 

R. F. D. No. 2, 

RICHMOND, MICH. 




MR. AND MRS. JACOB STOMMEL, 
R. F. D. No. 3, 

ST. CLAIR, MICH. 




MR. AND MRS. A. McINTYRE, 

ATKINS, MICH. 



«tl 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 101 



efc 




LADIES OF THE MACCABEES OF THE WORLD 
TEMPLE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




MODERN MACCABEE TEMPLE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 





WATER STREET, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



WATER STREET, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




r ..^ r 



READING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: V. VINCENT, G. BETTS, J. 

SPOONER, C. HARRIS, D. CURTIS, HARVEY BROWN, 

JAS. H. BROWN, 

Commissioners of Highways, Burtchville Township, St. Clair County. 




is *tx? :, &? % 



ST. CLAIR COUNTY SAVINGS BANK, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 







CITY ENGINEER E. R. WHITMORE AND STAFF, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



I Sigii Siclasol, Pftrt I SsjtssH, Mssii. 




Cussoc*' House aft<I Fest OI5«c. 
Peri Hyron. Mich. 



HIGH SCHOOL, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




CUSTOM HOUSE AND POST OFFICE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




STREET SCENE, 

AI.GONAC, MICH. 




SCENE ON MAIN STREET, 

AI,GONAC, MICH. 




Ctty Htwtrftal, ' |»e*t H«r*8, 



Y. M. C. A., 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




CITY HOSPITAL, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



W& i <n:>#ip-f w e. ITS T 5 vn « %<*k ^ ■* ^ Tf'f?. ~ TT1 




CITY HALL, 

AI,GONAC, |£ICH. 



if";- &-■... ".. .v %r ";< =* '^^k<:^;^nvir:.^:r::<r f , #"1 ^ x? i*::w*:,ifui 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



«w 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



10? 



rvw 




ENTRANCE OF TUNNEIv FROM INTERIOR, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




i*i««rtas« 



VIEW OF HURON AVENUE, FROM MILITARY 

STREET, 

Showing New Bridge, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



J;-;.:?!'- frf :v.»;- .i-!- : !;f :i« "? ^*.<f%^ ■ ::■.*■ .i ' 



? ::w: 




SULPHITE FIBRE WORKS, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 










WATER WORKS, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



..:*'... ^ ":<:' .. ■•'.■■■-'"'. "■.;.' !i: ° .:<■■:>■■■■", ^ : -i''C. ;: ;*■■■■■■■■■ ,;':/■■ . ,, ; ;:D -\. (ft-T. ~ i 




Fo/l Gram Ughi Hoass, Psn Bttron, Mteb, 




iir 

iliaiiili 

















FERRY BOATS IN BLACK RIVER, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



FORT GRATIOT LIGHT HOUSE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



PINE GROVE PARK, SHOWING SOLDIERS' AND 
SAILORS' MONUMENT, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



WARD FOUNTAIN, PINE GROVE PARK, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




MILITARY STREET, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 








^mmmmmmi 



HURON AVE., SOUTH FROM BUTLER STREET, HURON AVE., LOOKING NORTH- FROM BRIDGE, 

PORT HURON, MICH. pORT HUR0N MICH . 



&t, CJgSr Ttsjwai, 




ST. CLAIR TUNNEL, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



::;&x~i 















^&4adiiMhfii^^ - . 



RESIDENCE OF G. W. REISH, 

UMB, MICH. 



RESIDENCE OF RUDOLPH ENGEL, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

AVOCA, MICH. 



AVOCA MEAT MARKET, 
Geo. Minnie, Proprietor, 

AVOCA, MICH. 



HOTEL CADILLAQUA, 
Chas. A. Melclrnm, Proprietor, 

AnCHORVII v I,E:, MICH. 



W^D^i 



'Mi7^l^%jP^::w^7^€ 



M*t« ®^C*S^% 







"^■t^it^L- J M 



FAIR VIEW FARM, 
House and Barn of Thomas Carless, 

YALE, MICH. 





FARM RESIDENCE OF J. W. CONKLIN, 

COLUMBUS, MICH. 



SCENE ON FARM OWNED BY MRS. ANNA CHRISTIE, 
Residence of J. R. Christie, 

ALLKNTON, MICH. 



fjt 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 105 



fjt 




STORE OF R. G. AND H. H. BAKER, 
652-654 Broadway, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 






: : ' '"'' :: ' : "'".' '"■' ■!,:.. :^-*l : ->™J%S:-i ■■A': 1 :!:- i 




MARINE CITY FLORAL HOUSE, 
A. W. Robbel, Proprietor. 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 










HOME OF J. T, GIBSON AT SANS SOUCI, 
HARSEN'S ISLAND. 




RIVERVIEW HOTEL, 
Alex Atwell, Proprietor, Atwell Station, R. F. D. No. 2, 

MARINE CITY, MICH, 



^^ ^ 



■■;'■■. ' '■>■■ .=sS? ■:■:■» .:■■■. , *'* ¥■ 






ft Mr , 



TIT ' :;: '' :;;; >^V: : ? : ::■:■» ^ T ^M'-- ;; !: *?*jc : - , :> : T 




RESIDENCE OF M. J. CHRISTIE, 

AIXENTON, MICH. 



■■*> ■;-■::.:■ ..X 7:'™ ' : : '"" s;; < ::: ** s->--:... *" T 

^■*" TT: : ;;;% TTT ! ?'TT ; > : 







1. &££fe $ S^JSraE** 



RESIDENCE OF COREY LEACH, 

CAPAC, MICH. 




■ :. r/*& ®sn &:ra &&££ '.".^ 'T 









^*S3Lfc. 







HOTEL OF JOHN PERSELS, 

LAMB, MICH. 






FARM RESIDENCE OF F. H. HILL, 
Located 4 miles south of Capac, Mich. 





SCENE ON FARM OF BERT JONES, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

BSRVIUvE, MICH. 




BELL RIVER STOCK FARM, PURE BRED HOLSTEIN CATTLE, 
Wtn. Wills, Proprietor, 

CAPAC, MICH. 




SCENE ON FARM OF AUG. WERNER, 
R. F. D. No. 2, 

RICHMOND, MICH. 








RESIDENCE OF FRED W. PARKER, 
ALGONAC, MICH. 




RESIDENCE JOHN SMITH, JR., 
R.'F. D. No. .3, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 







RESIDENCE OF WALTER SHEARSMITH, 

CAPAC, MICH. 



r IlliS iM;>iN:^)- ^ ^ * * %^fr r ^ ^ ^;- :,% ;-Z r** f. * "* ' - r " ■" i| 






FARM HOME OF F. A. PETZ, 

CAPAC, MICH. 




ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 107 



w 



Mi'- - ''* ~' • '• 




r ■•..$■ **&-.;*&... 


-*. ' . ; 


J'j*».j.;. t '. ii^„ r»»L^™_^L»-^. 


■:■..:] 



residence; of thomas carrigan, 

Photograph taken 25 years ago, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 




RESIDENCE OF PATRICK SHEA, 
R. F. D. No. 2, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 




REESE GARAGE, 
J. W. Reese, Proprietor, 

JEDDO, MICHIGAN. 







FARM BUILDINGS OF ROGER KELIvEY, 

CAPAC, MICH. 







;:..,■■■>, :■...-■■;.-■: ■■■-. "■. ... ■ ■■■ .-I-..---.::.-:::.:.-.-., ■■ - .V.-.- .. ■.. ': 

!,:^ ^w>, ,,,.":::f ^^;:.: ~ ,«■ *^. ,,,- ^^ :;r:^ ~i 











SCENE ON FARM OF JOSEPH PRIOR, 

COLUMBUS, MICH. 



RIVER SCENE AT AlyGONAC, MICH. 



FARM BUIIvDINGS OF WM. 

I, A MB, MICH. 



BISHOP, 





SCENE ON FARM OF T. H. ZAETSCH, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

MARINE CITY, MICH. 



SCENE ON FARM OF HENRY LAWSON, 

AVOCA, MICH. 




HOME OF FRANK FOSTER, 

CAPAC, MICH. 




J^-sfe^ 



BLACKSMITH SHOP OF WM. STURDEVANT, 

SMITH'S CREEK, MICH. 




FARM RESIDENCE OF GEO. Iy. SAVAGE, 

CAPAC, MICH. 



K;^V^fe^«^»>^-%''^'^^ .. . 










FARM HOME OF MRS. E. LATHROP, 

R. F. D. No. 1, 

BBRVII^E, MICH. 




s ;v«"^:^X .'l^A- 



SCENE ON FARM OF HENRY .REIMER, 
R. F. D. No. 1, 

LENOX, MICH. 



UNITED STHTES LHND SURVEYS 



SUPPLEMENT I. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM 



OF 



United States Land Surveys 



METES AND BOUNDS 




P to the time of the Revolutionary Waiyor until about the beginning of the present century, land, when parcelled out, and 
sold or granted, was described by ^ Metes and Bounds/' and that system is still in existence in the following States, or in 
those portions of them which had been sold or granted when the present plan of surveys was adopted, viz. : New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, 
and the six New England States. To describe land by "Mefces and Bounds/' is to have a known land-mark for a place of beginning, 
and then follow a line according to the compass-needle (or magnetic bearing), or the course of a stream, or track of an ancient high- 
way. This plan has resulted in endless confusion and litigation, as land-marks decay and change, and it is a well-known fact that 
the compass-needle varies and does not always point due North. 

As an example of this plan of dividing lands, the following description of a farm laid out by "Metes and Bounds," is given : 
"Beginning at a stone on the Bank of Doe Eiver, at a point where the highway from A. to B. crosses said river (see point marked 0. 
on Diagram 1); thence 40? North of West 100 rods to a large stump; thence 10° North of West 90 rods; thence 15° West of North 80 
rods to an oak tree (see Witness Tree on Diagram 1); thence due East 150 rods to the highway; thence following the course of the 
highway 50 rods due North; thence 5° North of East 90 rods; thence 45° East of South 60 rods; thence 10° North of East 200 rods 
to the Doe River; thence following the course of the river Southwesterly to the place of beginning." This, which is a very simple 
and moderate description by " Metes and Bounds," would leave the boundaries of the farm as shown in Diagram 1. 




MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES 



PACIFIC STANDARD TIME 



ryMOUlVTAm STAN-DARjy TTMB y 



DIAGRAM 2 

CENTBAL srs?MDAJ?£> 2*IM£ 



J? A ST£f?7f STAirHAfiD TIME 



*sMT£Rcozcmxz; &TT._ 







THE present system of Governmental Land Surveys was adopted by Congress on the 
7th of May, 1785. It has been in use ever since and is the legal method of de- 
scribing and dividing lands. It is called the ' 'Rectangular ^ System," that is, all 
its distances and bearings are measured from two lines which are at right angles 
to each other, viz.rK These two lines, from which the measurements are made, are 
the Principal Meridians, which run North and South, and the Base Lines which run 
East and West. These Principal Meridians are established, with great accuracy. Each 
Principal Meridian has its Base Line, and these two lines form the basis or foundation 
for the surveys or measurement of all the lands within the territory which they control. 
Diagram 2 shows all of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines in the United States, 
and from it the territory governed by each Meridian and Base Line may be readily 



distinguished. Each Meridian and Base Line is marked with its proper number or name. 
Diagram 3 illustrates what is meant when this method is termed the "Rectangular 
System," and how the measurements are based on lines which run at right angles 
to each' other. The heavy line running North and South (marked A. A.) on Diagram 3, 
represents the Principal Meridian, in this case say the 5th Principal Meridian. The heavy 
line running East and West (marked B. B.) is the Base Line. These lines are used as 
the starting points or basis of all measurements or surveys made in territory controlled 
by the 5th Principal Meridian. The same fact applies to all other Principal Meridians 
and their Base Lines. Commencing at the Principal Meridian, at intervals of six miles, 
lines are run North and South, parallel to the Meridian. This plan is followed both 
East and West of the Meridian throughout the territory controlled by the Meridian. 



Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle &Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington D. C. 



SUPLLEMENT II. 



UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS 



These lines are termed " Range Lines." They divide the land into strips or divisions nix miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the Meridian. 
SrSion is called aSga Ranges are numbered from one upward, comm cing at the Meridian ; and their numbers are indicated by Roman 
characters For instance, the firs't division (or first six miles^ west of the Meridian k Range I. West; the next is Range II. West; then comes Range III., 
characters. *°r instancy ^ne mm ov^ ^ med by ^ nother p rin ci P al Meridian is reached. In the same manner the Ranges East of the Meridian 

are numbered the'words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian, aee Diagram 3 

rlSr -ilthe Base Line at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base lae. These are designated as Township 

Line? They dTvide\\^ ^ • the ^^ ^^ " S^v ^ 

N-orth *md South „f the Base Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townships are 
numberS Horn o£ ^ ^ward both Sh and Souths/the Base Zine, and their numbers are indicated by figures For instance : The first six irnle dmsron 
££h °3 "theXse fSVownship 1 North ; the next is Township 2 North ; then comes Township 8, 4,5, and 6 North, and so on The same plan is 
followed South of the Base Line ; the Townships being designated as Township 1 South Township 2 South, and so on. lne JN ortn or South (the 
initials N or S. beino- generallv usedHndicates the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. 

These Township and We Lines crossing each other, as shown in Diagram 3, form squares, which are called "Townships or " Government Townships, 
which ■ Z ^sixTi essauar^ T or as neail'y that a S g it is possible to make them? These Townships'are a very important feature in locating or describing a piece 
nf Hd TbeXcation of'a Government Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Range is given, by merely 
c untg SiiSwTn^S^K'SSBS Line^nd Principal Merfdian. Is an example of this, Township SNorth Range 4^^ ^he^ftinoipal 
Meridian, is at once located on the square marked * on Dmgram 3, by counting eight tiers north of the Base Line and 4 tiers west ot the Meridian. 



T0WMS H1PS OF LAND. 

^TOWNSHIPS are the largest sub- 
w I fe divisions of land run out by the 
I , United States Surveyors. In the 
Governmental Surveys Township 
Lines are the first to be run, and a Township 
Corner is established every six miles and 
marked. This is called "Townshipping." 
After the Township Corners have been care- 
fully located, the Section and Quarter Section 
Corners are established. Each Township is 
six miles square and contains 23,p40 acres, 
or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible 
to ' make them. This, however, is fre- 
quently made impossible by; (1st) the pres- 
ence of lakes and large streams ; (2nd) by 
State boundaries not falling exactly on 
Township Lines; (3rd) by the convergence 
of Meridians or curvature of the earth's 
surface ; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys.. 

Each Township, unless it is one of ^ the 
exceptional cases referred to, is divided 
'into 36 squares, which are called Sections. 
These Sections . are intended to be one 
mile, or 320 rods, square and contain 640 
acres of land. Section? are numbered 
consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on 
Diagram 4. Beginning with Section 1 in 
the Northeast Corner, they run West to 
6, then East to 12, then West to 18, and . 
so on, back and forth, until they end with 
Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. 

Diagram 4 shows a plat of a Township 
ad it is divided and platted by the govern- 
ment surveyors. These Townships are 
called Government Townships or Congres- 
sional Townships, to distinguish them from 
Civil Townships or organized Townships, 
as frequently the lines of organized Town- 
ship? do not conform to the Government 
Tow oship lines. 



SECTI ONS OF LftNP. 

J AGE AM 5 illustrates how a section 
may be subdivided, although the 
Diagram only gives a few of the 
many subdivisions into which a 
section may be .divided. All Sections 
(except fractional Sections) are supposed 
contain 640 acres— a number easily divisible; 
the convenience of the owners of the land 






to be 320 rods, or one mile, square and therefore 
Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit 
A half -section contains 320 acres; a quarter- section 
contains 160 'acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, 
arid so on. Each piece of land is described according to the portion of the section which it 
embraces— as the Northeast quarter of Section 10 ; or the Southeast quarter of the _ Southeast 
quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, and also 
shows the plan of designating and describing them by initial letters as each parcel oi land on the 
Diagram is marked with its description. # . . 

As has already been stated, all Sections (except • Fractional Sections which are explained else- 
where) are supposed to contain 640 acres, and even though mistakes have been niade m surveying, 
as is frequently the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recog- 
nizes no variation, but sells or grants each regular section as containing 640 acres ''more or less. 

The Government Surveyors are not required to subdivide sections by running lines withm 
them, but they usually establish Quarter Posts on Section Lines on each side of a section at the 



joints marked A. B. C. and D. on 



Diagram 



DIAGRAM 5. 



OA 



CO 

o 

< 

o 

CO 



10- 



N. E. 1/4. 



160 A. 



N. 1/2 Of S. E. V4 



80 A. 



N. H of S.W. $4 

of S.E. Yi 

( 20 A.) 



S. >* of S.W. i 

of S.E. M 
1 (20 A.) 



S. E,7 4 
o$ S.E.% 

40 A. 



SUBDIVIDING A SECTION*. 



After establishing Township corners, Section 
Lines are the next to be run, and section cor- 
ners are established. When these are carefully 
located the Quarter Posts are located at points as 
nearly equidistant between Section Corners as 
possible. These corners when established by 
Government Surveyors cannot be changed, even 
though it is conclusively shown that mistakes 
have been made which cause some sections or 
quarter sections to be either larger or smaller 
than others. The laws, however, of all the 
States provide certain rules for local surveyors 
to follow in dividing Sections into smaller 
parcels of land than has been outlined in the 
Governmental surveys. For instance, in divid- 
ing a quarter section into two parcels, the dis- 
ance between the Government Corners is care- 
fully measured and the new post is located at a 
point equidistant between them. This plan is 
followed inrunning out "eighties," " forties," 
"twenties," etc. In this way, if the Govern- 
ment division overruns or falls short, each 
portion gains or loses its proportion. This is 
not the case, however, with Fractional Sections 
along the North or West sides of a Township, 
or adjoining a lake or large stream. 



FBHCT80IM. PiECES OF LUND. 

/■yONGRESSIONAL Townships vary 
|/\ considerably as to size and boundaries. 
\~$ Mistakes made in surveying and the 
fact that Meridians converge as they 
run North cause every Township to vary 
more or less from the 23,040 acres which a 
perfect Township: would ^contain. See : 
Diagram 4. In arranging a/ Township into: ■, 
Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land ; j 
is given to, or taken from, the Northand 
West tiers of Sections. In other words, all 
Sections in the Township are made full— 
640 acres — except those on the Northand 
West, which are given all the land that is 
left after forming the other 25 Sections. ■'■■ 

Diagram 4 illustrates how the surplus or 
deficiency is distributed and the Sections it 
p-Ixects. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, 
3, 4,5, 6, 7, 18,. 19, 30 and"31, are the # 
"Fractional Sections," or the Sections 
which are affected if the Township overruns ; 
or falls short. Inside of these Fractional 
Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of .. 
land (over or under 640 acres) is Carried: to 
the "forties" or "eighties" that touch th6 r 
Township Line. These pieces of land are 
called "Fractional Forties" or "Fractional 
Eighties," as the case may be. Diagrams 4 
and 6 show the manner of marking the 
acreage and outlining the boundaries of 
these "Fractions." 

Diagram 6 illustrates how the surplus or 
deficiency of land inside of these Sectiohsis 
distributed an d which "forties"or "eighties" 
it affects. From this arrangement it will be 
seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Lines the Southeast Quarter may 
be full— 160 acres— while another quarter of the same Section may be much larger or smal'ar..;- 
Frequently these fractional -forties" or "eighties" are lotted as shown^m Diagram 6. Theyuare 
always described as fractional tracts of land, as the " fractional S.W. ipi Section 6,^ etc. Of course 
those portions of these Sections which are not aifected by these variations are described m the usual 
manner-as Southeast ± of Section 6. As a rule Townships are narrower at the North than-at^the 
South side. The Meridians of Longitude (which run North and South) converge as they rim North 
and South from the Equator. They begin at the Equator with a definite width oetween .them and 
gradually converge until they all meet at the poles. N ow, as the Range lines are run Northand South, 
it will at once beaeen .that the convergence of Meridians will caue; every Congressional Township 
(North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its South side, as stated. See Diagram 
4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of measurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made 
in running both Township and ftange 
lines, and if no new starting points 
were established the. lines would 
become confused and unreliable, and 
the size and shape of Townships 
materially aifected by the time the 
surveys had extended even a hundred 
miles from the Base Line and Princi- 
pal Meridian. In order to correct 
the surveys and variations caused 
by the difference of latitude and 
snraighten the lines, "Correction 
Lines" (or Guide Meridians and 
Standard Parallels) are established at 
frequent intervals, usually as follows: 
North of the Base Line a Correction 
Line is run East and West parallel 
with the Base Line, usually every 
twenty-four miles. South of the 
Base Line a Correction Line is usually 
established every thirty miles. Both 
East and West of the Principal 
Meridian "Correction Lines" are 
nsnally established every 48 miles. 
All Correction Lines are located by 
careful measurement, and the suc- 
ceeding surveys are based upon 
them. 



DIAGRAM 6. 




PLAT OF A FRACTIONAL SECTION. 



r 



Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



SUPPLEMENT III 



, \ 



DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF ^QIViL GOVERNMENT 



DIGEST OF .THE SYSTEM 

OP 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT 



WITH A REVIEW OF THE 



Duties and Powers of the Principal Officials Connected 

with the Various Branches of National, State, 

County and Township Government 



NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 

THE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited 
and specific powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written 
constitution. The constitution was adopted m 1787, and, with 
the amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis 
of the entire fabric of government under which we live. The 
constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of 
which is entirely separate and distinct from the others. They^ are the 
executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution spe- 
cifically vests, the executive power in the President, but all members 
of the cabinet are usually classed with the executive department; the 
legislative power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is 
vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress 
has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution. 

It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different 
branches of government, and to briefly review the duties and powers 
of the principal officials connected with each department. 

The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, but 
the vote of each State is separate, so that a candidate may have a large 
majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and yet fail to be 
elected. The Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen .in and 
for the various States,. each State having as many electors as it has rep- 
resentatives in both branches of Congress. The electors are chosen by 
the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a State 
constitute an 'electoral college. The electors meet m each State at the 
capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National elec- 
tion and vote for President and Vice-President, certificates of which 
are forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on 
the second Wednesday in February opens the certificates and counts 
the votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the 
result ; and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the 
4th of March. The law provides that if neither of the candidates have 
a majority then the House of Representatives shall elect a President 
from the three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In 
elections of this kind each State is entitled to only one vote, and two- 
thirds of the States form a quorum. 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The President is the highest executive officer of the United States 
He is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $75,000 
per annum. He must be thirty-five years old or more, and a native- 
born citizen of the United States. The President is charged with a gen- 
eral supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress, 
and has supervision over all executive departments of the government. 
He appoints a Cabinet of nine officials who become the heads of the 
various departments, and these departments are intended to be managed 
and conducted as the President directs. The President is Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army and Navy. He has power to grant pardons and 
reprieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of 
impeachment ; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
to make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the 
Senate, appoints Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls, 
all Judges of the United States courts, and all other executive officers 
of the United States, except in such cases where the appointments may 
be vested in the various "departments." When the Senate is not in 
session he can appoint, subject to its action when it reassembles. He 
has power, in certain extraordinary occasions, to call together_ both 
Houses of Congress, or either of them, in extra session; and is. re- 
quired from time to time to communicate with Congress, as to the state 
of the Union, and offer such suggestions or recommendations as he may 
deem proper. He is empowered to approve or veto all measures adopt- 
ed by Congress, but it is provided that any measure may be passed over 
his veto by a two-thirds vote of Congress. 

' The President consults frequently with his Cabinet, and nearly all 
important official matters are discussed by that body. In case the office 
of President becomes vacant through the death, removal or resignation 
of the incumbent, the law provides that the office shall in turn be -filled 
by the Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other Cabinet Ministers 
in regular order. ' 

VICE PRESIDENT. 

The Vice-President of the United States is elected for the term of 
four years, 'and receives a salary of $12,000. In case of the death, 
removal or resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds 
him. The chief duty of the Vice-President is to act as the presiding 
officer of the Senate. He has no vote in the Senate, except in case of a 
tie, or an equal division of the members of that body. The Vice- 
President administers the oath of office to the Senators. 

STATE DEPARTMENT. 

The head of this department is the Secretary of State, who is 
appointed by the President as a member of the Cabinet, and receives a 
salary of $8,000 per year. The law provides that in case the office of 
President becomes vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of 
both the President and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumes 
the duties of the Presidency. The Secretary of State may be said to be 
the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions 
issued by the President. " t ■ 

The Secretary of State is the head of the Department of State and 
is the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. In his department 
and under his supervision is conducted the public business relating to 
foreign affairs; to correspondence, commissions or instructions to or 
with public Ministers from the United States ; or to negotiations with 
Ministers from foreign States; or to memorials or other applications 
from foreigners, or foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country 
in foreign lands, or complications arising therefrom. The Secretary^ of 
State also has charge of all other business connected with foreign 
affairs, extradition matters and diplomatic officers ; furnishing passports 
to vessels going to foreign countries, etc., and has charge of the Great 
Seal of the United States. 

Connected with the Department of State and forming a part of it 
in the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined 
are the following bureaus : t m 

The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after the affairs pertaining 
to foreign governments. 

The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates. 

The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the duties of which are to 
open the official mails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence 
and an index of it, and superintend miscellaneous work of department. 

The Bureau of Accounts, in which all of the finances of the de- 
partment are looked after, such as the custody and disbursement of 
appropriations; also indemnity funds and bonds; also care of the 
building and property of the department, etc. , , ■ . , , 

The Bureau of Rolls and Library, which is charged with the 
custody of treaties, rolls, public documents, etc. ; has care of revolution- 



ary archives, of international commissions, superintendence of library, 
etc. 

The Bureau of Statistics, for the preparation of reports on com- 
mercial relations. *o-i™ *. &o ?r\n 
The chiefs of these bureaus receive from $2,100 per year to MJW 
per year. In addition to these there are connected with the State 
Department the offices of translator, at $2,100 per year; assistant sec- 
retary, $5,000; second assistant secretary, $4,500; third assistant secre- 
tary, $4,500; solicitor, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; clerk to Secretary of 
State, $2,500; passport clerk, $1,400. Besides these are the various 
comptrollers, auditors, clerks and assistants, which number well up 
into the thousands. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 
This department was organized in 1789. The head of this depart- 
ment, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the Pres- 
ident, is a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $12,000 per 
annum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important 
branches of the national government, as it has charge of the financial 
affairs of the government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue 
and maintenance of public credit. Among the many important duties 
devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the 
collection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the pre- 
vention of frauds in these departments. All claims and demands, 
either by the United States or against them, and all the accounts m 
which the United States are interested, either as debtors or creditors, 
must be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department. This de- 
partment also includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the govern- 
ment coin and moneys are manufactured. The Treasury Department 
authorizes the organization of national banks and has supervision over 
them; has charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hos- 
pitals, etc. It has charge of all moneys belonging to the United States; 
designates depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate 
system of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the 
Treasury, and makes reports at stated intervals showing the condition 
of public finances, public expenditures and the public debt. ; 

There are a great many important officials connected with the 
Treasury Department, chief among wrr.ch are the following, viz.: 
Private secretary of the head department, it $2,500 per year; three 
assistant secretaries, at $5,000 each; chief clerk, $3,000 : chief of ap- 
pointment division, $3,000; chief of warrants division, $3,500; chief of 
public moneys division, $3,000; chief of customs division, $3,000; acting 
chief of revenue marine division, $2,500; chief of stationery division, 
$2,500; chief of loans and currency division, $3,000; chief of miscella- 
neous division, $2,500; supervising special agent, $8 per day; govern- 
ment actuary, $1,800; supervising architect, $4,500; steamboat inspector, 
$3,500; chief Bureau of Statistics, $3,000; life saving service superin- 
tendent, $4,500; assistant, $2,500; commissioner Bureaus of Navigation, 
$3,600; superintendent United States coast and geodetic survey, $6,000; 
supervising surgeon-general marine hospital service, $4,000; Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing, director, $5,000; assistant director, $3,500; 
superintendent engraving division, $4,500. 

The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work at- . 
tended to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices 
explain the branch of work they are charged with attending to. There 
are a number of other important offices in the department that should 
be mentioned, among them being the following: 

The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives 
$4,500 per year for attending to the legal matters connected with the 
department. . 

The Commissioner of Customs, who receives $4,000 per year 
and his deputy $2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from 
customs and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of 
custom houses. 

The Treasurer of the United States receives $6,000 per year, 
assistant treasurer $3,600, and superintendent of national banks (Red. 
Div.) $3,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds, 
either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depos- 
itories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law, 
and pays all interest on the national debt. 

The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per year 
and his assistant $2,500. The Register keeps the accounts of public 
expenditures and ' receipts ; receives the returns and makes out the 
official statements of United States commerce and navigation; receives 
from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and 
vouchers acted on by them and files the same. 

The Comptroller of the Currency receives $5,000 per year and 
his deputy $3,000. This bureau is charged with a general supervision 
of the national banks and matters connected with the issuing of paper 
money. . 

The Director of the Mint receives $4,500 per annum, and is 
charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the govern- 
ment. 

The Comptroller of' the Treasu^ receives $5,500 per year and 
his assistant $4,500. This bureau has charge of the auditing system of 
the Treasury. With the exception of the postal revenue accounts, the 
comptroller prescribes the forms of keeping and rendering all public 
accounts. ■ * 

Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury 
Department, each of whom receives a salary of $4,000 per year, and is 
allowed a deputy at a salary of $2,500 per annum. No one auditor 
takes rank over another. The first auditor receives and adjusts the 
accounts of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expen- 
ditures on account of the civil list and under special acts of Congress, 
reporting the balances to the commissioners of the customs and first 
comptroller respectively for their decision. The second auditor devotes 
most of his attention to army affairs; looks after all the accounts re- 
lating to the pay, clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenals, 
armories and ordnance ; all accounts relating to the Indian Department ; 
reporting to the second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts 
for sustenance of the army, military academy, military roads, fortifica- 
tions, quartermaster's department, certain pensions, claims arising for 
military service previous to 1817; for all property lost in the military 
service; he reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor 
also reports to the second comptroller, and attends to all accounts of 
the service connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the 
first comptroller, and adjusts all accounts' connected with the diplo- 
matic service of the Department of State. The sixth auditor adjusts 
all accounts growing from the service of the Post Office Department. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 

The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of 
this department is known as the Secretary of War; is appointed by the 
President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The War De- 
partment attends to the execution of all laws affecting the Regular 
Army, and carries out and performs such duties as may be provided 
for by law or directed by the President relative to military forces, 
military commissions and the warlike stores of the United States. In 
former years this department also had charge of Indian as well as 
military affairs, but this has been transferred to the Department of 
the Interior. The War Department is also, required, among other 
duties, to maintain the signal service and provide for taking meteoro- 
logical observations at various points on the continent, and give tele- 
graphic notice of the approach of storms. There is also maintained a 
Civil Engineering Department, through the aid of which is carried out 
such improvements in rivers and harbors as may be authorized by Con- 
gress. The Secretary of War also has supervision over the West Point 
Military Academy. 

The private clerk for the head of the War Department is paid 
$2,500 per year; assistant secretary, $5,000; chief clerk, $4,000. The 
most of the subordinates and assistants in the War Department, except 
those mentioned, are officers of the Regular Army, who are paid sal- 
aries and perquisites. 



The Commanding General, next to the Secretary, looks after the 
arrangement of military forces, superintends the recruiting service and 
discipline of the army, orders courts-martial, and in a general sense is 
charged with seeing to the enforcement of the laws and regulations of 
the army. The Adjutant-General keeps the rolls and the orders issued. 
The Quartermaster-General has charge of the barracks and the sup- 
plies, etc., that may be required for the army. The Commissary- 
General is the head of the Subsistence Department, and has supervision 
over the purchasing and issuing army rations. The Judge Advocate 
General is the head of the department of military justice. The Sur- 
geon General, as the .name implies, looks after the affairs of the army 
relating to sick, wounded, hospital, etc. The Paymaster-General is the 
disbursing officer for the money required by the department. There is 
also the Ordnance office, controlling ordnance store, arsenals, armories, 
the manufacture of arms, etc. The Topographical office has charge of 
all plats and drawings of all surveys made for military purposes. 
Besides these there are the Inspector-General's Department and depart- 
ments devoted to war records, publications, etc. 

In this connection it may be of ir>*ftrest to the general reader to 
refer briefly to a few facts concerning the Keguiar Army. The United 
States is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts. 
The head of each department receives his general instructions and 
orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army 
is three years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is $15 per 
month and rations, and this is increased according to time of service. 
The pay of the officers is proportioned to their rank. The pay of 
officer^ in active service was fixed by an act of Congress May 11, 1908, 
as loliows: lieutenant-general $11,000 per year; major-general $8,000; 
brigadier-general $6 000; colonels from $4,000 to $5,000; lieutenant- 
colonels from $3,500 to $4,500; majors from $3,000 to $4,000; captains 
from $2,400 to $3,360; first-lieutenants from $2,000 to $2,800; second- 
lieutenants from $1,700 to $2,380. In case any officer below the grade 
of major required to be mounted, provides himself with suitable mounts 
at his 'own expense, he receives an addition to his pay of $150 per 
annum if he provides one mount; and $200 per annum if he provides 
two mounts. The pay of retired officers was fixed as follows by the 
act of May 11, 1908: lieutenant-generals $8,250 per annum; major 
generals $6,000; brigadier-generals $4,500; colonels from $3,000 to 
$3,750; lieutenant-colonels from $2,625 to $3,375; majors from $2 250 
to $3,000; captains from $1,800 to $2,520; first lieutenants from $1,500 to 
$2,100, and second-lieutenants $1,275 to $1,785. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is 
appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. 
This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construc- 
tion, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war, as well 
as all other matters connected with naval affairs, and appropriations 
made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy has direct 
control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; 
issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons ; has general 
authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several 
bureaus of the Navy Department. 

There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department 
for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the 
most important of which may be mentioned the following: Bureau of 
Steam Engineering; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; Bureau of Nav- 
igation; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Yards and 
Docks; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting; 
Bureau of Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are 
also officials or bureaus to attend to the following matters : Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D. C. ; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary; 
Board of Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval 
Observatory; Hydrographic Office ; Library and War Records; Naval 
Intelligence; Nautical Almanac, etc. 

The admiral of the navy (line) is paid $13,500 per year; the first 
nine rear-admirals each receive $8,000 per year and the second nine 
$6,000; chiefs of bureaus are paid $6,000 per year; captains $4,000; 
commanders $3,500; lieutenant-commanders $3,000; lieutenants $2,400; 
junior grade lieutenants $2,000; ensigns $1,700; chief-boatswains, gun- 
ners, carpenters, sail makers, $1,700; midshipmen at sea $1,400; mid- 
shipmen at academy $600. In the Marine Corps the major general 
receives $8 000 per year; colonels $4,000; lieutenant-colonels $3,500; 
majors, $3,000; captains (line) $2,400; captains (staff) $2,600; first 
lieutenants $2,000; second-lieutenants $1,700. An increase of ten per 
cent is allowed them when on sea duty, or on "shore duty beyond the 
sea." Chaplains of the rank of lieutenant-commander or higher rank 
receive the pay and allowance of a lieutenant-commander; those ap- 
pointed prior to July 1, 1906, who have the rank of lieutenant receive 
$2,800; and others are paid according to their rank in the foregoing 
list. Naval constructors receive from $3,200 to $4,200 per year; assis- 
tant naval constructors $2,000 or the pay of rank according to the fore- 
going table; warrant officers $1,125 to $2,250. Petty officers and chief 
petty officers receive salary ranging from $33 to $77 per month. First 
class seamen receive $26 per month ; seamen-gunners $28 per month ; 
firemen, first-class, $38; ordinary seamen $21; firemen, second-class, 
$33; shipwrights $27; apprentice seamen $18; coal passers $24. The 
term of enlistment in the United States Navy is four years. 

POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

This is one of the most important brancnes of the National Gov- 
ernment. Its head is the Postmaster-General, who is appointed by the 
President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The Post Office 
Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by 
Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over 
everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United 
States mails; superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys 
belonging to, or appropriated for, the department; and the instruction 
of and supervision over all persons in the postal service, with reference 
to their duties. 

In providing for handling the general work of the Post Office 
Department it has been found necessary to create four bureaus, or 
offices, as they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assis- 
tant postmaster-general, who each receive $5,000 per annum; are all 
subject to the direction and supervision of the head, of the department. 
A review of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the 
name of the office, wall show very clearly the work handled by each. 

The first assistant postmaster-general is allowed a chief-clerk at 
$2,500 per year; superintendent of, salaries and allowances $4,000; 
superintendent of division appointments $3,000; superintendent of city 
free-delivery service $3,000. 

The second assistant postmaster-general has charge of the follow- 
ing divisions, indicated by the following officials who are under his 
control : superintendent of railway adjustments $3,000 per year; chief 
of division inspection $2,000; chief of division of contracts $2,000; chief 
of division of mail equipment; general superintendent of railway maii 
service $4,000; superintendent of foreign mails $3,000. 

The third assistant postmaster general controls the following di- 
visions : superintendent of money-order division $3,500; superintendent 
of registry system $2,500; superintendent of division of finance $2,250; 
superintendent of division of stamps $2,500; also the post-card agent 
and the stamped-envelope agent at $2,500 each. 

The fourth assistant postmaster-general controls the following di- 
visions : Superintendent rural free delivery service $3,000 ; superintend- 
ent of post office supplies $2,500; superintendent of dead-letter office 
$2,750; topographer $2,750. 

Besides the various chiefs of divisions mentioned above there are 
connected with the Post Office Department a law clerk, at $2,500 per 
year; appointment clerk, at $2,000; assistant attorney-general, $5,000; 
a disbursing clerk, $2,250; also the auditor of the post office depart- 
ment, at $4,000. * 



«< 



Copyright, 1010, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 



SUPPLEMENT IV 



DIGEST" OF THE "SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

The Interior Department is under the immediate control of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior. He is appointed by the President, and receives 
a salary of $12,000 per year. In this department, as the name imples, is 
conducted most of the public business relating to domestic or internal 
affairs, and, like most of the other executive departments, it is divided 
into a number of subdivisions and branches. The Secretary of the 
Interior is charged with a general supervision over public business 
connected with the following branches, viz.: 1st. The census of the 
United States. 2d. All matters connected with public lands. 3d. Every- 
thing relating to the Indians or Indian affairs. 4th. All matters con- 
cerning pensions or bounty lands. 5th. The issuance and tiling ot 
patents and caveats. 6th. The custody and distribution of publications. 
7th. The compilation of statistics relating to educational matters in the 
various States. He also has oversight over several of the Govern- 
ment's charitable and benevolent institutions. For the purpose ot 
handling properly the business connected with most ot the subjects 
.mentioned, there are bureaus organized for the purpose. 

The .salaries paid to the principal officials connected with the In- 
terior Department are as f olows : First assistant secretary of the 
interior, $5,000 per year; assistant secretary, $4 500; chief clerk, $3,000 
assistant attorney-general (Dept. of Interior), $5,000; commissioner of 
the General Land Office, $5,000; commissioner of Indian affairs, ?5,UUU, 
superintendent of Indian schools, $3,000; commissioner of the Pension 
Office, $5,000; medical referee, $3,000; commissioner of the Patent 
Office, $5,000; commissioner of the Education pffice $4,5UU; director 
of geological surveys, $6,000; director Reclamation Service, $/,5UU. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

This department was formerly connected with the Interior Depart- 
ment, but in 1889 it was reorganized and made independent, and the 
Secretary of Agriculture was made a member of the Cabinet ine 
head of this department is appointed by- the President, and receives a 
salary of $12,000 per annum. . 

The general duty and design of the Department of Agriculture is 
to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States usefu 
information on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general 
and comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate and 
distribute among the people new and valuable seeds and plants. _ 

The following is a list of the chief officials connected with the 
Department of Agriculture and their salaries and the list will also 
serve to indicate the various lines of work handled by and the various 
duties which devolve upon the department, viz.: Assistant secretary 
of agriculture receives $5,000 per annum; chief of Weather Bureau,, 
$6 000* chief of Bureau of Animal Industry, $5,000; statistician $3,500 ; 
chemist, $5,000; entomologist, $4,000; botanist, $3,240; chief of forestry 
division, $5,000; pomologist, $3,000; plant pathologist and physiologist, 
$3,500: director, of the office of experiment stations, $4,000; chiet ot 
division of accounts and disbursements, $3,250; editor, $3,000; agri- 
culturist, $3,500; director of public roads, $3,000; statistical scientist in 
charge of investigations of production and distribution $3,000 ; chiet 
of biological survey, $3,000; chief of bureau of s6ils, $3,500; chief of 
bureau of plant industry in charge of seed distribution, $5,000. 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. 

The head of the Department of Justice is the Attorney-General, 
who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per 
annum. The principal assistant of the Attorney-General is the Solici- 
tor-General, who receives $7,500 per year. There are a number of 
assistant attorney-generals who receive $5,000 per annum, and a special 
assistant attorney-general is appointed for nearly all of the various 
departments, including the Treasury, State, Post Office and Interior 
Departments. Besides these there are a number of special officials con- 
nected with the Department of Justice, such as attorney in charge of 
titles, $2,700; chief clerk and superintendent of buildings, $3,000; ap- 
pointment clerk, $2,000 ; attorney in charge of pardons, $2,750 ; solicitor 
internal revenue, $4,500; superintendent of prisons and prisoners, $3,- 
000; chief examiner, $2,750; chief of division of accounts, $2,500; dis- 
bursing clerk, $2,750 ; solicitor for department of commerce and labor, 
$5 000. 

The Attorney-General is the legal adviser of the President, and it 
is the duty of the Department of Justice to give all opinions and 
render all services requiring the skill of persons learned m the law 
necessary to enable the President and other officers of the various 
Government departments to discharge their respective duties. This 
department is also required to prosecute or defend all suits or proced- 
ings in which the United States is interested. The Attorney-General 
has general supervision over all the solicitors for the various depart- 
ments; and also exercises general superintendence and direction over 
all United States marshals and United States district attorneys of ail 
the districts of the United States and Territories. 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR. 

The Department of Commerce and Labor was established in Feb- 
ruary, 1903. The general design of this department is to collect, assort 
and systematize statistical details relating to the different branches of 
labor and commerce in the United States. The head of this depart- 
ment, known as the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, is appointed 
by the President, is a member of the Cabinet and receives a salary of 
$12,000 per annum. The following are the principal officials under his 
control together with the salary paid : The commissioner of the bureau 
of manufacturers, $4,000 per year; commissioner of the bureau of cor- 
porations, $5,000; commissioner of the bureau of labor, $5,000; director 
of bureau of the census, $7,000; superintendent of the coast and geo- 
detic survey, $6,000; chief of bureau of statistics, $4,000; supervising 
inspector-general of steamboat inspection service, $4,000; commissioner 
of bureau of fisheries, $6,000; commissioner of bureau of navigation, 
$4,000; commissioner-general of bureau of immigration and naturaliza- 
tion at $5,000 ; director of bureau of standards, $5,000. 

INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS. 

There are several independent departments, which, although none 
of them are as important as the foregoing, and their heads are not 
Cabinet members, yet they form a very necessary part and attend to 
very important branches of the National Government. 

Government Printing Office. The head of this branch of public 
work is the Public Printer, who is appointed by the President, and 
receives a salary of $5,500 per year. His chief clerk is paid $2,400 per 
year, and there is a foreman of printing and a foreman of binding, 
each of whom receive $2,100 per annum. . m # 

Civil Service Commission. This commission consists of three 
commissioners, each of whom are paid $4,500 per year. The chief 
examiner connected with the commission is paid $3,000 per annum, 
and the secretary $2,500. . . . . 

Interstate Commerce Commission. This commission was cre- 
for the purpose, and charged with the duty, of seeing that the laws 
regulating interstate commerce were faithfully executed and observed, 
and to prevent unjust discrimination on the part of railway corpora- 
tions and common carriers. The' commission consists of seven com- 
missioners appointed from different sections of the United States, each 
of whom receives a salary of $10,000 per year. The secretary of the 
commission receives a salary of $5,000 per annum. 

JUDICIARY. 

The judicial powers of the United States are vested in the follow- 
ing named courts, viz. : The United States Supreme Court }> consisting 
of one chief justice and eight associate justices; the United^ States 
Court of Claims, which consists of one chief justice and four judges ; 
the United States Circuit Court of Appeals ; and the United States Circuit 
and District Courts. All judges of United States Courts are appointed for 



life, or during "good behavior." The chief justice of the United 
States Supreme Court receives a salary of $13,000 per annum, and 
the associate justices $12,000 each. The circuit judges receive a sal- 
ary of $7000 each per annum, district judges, $6000, and Court of 
Claims, judges receive $6,000, and chief justice $6,500 per year. 

The jurisdiction of the United States Courts extends to all cases 
in law and in equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the 
United States, and treaties; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other 
public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime 
jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a 
party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State 
and a' citizen of another State; between citizens of different States; 
between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of 
different States. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public min- 
isters and consuls, and those in which a State is a party the Supreme 
Court has original jurisdiction. In the other cases the Supreme 
Court has appellate jurisdiction. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

The legislative powers of the United States are vested in a Con- 
gress, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and 
which meets annually at Washington on the first Monday of December. 
The constitution gives to Congress the following general powers : To 
lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; pay the debts of 
the United States; borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 
to regulate commerce; to establish uniform laws on naturalization and 
bankruptcy; to coin money and regulate the value thereof; fix the 
standard of ^weights and measures; to declare war; to raise and sup- 
port armies (but it is provided that no appropriation for this purpose 
can be for a longer period than two years) ; to provide and maintain 
a navy; to grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water ; to make rules for the government 
and regulation of the land and naval forces ; to establish postoffices and 
postroads ; to promote the progress of science and the useful arts by se- 
curing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right 
to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals 
inferior to the Supreme Court; to define and punish piracies and 
felonies committed on the high seas and offense against the law of 
nations ; to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia 
and places purchased for forts, magazines, arsenals, etc. ; and further 
to make all laws necessary for the general welfare of the United 
States, and for "carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and 
all other powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the 
United States, or in any department or officer thereof." The Con- 
stitution expressly forbids Congress making any law respecting the 
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or 
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the 
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a re- 
dress of grievances. Congress cannot suspend the privilege of the 
writ of habeas corpus except in cases of rebellion or invasion when 
the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto 
law can be passed. No tax or duty can be laid on articles exported 
from any State. No preference can be given by any regulation of 
commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. 
No title of nobility can be granted. Every law passed by Congress 
must be submitted to the President for his approval. If he returns 
it with his objections, or vetoes it, the measure may be passed over 
his veto by a two-thirds vote of both branches of Congress. 

The Senate, or the "Upper House of Congress," is composed of 
two Senators from each State in the Union. They are elected by 
the Legislatures of their respective States, for a term of six years, 
and receive a salary of $7,500 per annum. No person can be elected 
to the United States Senate who has not attained the age of thirty 
years, been nine years a citizen of the United States, and is when 
elected an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. The Sen- 
ate has sole power to try all impeachments. Its consent and confirm- 
ation is necessary for all important officers appointed by the President. 
Its consent is also necessary to conclude any treaty. 

The House of Representatives is the "Lower House of Congress." 
Each State in the Union is divided into congressional districts, of 
as nearly equal population as is practicable. In each district a rep- 
resentative is elected by the people for a term of two years, and each 
is paid a salary of $7,500 per year. Besides these, a delegate from 
each organized Territory is admitted to the House of Representatives, 
who is not entitled to a vote, but has the right to debate on all sub- 
jects in which the Territory which he represents has an interest. No 
person can be a' representative who has not attained the age of twenty- 
five years, been for seven years a citizen of the United States, and is 
at the time of his election an inhabitant of the State from which he 
is chosen. All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of 
Representatives. 






STATE GOVERNMENT 

^HE method of State government throughout the United States 
follows very closely the general plan of government that pre- 
vails in national affairs. The various functions of government 
in State affairs are handled in departments, with a State officer 
at the head of each branch, and the lines are clearly drawn 
between the executive, legislative and judicial powers. All the States 
are governed under a constitution, which outlines and defines the powers 
which each of these departments shall exercise and possess. All of 
the most important State officials are elected by the people, but in 
many of the States the less important offices are filled by appointment 
of the Governor, by and with the consent of the State Senate. 



GOVERNOR. 

The Governor is the highest executive officer in all the States of 
the Union, and is elected by a direct vote of the people. The term 
of office varies materially in the different States, ranging from two to 
six years. As to the matter of salary that the Governor receives, it 
also differs widely throughout the different States and is subject to 
frequent change. At the present writing three States — New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey pay their Governors $10,000 per year; 
Illinois $12,000; California $6,000; Minnesota, Indiana, Alabama, Col- 
orado, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, Virginia and Wisconsin all pay 
$5,000 per year; Kentucky $6,500; Massachusetts and Ohio $8,000; Ne- 
vada, Connecticut, Michigan, Tennessee, Texas and Washington, $4,- 
000; Maryland and Oklahoma $4,500; Mississippi, Arkansas, Florida 
and South Carolina $3,500; Iowa, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, North Car- 
olina, North Dakota and Rhode Island $3,000,; West Virginia $2,700; 
South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming $2,500; Delaware, Maine, New 
Hampshire and Utah $2,000; and Oregon and Vermont $1,500. 

About the only statement concerning the qualifications required for 
this office that would be common to all the States is that he must be 
a citizen of the State in which he is elected. In most of the States, 
in addition to the salary named, the Governor is furnished with a 
residence, which is known as the "Executive Mansion." 

The powers and duties that devolve upon the Governor are about 
the same in all of the States. He is charged with a general supervision 
over the faithful execution of the laws, and is the legal custodian of 
all the property of the State not specificially entrusted to other officers 
by law, and is authorized to take summary possession of such property. 
He is expected to communicate by message to each session of the 
State legislature such information or recommendations regarding 
State affairs as he may deem necessary and proper, and he is em- 
powered to call extra sessions of that body whenever the public welfare 
may demand. He accounts to the same body for all moneys received 
and paid out, and presents estimates of amounts to be raised by tax- 



ation for various purposes. He has a negative (or veto) upon all 
laws passed by the Legislature, but it is provided that measures may 
be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of that body Ine Gov- 
ernor is commander-in-chief of the State military or naval forces, and 
has authority to call out such forces to preserve peace and execute 
the laws when the local authorities are unable to accomplish this. He 
may require the opinion of the various State officers upon any sub- 
ject relatino- to their respective offices, and examines and approves the 
bonds of S & tate officials. In many States the Governor has power to 
grant reprieves and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses against 
the State except in cases of impeachment; but m a few of the States 
the pardoning power is vested in a board selected for that purpose, 
of which the Governor is generally ex-officio member. The Governor 
has the appointment of a number of State officers, and in many cases 
if an elective office becomes vacant he has the power to fill it by ap- 
pointment; has power in many States to suspend a State officer, or even 
a county officer, pending a legal investigation. The Governor issues 
requisitions upon the executives of other States for parties charged 
with crime who escape to other States, and he has power to issue war- 
rants for fleeing criminals upon requisition of other governors. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. 
The office of Lieutenant-Governor does not exist in all of the 
States in the Union, at least not under this name, as m a few of the 
States this officer is only known as the President of the State Senate. 
In some of the States the Lieutenant-Governor is paid a certain amount 
per day during sessions of the Legislature or General Assembly and 
in others he is allowed a fixed salary, but it is provided that if the 
duties of Governor should devolve upon him, he shall during the con- 
tinuance of such emergency be entitled to the emoluments thereof The 
principal duty of the Lieutenant-Governor is to act as the presiding 
officer of the State Senate or Upper House of the State -Legislature. In 
case a' vacancy should occur in the office of Governor, the Lieutenant- 
Governor would act as Governor until such vacancy was filled by elec- 
tion; and in all cases where the Lieutenant-Governor is unable to act 
as presiding officer of the Senate, a President pro tempore is chosen 
by that body. The Lieutenant-Governor has no vote in the Senate ex- 
cept in cases of a tie or equal division of the members. 
SECRETARY OF STATE. 
The office of Secretary of State is one of the most important offices 
within the gift of the people of a State, and the office exists under 
this name in every State in the Union. The Secretary of State may be 
said to be the official secretary of the Governor, and countersigns all 
commissions issued by the chief executive, and he is the custodian ot 
the Great Seal of the State. As a rule it is the duty of the Secretary 
of State to call the House of Representatives to. order ana preside un- 
til a' temporary presiding officer, or Speaker, is elected. It is his duty 
to see that the halls are prepared for the Legislature or General As- 
sembly; he prepares the legislative manual and causes it to be printed 
and distributed ; secures the printing and distribution of the State laws ; 
indexes and files executive documents ; provides and distributes election 
blanks; has charge of all books, bills, papers, etc., of the Legislature, 
and is practically "keeper of all public acts, laws, records, bonds, etc^ 
The Secretary of State is required to keep a register of all the offi- 
cial acts of the Governor, and affixes the Seal of the State to all offi- 
cial commissions, etc., keeps a record of them, and is obliged to give 
any person a copy of the same when demanded. In all of the States 
the Secretary of State is ex officio member of a number of the State 
boards, but no list of these could be given that would apply to all 
States, as they are different in the various States. 
STATE AUDITOR. 

The office of Auditor of State exists, under one name or another in 
nearly every State in the Union. The title of this office, however, is 
not alike in all the States, as many of them, notably California Con- 
necticut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and a few others, it is known as 
State Comptroller. In a few of the States, including Michigan and 
Pennsylvania, the office is called Auditor-General, and in two of the 
States the public accounts are audited by a Board of Auditors. In ail 
the States, however, the duties that devolve upon this branch of the 
State Government are practically the same, and a general explanation of 
the scope of work handled by the State Auditor in one State will 
apply, except as regards minor details, to all of the States. It is the 
duty of the State Auditor to keep the accounts of the State with any 
other State or Territory, and with the United States and all public offi- 
cers, corporations and individuals having accounts with this State. He 
audits the accounts of all public officers who are to be paid out of the 
State Treasury, and all persons who are authorized to receive money 
out of the State Treasury. In fact, all claims against the State which 
are to be paid out of the State Treasury must be presented to the Aud- 
itor, who, after the same is adjusted, issues warrants therefor payable at 
the Treasury. A complete record of each warrant is kept by the 
Auditor, who also keeps an account with the State Treasurer, charging 
him with all moneys paid into the Treasury, and giving credit for all 
warrants paid, and the books and vouchers of the Treasury must bal- 
ance therewith, as settlements are made between these two officers at 
stated intervals. In a number of the States the Auditor is charged with 
a general supervision over certain corporations, such as insurance and 
banking corporations and building and loan associations, and in some 
States is ex-officio a member of a' number of State boards. ^ He gen- 
erally has authority to make and execute satisfactions of judgments 
and assignments thereof in behalf of the State. 

STATE TREASURER. 

This is one of the most important executive offices in the gift of 
the people of a State. The State Treasurer handles vast sums of the 
people's money, and as a rule a very heavy bond, ranging from $500,- 
000 up into the millions, is required of him; and generally the Gov- 
ernor is empowered to demand additional bonds if he deems the bond 
insufficient to fully protect the State. 

The duties of the State Treasurer are implied by the title of the 
office, and they are very much the 1 same throughout all of the States 
of the Union. The State Treasurer is custodian of all the State 
funds. He deposits these funds in banks, which give bonds to secure 
the Treasurer or State against loss, and which pay interest on daily 
balances. The Treasurer pays out State funds only on warrants is- 
sued or signed by the State Auditor^ or other proper official, and a 
full record of all warrants is kept in both the auditing office and 
Treasurer's office. The - ; ian by which the Treasurer receives the rev- 
enues of the State is different in different States. In some States the 
Auditor issues an order for him to receive the same and charges the 
amount against the Treasurer. In others he is charged with all mon- 
eys which he is entitled to receive, and then given credit for delinquen- 
cies. In still other States the Treasurer issues duplicate receipts for 
all moneys paid in, which must be countersigned by the Auditor to be 
valid, and one of these must be deposited with the Auditor, so he 
may charge the amount against the Treasurer. In this way a double 
system is carried on- — both Auditor and Treasurer keeping a full ac- 
count of all moneys received and paid out, and their books and ac- 
counts must balance, as at stated intervals the Treasurer must make 
settlements with the Auditor and submit books, vouchers, etc., to the 
Legislature. In most of the States the State Treasurer is required 
to publish at stated times, in the newspapers at the capital, an itemized 
statement of the public accounts, expenditures, funds, receipts and 
disbursements. He is also required to make a complete report and 
itemized statement to each session of the Legislature. In nearly all 
of the States the law is very explicit in outlining the. duties of the 
State Treasurer, the following being very common provisions in relation 
to the office, viz.: That a complete record of all moneys must be kept, 
showing what is received or paid out of the various "funds," which 
"funds" must be exhibited in separate accounts. In several of the 



Copyright, 1910, by Geo. A, Ogle & Co. 



SUPPLEMENT v 



digest or the: system of civil government 



States the Governor and one or two other State officials constitute a 
board, which must at certain times examine and check up the accounts, 
books and vouchers of the State Treasurer and ascertain the amount 
of funds in the Treasury. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

The Attorney-General, as the name implies, is the general legal 
counsel or lawyer for the various branches of the State government 
In all of the States the powers and duties of the Attorney- General 
are very similar. It is his duty to appear for the State in all actions 
and proceedings in the Supreme Court in which the State has an in- 
terest; to institute and prosecute in all courts all actions, either for 
or against a' State officer, in which the State has an interest; to con- 
sult with and advise the various county or state s attorneys in mat- 
ters relating to their official duties, and when public interest requires 
he assists them in criminal prosecutions. It is his duty to consult with 
and advise the Governor and other State officers, and give, when re- 
quested, written opinions on legal or constitutional questions relating 
to their official duties, and to give written opinions when requested by 
the Legislature or any committee thereof. It is also his duty to pre- 
pare, when necessary, drafts for contracts or other writings relating to 
subjects in which the State is interested. He is required to enforce the 
proper application of funds appropriated to the. various State institu- 
tions, and prosecute breaches of trust in the administration of the 
same; and when necessary to prosecute corporations for failure or re- 
fusal to comply with the laws; to prosecute official bonds of delin- 
quent officers or corporations in which the State has an interest. The 
Attorney-General is required to keep a record of all actions, com- 
plaints, opinions, etc. 

STATE SUPERINTENDENT OR SUPERINTENDENT OF 
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

This is an office which exists in nearly every State in the Union. 
In three or four of the States the management of the educational in- 
terests of the State is vested in a State Board of Education but m these 
cases the secretary of the board assumes most of the detail work that 
in most of the States devolve upon the State Superintendent The 
full title given to this office is not the same in all of the States but it 
is generally called "State Superintendent of Public Instruction or Pub- 
lic Schools." In Ohio, Maine and Rhode Island, and a few others, 
this officer is termed "Commissioner of Schools. * m 

The duties of the State Superintendent are. very much alike in all 
of the States, as he is charged with a general supervision over the 
educational interests of the State and of the public schools. In many 
States his authority is not limited to the public schools, and he his 
authorized by law to demand full reports from all colleges, academies 
or private schools. It is his duty to secure at regular intervals re- 
ports from all such educational institutions and file all papers, reports 
and documents transmitted to him by local or county school officers. 
He is the general adviser and assistant of the various county super- 
intendents or school officers, to whom he must- give, when requested 
his written opinion upon questions rising under the school law It is 
also his duty to hear and determine controversies arising under the 
school laws coming to him by appeal from a county superintendent 
or school official. He prepares and distributes school registers, school 
blanks, etc., and is generally given the power to make such rules and 
regulations as are necessary to carry into efficient and uniform effect 
the provisions of the laws relating to schools. The State Superin- 
tendent is required to make a detailed report to each regular session 
of the State Legislature, showing an abstract of the common school re- 
ports; a statement of the condition of public schools and State educa- 
tional institutions ; the amount of money collected and expended, and 
all other matters relating to the schools or school funds that have 
been reported to him. He is forbidden from becoming interested m 
the sale of any school furniture, book or apparatus. 

STATE LIBRARIAN. 

In nearly all of the States the laws provide for a State officers un- 
der the title of "State Librarian." As a rule the office is filled by ap- 
pointment of the Governor, although in a few States it is an elect- 
ive office and is filled by direct vote of the people. The State Librar- 
ian is the custodian of all the books and property belonging to the 
State Library, and is required to give a bond for the proper discharge 
of his duties and safekeeping of the property intrusted to his care, 
as in many of the States the State Library is an immensely import- 
ant and valuable collection. In some of the States the Supreme 
Court judges prescribe all library rules and regulations. In others 
they have a Library Board of Trustees, which is sometimes made up 
of the Governor and certain other State officials, who constitute a 
board of commissioners for the management of the State Library. 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

In nearly all of the States provision is made for an Adjutant- 
General, who is either elected by the people or appointed by the Gov- 
ernor. The name of the office implies the branch of work which is 
handled by its incumbent. It is the duty of the Adjutant-General 
to issue and transmit all orders of the Commander-in-Chief with 
reference to the militia or military organizations of the State. Me 
keeps a record of all military officers commissioned by the Governor 
and of all general and special orders and regulations issued, and ot 
other matters relating to the men, property, ordinance, Stores, camp 

and garrison equipage pertaining to the State militia or military forces. 

PUBLIC EXAMINER OR BANK EXAMINER. 

This is a State office that is found in only about one-half of the 
States. In some States it is known as Bank Comptroller and in 
others the duties which devolve upon this officer are handled by a 
"department" in the State Auditor's office. The general duties and 
plan of conducting this work, in many respects, is very similar, but 
there is a great difference between the various States in the officers 
who attend to it. Where this made a separate State office, gener- 
ally speaking, the requirements are that he must be a skilled account- 
ant and expert bookkeeper, and cannot be an officer of any. ot the 
public institutions, nor interested in any of the financial corporations 
which it may be his duty to examine. He is charged with the duty 
of visiting and inspecting the financial accounts and standing ot cer- 
tain corporations and institutions organized under the State laws, in 
several of the States it is made his duty to visit certain county ^offi- 
cials at stated intervals, and inspect their books and accounts, and en- 
force a uniform system of. bookkeeping by State and county officers. 

COMMISSIONER OR SUPERINTENDENT OF INSURANCE. 

In all of the States of the Union the department relating to in- 
surance has grown to be an important branch of State government. 
The method of controlling the insurance business differs materially 
in many of the States, although they are all gradually moving in the 
same direction, viz., creating a department or State office in which 
all matters relating to insurance and. insurance companies are attended 
to In former years, in nearly all of the States, the insurance business 
formed a department in the 'State -Auditor's office, and was handled 
by him or his appointees. Nov/, however, in nearly all the Northern 
States and many of the Southern States, they have a separate and dis- 
tinct insurance department, the head of which is either elected by the 
people or appointed by the Governor. The duties and powers of the 
insurance department of the various States are very simihar. A gen- 
eral provision is that the head of this department must be experienced 
in insurance matters, and he is prohibited from holding an interest in 
anv insurance company. The Commissioner or Superintendent^ of In- 
surance has extensive powers concerning insurance matters, and it is his 
duty to see that all laws respecting and regulating insurance and insur- 
?-ce companies, are faithfully observed; he issues licenses to insur- 



L L 



ance companies, and it is his duty to revoke the license of any company 
not conforming to law. Reports are made to him _ at. stated^ times by 
the various companies, and he has power to examine fully into their 
condition, assets, etc. He files in his office the various documents re- 
lating to insurance companies, together with their statements, etc., and 
at regular intervals makes full reports to the Governor or Legislature. 

COMMISSIONER OF LABOR STATISTICS. 

In several of the States a "Commissioner of Labor Statistics" is 
appointed by the Governor, who is the head of what may be termed 
the labor bureau. In a great majority of the States, however, this 
branch of work is taken care of by a board of labor commissioners, 
a bureau of statistics or by the State Auditor and his appointees. The 
general design of this bureau or commission is to collect, assort and 
systematize, and present in regular reports to the Legislature, statistical 
details relating to the different departments of labor in the State, and 
make such recommendations as may be deemed proper and necessary 
concerning the commercial, industrial, social, educational and san- 
itary conditions of the laboring classes. 

OTHER STATE OFFICERS. 

In all of the States there exist one or more other State officers 
m addition to those already mentioned, which are made necessary by 
local condition or local business interests. It is, therefore unneces- 
sary to mention any of these at length in this article. It may be 
stated, however, that in all of the States may be found two or more oi 
the following State officers, and further, that each one of the inflow- 
ing named officers is found in some State in the Union, viz.: Super- 
intendent or commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of mines 
secretary of agricultural board, secretary of internal affairs, clerk and 
reporter of the Supreme Court, commissioner of railways, commissioner 
of immigration, State printer, State binder, land agent or commissioner 
commissioner, register or superintendent of State land office register ot 
lands, commissioner of schools and lands, surveyor-general, inspector- 
general, State oil inspector-general, State oil inspector, dairy commis- 
sioner. 

STATE BOARDS. 

Besides the officers and departments which have already been 
mentioned, there are a number of State boards or bureaus that are 
necessary in carrying on the complex business connected with the 
government of a State. The following list of such ^ State boards and 
bureaus includes all that can be found in the majority of the States; 
some of them, however, are only found in a few of the States, because 
they are of a local nature and are only made necessary by the exist- 
ence of certain local conditions or business interests. It will also De 
observed that some of the boards named cover the same line of work 
that has already been mentioned as belonging to some State officer, this 
grows from the fact that a few of the States place the management ot 
certain lines of work in the hands of a State board, while m others, 
instead of having a State board they delegate the powers and duties to 
a single State official. All of the States, however, have a number of 
the State boards mentioned in this list, the names of which imply the 
line of work each attends to, viz.: Railroad and warehouse commis- 
sioners, board of equalization, board or commission of agriculture, uni- 
versity trustees, board or commissioners of public charities, canal com- 
missioners, penitentiary commissioners, board of health, dental exam- 
iners, trustees of historical library, board of pharmacy^ commission 
of claims, live stock commissioners, fish commissioners, inspectors oi 
coal mine's, labor commissioners, board of education, board of public 
works, board of pardons, assessment commissioners. 

LEGISLATURE OR GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 

The law-making power of every State is termed the "Legislative 
Department." The legislative power, according to the constitutions of 
the various States, is vested in a body termed the Legislature or Gen- 
eral Assembly which consists of an Upper and Lower House designated 
usually as the Senate and House of Representatives. In a few of the 
States the Lower House is called "The Assembly." In most of the 
States the Legislature meets in regular session every two years, but 
this is not the universal rule, as in a" few of the States the law provides 
for annual sessions. In all of the States, however, a provision is made 
whereby the Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, call special 
session- by issuing a proclamation. 

The Legislative Department has the power to pass all such laws as 
may be necessary for the welfare of the State, and carry into effect the 
provisions of the constitution. The Legislature receives the reports 
of the Governor, together with the reports of the various other State 
officers ; they provide by appropriation for the ordinary and contingent 
expenses of the government ; at regular times provided by law_ they 
apportion the State into political districts, and make all other provisions 
for carrying on the State government. There is a general prohibition 
against the passage of any ex post facto law, or law impairing the obli- 
gation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges 
or immunities. Any measure to become a law must be passed by both 
branches of the Legislature, and then be presented to the Governor for 
his approval. If he withholds his approval (or vetoes it), the measure 
may be repassed by a two-thirds vote of the Legislature, when it will 
become a law notwithstanding the Governor's veto. 

SENATE. 

The Senate is the Upper House of the Legislature or General 
Assembly. The various States are divided into senatorial districts, in 
each of which a Senator is elected— the term of office varying from two 
to four years. Except in three or four of the States the presiding 
officer of the Senate is the Lieutenant-Governor, although a President 
pro tern, is usually elected, who acts as presiding officer during the 
absence of the Lieutenant-Governor. The presiding officer has no vote, 
however, in the Senate, except when that body is equally divided. Every 
Senator has one vote upon all questions, and the right to be heard in 
advocating or opposing the passage of any measure brought before the 
Legislature. In filling all of the most important State offices that are 
to be appointed by the Governor, the appointments must be approved or 
confirmed by the Senate. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

The Lower House of the State Legislature, in nearly if not quite all 
the States of the Union, is termed the House of Representatives. Like 
the Senators, every member of the House has the right to be heard m 
advocating or opposing any measure brought before the body of which 
he is a member. The House is given the sole power of impeachment, 
but all impeachments must be tried by the Senate. As a general rule, 
there is a provision that all bills for raising revenue must originate m 
the House. * 

JUDICIARY. 

The "Judicial Department" is justly regarded as^ one of the most 
important and powerful branches of government of either the State or 
Nation, as it becomes the duty of this department to pass upon and 
interpret, and thereby either annul or give validity to all the most 
important measures and acts of both the legislative and executive 
branches of the government. 

It is impossible in a general article to give* a detailed review or 
description of the construction and make-up of the judicial departments 
of the various States. The courts are so differently arranged both as 
to their make-up and jurisdiction that it would be useless to try to give 
the reader a general description that would accurately cover the ground. 

In all of the States, except, possibly, one or two, the highest judi- 
cial authority of the State is known as the Supreme Court, and unless 
questions are involved which give the United States Courts jurisdiction 
it is the court of last resort. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief 
justice and the several associate justices or judges as may be provided 



for by the laws of the various States, usually from four to six Gen- 
erally these officers are elected by the people, either from the btate at 
large or (in three of the States) as representing certain districts, but 
this is not the case always, as in several States they are chosen by the 
Governor or Legislature. In all of the States the Supreme Court has 
appellate jurisdiction both in law and in equity, and has original juris- 
diction in remedial cases, mandamus, habeas corpus and cases relating 
to the revenue, but there is no trial by jury in this court. 

Various other courts are provided for by the laws of the different 
States, such as appellate courts, circuit or district courts probate courts, 
county courts, superior courts, municipal courts, courts of justices ot the 
peace, etc. The jurisdiction of all these courts is, of course, inferior 
to that of the Supreme Court, and varies greatly in the different btates. 
Besides these, where th-re are large cities, various other courts are also 
established to aid in caring for the enormous amount of judicial work 
that arises from such vast and complex business interests. Ihe various 
courts are also provided with the necessary officials for carrying on the 
judicial business— such as clerks of court, court reporters, bailifts, etc. 



m 



COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

SO far as the principal county offices are concerned, the general 
arrangement and method of handling the public business is 
very much the same in all of the States ; but the offices are 
called by different names, and in minor details— such as trans- 
ferring from one office to another certain minor lines of work 
—there are a number of points in which the method of county gov- 
ernment in the various States differs. The writer has adopted the 
names of the principal county offices which are most common in the 
Northern States, as in the Southern and New England States there are 
scarcely any two States in which the names or titles of all the county 
offices are identical. 

AUDITING OFFICE AND CLERK OF THE COUNTY 
BOARD. 

Generally the principal auditing officer of the county is known as 
the "county auditor" or "county clerk." In Illinois Kansas Missouri, 
Nebraska, Oklahoma, Wisconsin and many other States the office is 
called "county clerk." In Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, Ohio and others it is termed "county auditor In a tew 
of the States under certain conditions this office is merged with some 
other county office. A notable example of this i S> in the State of Mich- 
igan, where they have one official, under the simple title of clerk, 
who looks after about all of the work which in most of the States 
devolves upon both the county clerk and also clerk of court. In all ot 
the States a bond in a moderate sum is required of the county clenc 
or auditor, and he is paid a salary of from $1,500 to $3,500 per year, 
besides in some States being allowed certain fees, unless it is in a very 
large and heavily populated county, where the salary paid is of neces- 
sity much higher than this amount. No county treasurer or member 
of the county board is eligible to this office. In general terms it may 
be stated as a 'rule the auditor acts as the clerk or secretary of the 
official county board, although in a few of the States the court clerk is 
required to look after this matter.^ The clerk of the county board keeps 
an accurate record of the board's proceedings and carefully preserves 
all documents, records, books, maps and papers which may be brought 
before the board, or which the law provides shall be deposited m his 
office In the auditing office an accurate account is kept with the county 
treasurer. Generally they file the duplicates of the receipts given by 
the county treasurer, charging him with all money paid into the treasury 
and giving credit for all warrants paid. The general plan of paying 
claims against a' county is as follows: If the claim is one m which the 
amount due is fixed by law, or is authorized to be fixed by some other 
person or tribunal, the auditor issues a warrant or order which will be 
paid by the treasurer, the certificate upon which it is allowed being duly 
filed In all other cases the claim must be allowed by the county hoard, 
and the chairman or presiding officer issues a warrant or order which 
is attested by the clerk. A complete record of all these county warrants 
or orders is kept, and the accounts of the county treasurer must balance 
therewith. The above in general terms outlines the most important 
branch of work which the county clerk or county auditor looks after m 
most of the States, but in all of the States the law requires him to look 
after a number of other matters, although in these there is no uniform- 
ity between the various States, and no general description of these 
minor or additional duties could be given that would apply to all the 
States. 

COUNTY TREASURER. 

This is an office which exists in all of the States, and it is one of 
the most important of the various offices necessary in carrying on the 
business of a county. It is an elective office in all of the States, and 
the term of office is usually either two or four years, but a very com- 
mon provision in the various States is that after serving for one term 
as county treasurer a party shall be ineligible to the office until the 
intervention of at least one term after the expiration of the term tor 
which he was elected. This provision, however, does not exist in all ot 
the States, as in some of them the county treasurer is eligible for re- 
election for any number of terms. 

The general duties of the county treasurers throughout the various 
States is very similar. The county treasurer is the principal custodian 
of the funds belonging to the county. It is his- duty to receive and 
safely keep the revenues and other public moneys of the county, and 
all funds authorized to be paid to him, and disburse the same pursuant 
to law He is required to keep proper books of accounts, m which he 
must keep a regular, just and true account of all moneys, revenues and 
funds received by him, stating particularly the time, when, of whom 
and on what fund or account each particular sum was received: and 
also of all moneys, revenues and funds paid out by him according to 
law stating particularly the time when, to whom and on what fund 
payment is made from. The books of the county treasurer must 
always be subject to the inspection of the county board, which, at stated 
intervals, examines his books and makes settlements with him. In some 
of the States the provisions of the law relating to county treasurer are 
very strict; some of them provide for a county board of auditors, who 
are expected, several times a year, to examine the funds, accounts and 
vouchers of the treasury without previous notice to the treasurer; and 
in some it is provided that this board, or the county board, shall desig- 
nate a bank (or banks) in which the treasurer is required to keep the 
county funds deposited— the banks being required to pay interest on 
daily or monthly balances and give bond to indemnify the county 
against loss/ As a general rule the county treasurer is only authorized 
to pay out county funds on warrants or orders issued by the chairman 
of the county board and attested by the clerk, or in certain cases on 
warants or orders of the county auditing office. A complete record of 
these warrants or orders is kept, and the. treasurer's accounts must bal- 
ance therewith. In most of the States the law is very explicit in 
directing how the books and accounts of the county treasurer shall be 
kept. 

COUNTY RECORDER OR REGISTER OF DEEDS. 

In a' few of the States the office of county recorder or register of 
deeds is merged with some other county office, in counties where the 
population falls below a certain amount. A notable example of this is 
found in both the States of Illinois and Missouri (and there are 
others) where it is merged with the office of circuit clerk m many 
counties. The title of the joint office is "circuit clerk and recorder, 
and the duties of both offices are looked after by one official. % 

The duties of the county recorder or register of deeds are very 
similar in the various States, although in some of the Eastern and 
Southern States the office is called by other names. The usuaS name, 
however, is county recorder or register of deeds. In Illinois, Indiana, 



Copyright, 1910, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 



SUPPLEMENT VS 



DIGEST OF THE 



SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNM ENT 



Iowa, Missouri, Ohio and many other States it is called county re- 
corder." In Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin 
and many more it is called "register of deeds." In all of the States this 
office is the repository wherein are kept all records relating to deeds, 
mortgages, transfers and contracts affecting lands within the county Ir 
is the duty of the recorder or register, as soon as practical after the ril- 
ing of any instrument in writing in his office entitled to be recorded, to 
record the same at length, in the order of the time of its reception, m 
books provided by the county for that purpose; and it is his duty to 
endorse on all instruments a certificate of the time when the same was 
filed All of the States have some. of the following provisions concerning 
the duties of the recorder, but these provisions are not common to all ot 
the States, viz. : The register or recorder is not allowed to record an in- 
strument of any kind unless it is duly executed according to law; he is 
not obliged to record any instrument unless his fees are paid in ad- 
vance; as a rule, it is unlawful for him to record any map, plat or sub- 
division of land situated within any incorporated city, town or village 
until it is approved by the proper officers of the same In many States 
he is forbidden to enter a deed on the records until it has been endorsed 
"taxes paid" by the proper official; he is required to exhibit, free of 
charge, all records, and allow copies to be made; he is authorized to 
administer oaths and take acknowledgments. 

CIRCUIT OR DISTRICT CLERK, OR CLERK OF COURT. 
In nearly all of the States, each county elects a "clerk of court or 
courts," sometimes also known as circuit clerk or district clerk, indicat- 
ing the court with which the office is connected. In some of the States, 
as has already been stated, the office of clerk of court is merged with 
some other county office. This is the case in Illinois and Missouri, 
where in many counties it is connected with the office of county re- 
corder. In Michigan, one official under the name of clerk handles 
the business which usually is given to the clerk of court and county 
clerk or auditor. In Wisconsin, Missouri, Illinois and other States the 
name used is "circuit clerk;" in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, North 
Dakota and many others the office is called "clerk of district court; 
while in many of the States, including Indiana Ohio Iowa, South 
Dakota and others, it is called simply "clerk" or clerk of the court or 

C ° Ur The chief duty of this official is to act as clerk of the district or cir- 
cuit court, and sometimes other courts of inferior jurisdiction. It is 
the clerk's duty to keep the seals and attend the sessions of their respec- 
tive courts, preserve all the files and papers thereof, make, keep and pre- 
serve complete records of all the proceedings and determinations there- 
of and carry out such other duties as may be required by the rules and 
orders of their respective courts. They must enter of record all judg- 
ments decrees and orders of the court as soon as -possible after they 
are rendered; keep all indictments on file as a public record, have 
authority to administer oaths, take acknowledgments ; take and certify 
depositions, and are required to exhibit all records free of charge, in 
nearly all the' States the law defines the character of the record books 
which the clerk of court must keep. Although there is no settled rule in 
this matter, the general provisions are that he shall keep : First, a gen- 
eral docket or register of actions, in which is entered the title of each 
action in the order in which they are commenced, and a description oi 
each paper filed in the cause and all proceedings _ therein; second, a 
plaintiff's index and defendant's index; third, a judgment book and 
execution docket, in which he enters the judgment in each action, time 
of issuing execution, satisfaction, etc., and such other books as the 
courts or the laws may prescribe. 

SHERIFF. 

In all of the States the office of sheriff is one. of the most impor- 
tant of the county offices. The term of office varies m different States, 
being usually either two or four years, and in several of the States one 
party cannot hold the office a second term consecutively. The general 
provisions outlining the duties pertaining to this office are very much 
alike in the various States, and the following resume of his duties may 
be said to apply to all of the various States except in a few minor and 
unimportant details. The sheriff is charged with the duty _ of keeping 
and preserving the peace in his county ; or, as has been written, he is 
the conservator of peace," and it is his duty to keep the same, suppress 
riots, affrays, fighting, breaches of the peace and prevent crime, and 
may arrest offenders "on view" and cause them to be brought before 
the proper magistrate; and to do this, or to execute any writ, warrant, 
process, order or decree, he may call to his aid when necessary any 
person or the "power of the county." It is the duty of the sheriff to 
serve and execute within his county, and return, all writs, warrants, 
process orders and decrees of every description that may be legally 
directed and delivered to him. He is a court officer, and it is his duty 
to attend, either in person or by deputy, all courts of # record held in his 
county; by virtue of his office he has custody of the jail. It is his duty 
to pursue and apprehend felons and persons charged with crime and has 
custody of prisoners. He is not allowed to purchase any property 
exposed for sale by him as sheriff. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OR COMMISSIONER OF 
SCHOOLS. 

This is an office which exists under one name or another in nearly 
every State in the Union. The title of the office in a great majority of- 
the States is "county superintendent," but in Michigan, Missouri, Ohio 
New York, and possibly one or two other States, the office is termed 
"school commissioner," and in several of the States the laws provide for 
a board of county examiners or school commissioners, who are given 
considerable of the work that in most of the other States is handled by 
the county superintendent. 

The name of this office implies the duties which devolve upon it 
and they are very much alike in all of the States. The incumbent of 
this office is charged with a' general supervision over the schools of the 
county, and must be a fitting person as to education and moral charac- 
ter As a rule it is their duty to examine and license teachers, but in a 
few of the States provision is made for a board of examiners. County 
superintendents are required to visit and inspect the schools at regular 
intervals, and give such advice and instruction to teachers as may be 
deemed necessary and proper. They are required to organize and con- 
duct institutes for the instruction of teachers if deemed necessary, and 
encourage teachers' associations. They introduce to the notice of 
teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most 
approved plans of building and ventilating school-houses, etc., stimu- 
late school officers to the prompt, and proper discharge of their duties. 
They receive reports from the various school officers, and transmit an 
abstract of these reports to the State Superintendent, adding a report of 
the condition of the schools under their charge. In nearly all the States 
they are forbidden having any interest in the sale of any school furni- 
ture apparatus or books used in the schools. In many States they have 
authority to annul a teacher's certificate for proper cause, and in gen- 
eral to take such steps and enforce such methods as will elevate and 
make more efficient the schools under their control. 

COUNTY, PROSECUTING OR STATE'S ATTORNEY. 

There is a great difference between the various States in the.method 
of handling or attending to the legal business relating to county mat- 
ters or growing from county affairs. In many of the States the official who 
attends to this line of work is known as the "county attorney," in other 
States he is called the State's attorney or prosecuting or district attor- 
ney In a few of the States they divide the State into districts embracing 
a number of counties, and a district attorney is elected in each district, 
who in some cases attends to all the legal work of the various^ counties, 
and in others he assists the county attorneys in their most important 
duties and prosecutions. But whatever plan may be followed m the 
various States, and whatever title may be given to this office, the general 
duties of the office are very much the same throughout all of the States. 
It is the duty of the county attorney to commence and prosecute all 



actions, suits, indictments, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in any 
court of record in his county in which the "people of the State or 
county" may be concerned ; to prosecute all forfeited bonds and recog- 
nizances, and all actions for the recovery of debts, revenues, moneys, 
'fines, etc., accruing to his county; to commence and prosecute all actions 
and proceedings brought by any county officer in his official capacity; to 
defend all actions and proceedings brought against his county, f or 
against any county officer in his official capacity; to give legal opinions 
and advice to the county board or other county officers m relation to 
their official duties ; to attend, if possible all preliminary examinations 
of criminals. When requested, he is required to attend sessions^ of the 
grand jury, examine witnesses in their presence, give legal advice and 
see that proper subpoenas and processes are issued; draw up. indictments 
and prosecute the same. The county attorney is required, when re- 
quested by the Attorney-General, to appear for the State in cases in 
his county in which the State is interested. The county attorney makes 
an annual report to his superior State officer of all the criminal cases 
prosecuted by him. 

PROBATE OR COUNTY JUDGE. 
The method of handling probate matters is not uniform throughout 
the various States. In many States the higher courts are given juris- 
diction over probate matters, and in others they have created districts m 
which are held probate courts, whose jurisdiction extends over several 
counties and takes in other matters besides purely probate affairs. In 
a majority of the States, however, particularly the Western and North- 
ern States, they elect a county or a probate judge, who holds court and 
handles the probate matters which arise within his county. The juris- 
diction of these county or probate courts is not always confined ex- 
clusively to probate affairs, being frequently extended to many other 
matters, and they generally include such matters as apprenticeship 
affairs, adoptions, minors, etc. In some of the States they have both a 
county judge and a probate judge, and in these cases the jurisdiction of 
the latter is confined to such matters as are in line with probate affairs. 
In Missouri they have a probate judge, and also a county court, com- 
posed of county judges, in whom the corporate powers of the county 
are vested— as the official county board. In Michigan they have a 
probate judge and a probate register. The probate judge is generally 
given original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of 
estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conserva- 
tors and settlement of their accounts. They take proof of wills, direct 
the administration of estates, grant and revoke letters testamentary and 
of administration, appoint and remove guardians, etc. 

COUNTY SURVEYOR. 

This is an office which is common to nearly all of the States. It 
is the duty of the county surveyor to execute any survey which may be 
ordered by any court, or upon application of any individual or corpora- 
tion, and preserve a record of the surveys made by him. Nearly all of 
the States provide that certain records shall be kept by the county sur- 
veyor, and provide penalties for his failure to place on record the sur- 
veys made by him. While he is the official county surveyor, yet the 
surveys made by him are not conclusive, but may be reviewed by any 
competent tribunal, and the correctness thereof may be disputed. 

COUNTY CORONER. 

This is another county office which exists in nearly all of the States. 
In the average county there is not much work for the coroner, but in 
the counties in which large cities are located the office is a very impor- 
tant one. In general terms it may be stated that the coroner is required 
to hold inquests over the bodies of persons supposed to have met with 
violent or unnatural deaths. In most States he has power to impanel a 
jury to enquire into the cause of death; but in some of them this is not 
the case, and he is given power to act alone. He can subpoena wit- 
nesses ; administer oaths; in certain cases provide for a decent burial, 
and can bind over to the proper court any person implicated in the 
killing of the deceased. 

OTHER COUNTY OFFICES. 

The county offices that have already been mentioned are the prin- 
cipal ones found in all of the States. There are, however, a few other 
county officials besides those mentioned which exist in many of the 
States, and which should be briefly mentioned in this connection. These 
are such offices as county physician, county assessor, county collector, 
county poor commissioner or superintendent of the county poor-house, 
master in chancery or court commissioner, county examiners, board of 
equalization, board of review, etc. The names of these offices imply the 
duties. These offices do not exist in all of the States, but in nearly 
every State the law provides for one or more of these county officials. 

COUNTY BOARD. 

The powers of every county as a body politic and corporate are 
vested in a county board. This official county board is generally 
termed the county "board of supervisors," or "board of commissioners,' 
but there are some exceptions to this, like Missouri, where the county 
board is known as the "county court." There is considerable difference 
in the make-up of the county board in the various States. In some it is 
made up of one member from each township in the county. In others 
the counties are divided into districts, and one member of the county 
board is chosen from each district. No general description of this could 
be given that would be accurate, as some of the States follow both of 
these plans. For instance, in Illinois some of the counties are governed 
by a board of supervisors, which is made up of one member from each 
township, while other counties in the same State are governed by a 
board of county commissioners, consisting of three or more members, 
each representing districts into which the counties in question are 
divided. 

The general powers of the county board throughout all of the 
States is about the same, except in minor details. It represents the leg- 
islative and corporate powers of the county. One of their number is 
always chosen as chairman or president, and acts as the presiding of- 
ficer. The county board has general charge over the affairs of the 
county. It is their duty to provide county offices, provide desks, sta- 
tionery, books, fuel, etc.; examine, investigate and adjust claims against 
the county, and have general care and custody of all the real and per- 
sonal estate owned by the county. At regular intervals they settle with 
the county treasurer; examine accounts and vouchers. They locate 
county roads ; determine the amount of county tax, and regularly pub- 
lish a statement of their proceedings ; make statements of receipts, 
expenditures, etc. ; and make all contracts, and do all other acts in 
relation to the property and concerns, of the county necessary to exercise 
its corporate powers that are not specifically delegated to other county 
officials. 




TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT 



T 




HE method of township government throughout the different 
States varies so much that it is impossible in this article to 
treat of it more than in a general way. In many of the States 
the townships are not organized as bodies corporate, and in 
other States in some counties they may have township or- 
ganization, while in other counties in the same State it does not exist. 
In cases where there is no township organization the law provides that 
certain county officials shall attend to the local work, or that work 
which in other localities as assumed by the township officials. But 
even where they have township organization the plan of township gov- 
ernment in the different States where it exists differs so widely that 
scarcely any two States may be said to be alike. About the only state- 
ments concerning the organized townships that could be made which 
would apply to all the States are the following : Every organized town- 
ship in its corporate capacity has power to sue and be sued ; to acquire 
by purchase, gift or devise, and hold property, both real and personal, 



for the use of its inhabitants, and again to sell and convey the same; 
and to make all such contracts as may be necessary in the exercise ot 
its powers as a township. . ... 

In a great many of the States the township government is carried 
on after a plan very similar to the county and State governments, hav- 
ing various executive officers and a township board in which the cor- 
porate and legislative powers, of the township are vested. In other 
States they follow a' plan which reserves to the people all corporate and 
legislative powers, and therefore have no need for a township board 
but have various other township officers to carry out the wishes and 
orders of the voters. Where this plan prevails they hold what is gen- 
erally termed "town meetings," at which every legal voter of the town- 
ship has a voice. At these meetings reports are had from the various 
township officials, and the necessary measures are adopted and direc- 
tions given for carrying on the township business. 

Still other States combine good features from both of the plans 
above mentioned, and besides the other usual township officials they 
maintain a township board, which is given certain restricted powers 
such as those of a review or an auditing board, but they are not vested 
with the complete corporate and legislative powers of the township, this 
being reserved in a large measure to the voters, and all questions call- 
ing for the exercise of such authority are acted upon at the town meet- 
ings. In many of the States the township board just described is made 
up of three or more of the other township officers, who are ex-omcio 
members of the township board, and they meet at certain times, per- 
form the work required of them, and report to the town meetings 

The principal officials in township organizations m nearly all the 
States are the following: "Supervisors, or trustees, clerk, treas- 
urer," "assessor," "collector," "justices of the peace, constables, 
"overseers, supervisors or commissioners of the highways, and pound- 
masters," although as has been stated, many of the States do not have 
all of these officials. ^ 

SCHOOL DISTRICT GOVERNMENT 

HE "common school system," or, to speak with greater accu- 
racy, the method of governing school districts, m the various 
States, differs widely, yet all follow in a general way one of 
two separate and clearly defined methods^ being amended m 
minor respects to meet local conditions and ideas. All of these 
methods have their excellent points, and yet it has been claimed^ by 
eminent educators that no one of them is free from fault and objection, 
nor has reached perfection. It will be the aim of this article to briefly 
explain the principal features of the several methods, but it is not pos- 
sible to go into detail in the matter of giving the system of school gov- 
ernment that is followed in each of the many States of the Union. The 
constitution and statutes of all the States agree, however, upon several 
points. They aim to provide for a thorough and efficient system of 
free schools, whereby all the children of the States may receive a 
thorough common school education ; they provide that all lands, moneys 
and other property donated, granted or received for school, college, 
seminary or university purposes, and the proceeds thereof, shall be 
faithfully applied to the objects stated; with two or three exceptions 
they provide that no appropriation shall be made or public funds applied 
in aid of any church or sectarian purpose, or to support or sustain any 
school, academy, seminary, college or university controlled or run in 
the interest of any church or for a sectarian purpose ; and they pro- 
hibit the various school officials from holding any interest in the sale, 
proceeds or profits of -any book, apparatus or furniture used in the 
schools in which they, as officers, are interested. 

. In many of the States they follow what may be termed the "inde- 
pent school district" method, inasmuch as each district^ so far as its 
corporate powers are concerned, is entirely separate and independent of 
other districts. Where this plan is followed the boundaries of each dis- 
trict are clearly defined, and each district is complete within itself. 
They elect a full set of district officials, and exercise their corporate 
powers and manage their district affairs within themselves. ^ In this 
plan the corporate powers of the district are usually vested in a dis- 
trict board, which has general charge of the interests of the district, 
hires teachers, and makes such contracts, and carries into effect such 
methods as is deemed necessary to raise the grade or aid in the effi- 
ciency of the schools. The measure of the authority given to these dis- 
trict boards is not the same in all the States, and in many States it is 
restricted, and a' part of the corporate power is reserved to the people 
themselves, the officials being required, in all important matters, to 
carry out the wishes and orders of the people of the district as 
expressed and decided upon at the "district school meetings." ^ 

Another method which is followed in many of the States may be 
termed the "township system." In such States the law provides for the 
organization of each township for school purposes, or as one large "dis- 
trict," and each township, so far. as its educational interests are con- 
cerned, is organized, has the necessary officials and becomes a body 
politic and corporate. As a general rule, where this method prevails, 
the townships are divided into three or more sub-districts. All of these 
sub-districts are a part of the whole, and the finances and general busi- 
ness is generally managed by a township board made up of representa- 
tives from each sub-district. This board is generally clothed with the 
corporate powers, hires teachers, provides fuel and supplies and makes 
all the contracts necessary to carry on the various schools in the town- 
ship. As with independent districts, the powers of this board are not 
alike in all States where the township system prevails, for in some 
States their power is very much restricted, and is limited to certain offi- 
cial matters, the corporate powers and right to make important contracts 
being reserved to the people, who decide on these questions at what are 
termed the school meetings. In a few of the States where they follow 
the township system they have no official board. This is the case in In- 
diana, where they elect a township trustee, whose duty it is to look after 
all the educational interests of the township, subject to the approval of 
the people at the regular meetings. In most of the States where the 
township system prevails the law provides for the organization, under 
certain conditions, of sub-districts into independent districts, which gives 
them the power to elect their own officers and act independently of the 
other schools in the township. Q, ^ 

In nearly all of the States one of the two general methods given 
above is followed, with certain changes to make the plan more efficient 
and satisfactory, and to better meet the desires and needs of the people 
of the different States. Many of the States combine good features from 
both these systems, as some of the States have the township system, 
wherein each sub-district^ has its own board, and so far as controlling its 
own affairs is concerned, is^ independent of all other districts. But local 
conditions have in many instances made special and local provisions 
necessary that are different in each State, and while there may be a 
vast difference in the methods followed, their aim is the same, and, as a 
whole, the various systems have accomplished the result of giving 
throughout the length and breadth of the Union the grandest and most 
efficient system of free schools that the world has ever known. 



CITIES AND VILLAGES 

N all of the States the laws provide for the local government of 
school matters and civil authority. In school affairs provision is 
pendent of, the township in which they are located, both as to 
they may be separated from, and thus manage their affairs inde- 
cities and villages, so that when they attain a certain population 
made for handling the more complex educational interests of villages 
and cities — the school boards being made larger, and in many cases the 
scope of their authority is very much extended. In civil matters pro- 
vision is made in all of the States for the organization of villages and 
cities as corporate bodies, separate and distinct from the townships, and 
providing for the necessary officers to carry on the affairs of the 
municipality. ^ 



Copyright, ioio, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 



Supplement VII 



GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



ON 



Banking and Business Methods. 



RELATIONS BETWEEN A BANK AND ITS CUSTOMERS. 

IN business life there is no more complex or important rela- 
tion than that which exists between the business men gen- 
erally and the banks, and it should be guarded with jealous 
care, so that both may retain the full confidence of the other. 
Business development in the United States has progressed with 
such gigantic strides that it has long since passed the stage where 
it is even possible to carry on business without the agency of banks. 
They are today a necessity in the transaction of pusiness and mak- 
ing exchanges. It has been said, and with a great deal of truth, 
that in the present day the entire and sole object and result of 
business is the transfer of credits on the books of the banking 
houses; and that about the only use to which money is put is in 
making small change or paying balances. Business, in the most 
general and comprehensive sense, is almost wholly carried on by 
the aid of banks with checks, drafts and exchange. And it will 
be seen what a very important part the element of confidence plays 
in business life, when it is remembered that every check or draft 
that changes hands, implies the confidence on the part of the party 
receiving and accepting it, that it will be honored at the bank 
when presented. 

OPENING AN ACCOUNT 

THE first step in the matter of becoming a depositor and_cus- 
tomer of a bank is the interview with the banker, either 
the President, or Cashier, as the case may be. If un- 
known to the banker it is necessary for some one who 
is known to identfy and vouch for the applicant as being hon- 
orable and straightforward, for banks are compelled to be care- 
ful in this matter as they subsequently must handle all the 
checks, drafts and exchanges that the prospective customer em- 
ploys in his business, so that while the business of an honest man 
is valuable to them and is appreciated, that of a dishonest man 
is shunned by them as an element of risk and danger — the same 
to them as to every one else with whom he deals. 

The identification and reference, however, being satisfactory 
the prospective customer is given a pass book or account book, 
writes his signature in a book kept for that purpose, is made 
known to the receiving and paying tellers, makes his first deposit 
and is then a full fledged customer and depositor of the bank. 

DEPOSITS. 

DEPOSITS are made in the following manner : A "Deposit Ticket" 
or "Deposit Blank" is furnished the customer, and he enters 
upon this a full description of all the items which he desires 
entered to his credit, stating whether it is gold, silver or 
currency and making a separate entry for each draft or check 
that he deposits. In entering such items as drafts and checks 
some banks require a separate entry for each item which will 
show upon what bank or at least what city or town each draft 
or check is drawn. After having endorsed his name on the back 
of all checks and drafts he hands the "Deposit Ticket," together 
with all the items named upon it, and his Pass Book, to the re- 
ceiving teller, who examines it, checks off. the .various items to 
see that they are all there, and enters the total amount to the 
customer's credit in the "Pass Book;" and it is also carried to his 
credit from the Deposit Ticket onto the books of the bank. The 
"Deposit Ticket" is an important feature of the transaction, and 
the customer is required to fill this out with ink. It bears his name 
and the date and is carefully preserved for future reference by the 
bank to settle any dispute or difference that may arise. As all 
men are liable to error the depositor, to prevent mistakes, should 
always see that the amount of the deposit is correctly entered in 
his book before leaving the bank. If a deposit is made when a 
customer has not his "Pass Book" a duplicate ticket should be 
taken, and the amount entered properly when next at the bank. 

It will be seen from the above that all checks and drafts are 
entered to the credit of the customer at the time he deposits them, 
the same as cash items. The depositor, however, is held responsi- 
ble for the non-payment of all checks, drafts and other items de- 
posited as cash until payment has been ascertained by the bank. 
The bank, however, must use due diligence in attending to them 
within a reasonable time. If a check or draft is held beyond a 
reasonable time and, meanwhile, the bank upon which it is drawn 
fails, the receiving bank would be compelled to lose it. What is 
a reasonable time, according to decisions of the courts, depends 
upon the circumstances and varies in different cases. In cities, 
where they have a Clearing House, checks on other city banks are 
expected to reach the Clearing House on the next day succeeding 
the time of the deposit; but as to checks and drafts drawn upon 
other or distant cities, a reasonable time must be allowed for -theaa 
to be presented for payment. If the banker, however, is negli- 
gent concerning it, he must stand the loss. Such cases very r*->ely, 
if ever, occur, and it may safely be stated that in the absence of 
any special or unusual conditions for all items such as checks, 
drafts, etc., the banker only receives them for collection for the 
account of the depositor and therefore acts only as his agent and 
as such is charged with using only due diligence in attending to 
the business. 

DISCOUNTS, LOANS, ETC. 

THE word "Discount" is applied to interest when it is de- 
ducted from the amount at the time a loan is made-—in 
other words, interest that is paid in advance. It is the 
general rule of banks in making "short time" loans to cus- 
tomers to give credit for the amount of the loan, less the interest. 
Many business men fail to obtain the full benefit that a bank 
can give them, through hesitancy or diffidence in asking for a 
loan; and in many instances will borrow of a neighboring busi- 
ness man and thus, frequently embarrass him, rather than go to 
the banker, whose business it is to help him through such times 
of need, when possible. This is what banks are established for, 
largely, and they are always glad to "get their money out and keep 
it out" provided they can be reasonably sure of its return. If an 
applicant is unable to furnish reasonable security, or is irrespon- 
sible or unworthy he must necessarily be refused, but in secur- 
ing money which he cannot guarantee the return of, whether it 
be from a banker or another business man he does an injustice to 
the interests of business generally. However, every business man 
in need of financial help, whether his needs be great or little, 
should go to the banker first and submit the situation, securities, 
etc., to him, as of all men he is by training the best judge and 
advisor in such matters. He may be compelled to decline to give 
the required aid, but this refusal should never be taken as a per- 
sonal matter, as it must be remembered that he has other inter- 
ests to serve and depositors, stockholders and directors to protect 
before following his own personal desires. 

COLLECTIONS. 

IN* leaving notes or other items for collection the customer 
writes on the back of each the words: "For Collection for 
Account of," and places his signature below it. Upon re- 
ceipt of this, the proper officer or clerk of the bank, will 
enter the items either in the back of the customer's "pass book" 
or give a separate receipt as the case may be. When the bank 
receives payment on the items the customer is notified and the 
amount is entered to his credit both on his Pass Book and on the 
books of the bank the same as any other deposit. A bank in re- 
ceiving paper for collection acts only as the agent of the customer 
and does not assume any responsibility beyond due diligence on its 
part. All banks make collections either in or out of the city 
where they are located for their customers at very moderate rates. . 
These items should always be left at the bank before they become 
due so as to give the bank time to give an abundant notice to the 



parties. If the customer desires to make a "sight" or "time draft" 
upon a debtor, upon application the bank will furnish him With 
blank drafts. 

STATEMENTS AND BALANCES. 

A FEW words concerning statements and balances will not 
be inappropriate in this connection. Every customer of a 
bank should always and without fail, once in each month, 
have his "Pass Book" balanced by the banker. This rule 
should always be observed to correct any error that might occur 
and avoid loss and complications. The amount of deposits is added 
up and a balance is struck by deducting the total amount of the 
customer's checks which the bank has either paid or "accepted' 
(certified) during the month. The cancelled checks are returned 
to the customer. If any error is discovered it should be reported 
immediately to the bank so that it may be investigated and rec- 
tified. 

NEGOTIABLE PAPER. 

PROBABLY the greatest factor in the business world of to- 
day is "Negotiable Paper," without which it is not prob- 
able that business development could have assumed the 
vast proportions that it has reached in America ; and with- 
out which the business of the civilized world could not be earned 
on. This term includes a variety of instruments, such as promis- 
sory notes, checks, drafts and bills of exchange. The bill of ex- 
change is one of the oldest forms of negotiable paper, and has 
been in use for a number of centuries. The draft and check came 
into use at a much later day, and the promissory note is a com- 
paratively recent invention, and has very largely taken the place 
of the bill of exchange as it was used in former times. The most 
important attribute of promissory notes, bills of exchange, and 
other instruments of the same class, which distinguish them from 
all other contracts, is their negotiability. This consists of two en- 
tirely distinct elements or branches— first, the power of transferring 
the paper from one owner to another, so that the assignee shall 
assume a complete title, and be able to sue on it; second, the ef- 
fect upon the rights of the parties produced by such a transfer 
when made before maturity, in the regular course of business, for 
a consideration to a purchaser in good faith, and without notice 
of any defect or defense, whereby all defenses of the maker (with 
few exceptions) are cut off, and the holder becomes absolutely 
entitled to recover. i 

A written order or promise may be perfectly valid ^s a con- 
tract ; but it will not be negotiable unless certain requisites are 
complied with. The following requisites are indispensable: It 
must be written ; must be signed ; it must be absolute, not depend- 
ing upon any contingency; it must be to pay money in a certain 
amount capable of being certain by computation ; the time of pay- 
ment must be certain or such as will become certain ; but when 
no time is expressed the law implies that payment is due imme- 
diately ; and lastly, the order or promise must be accompanied by 
words of negotiability — that is, payable to a certain payee's order 
or to bearer. 

PROMISSORY NOTES. 

ACCORDING to the general "law merchant," unaffected by 
statute, a promissory note is the written promise of a per- 
son, called the "maker," to pay a certain sum of money at 
a certain time to a designated person termed the "payee" 
or to his order or bearer. It must have all the requisites that have 
been mentioned for negotiable paper, otherwise, if it fails in any 
of these matters it becomes a contract, as it thus loses the ele- 
ment of negotiability. Contracts may be perfectly valid without all 
of these requisites, but they do not possess the peculiar qualities 
which belong to promissory notes. 

It is customary in all promissory notes to write the words 
"value received" but this is not absolutely essential, as a consid- 
eration and value is implied in every note, draft, check, bill of ex- 
change or endorsement. It is the common law of both England 
and this country that no promise can be enforced unless made for 
a consideration or sealed, but negotiable instruments as a rule are 
an exception to this. Between the original parties a want of con- 
sideration can be pleaded a. defense and would operate to defeat a 
recovery. It would have the same effect as between an endorser 
and his endorsee, but this only applies to immediate parties or to 
those who had notice of the defense or became holders of the 
paper after maturity. It may be stated as an almost invariable 
rule that no defense will operate to defeat the recovery if the- 
paper has been negotiated and passed into the hands of an inno- 
cent purchaser, in the regular course of business, before maturity 
and for value. The absence of any of these elements, however, 
will allow a defense to be set up and will defeat recovery even in 
the hands of third parties if it can be shown that there was either: 
a want of consideration, that it was obtained by duress, or fraud 
or circumvention, or larceny; or that the consideration was illegal. 
In order to cut off these defenses and give the holder the absolute 
right to recover, all of the conditions named must be fulfilled. If 
he purchases the note even one day after it becomes due it is then 
subject to any defense or set off which the maker may have 
against the original payee. 

Demand of payment for a note must be made at the place 
where it is payable at the time of maturity; if not paid notice 
must immediately be given to the endorsers, otherwise, in a ma- 
jority of the States, all endorsements that are not qualified will 
be released. If a note is not dated it will not defeat it, but will 
be considered as dated when it was made; but a written date is 
prima facie evidence of the time of making. When a note falls 
due on Sunday, or a legal holiday, it becomes payable the day 
previous. If a sum is written at length in the body and also in 
figures at the corner the written words control it. It destroys the 
negotiability of a note to write in the body of it any conditions or 
contingencies. A valuable consideration is not always money. It 
may be either any gain or advantage to the promisor, or injury 
sustained by the promisee at the promisor's request. A previous 
debt, or a' fluctuating balance, or a debt due from a third person, 
might be a valuable consideration. So is a moral consideration, if 
founded upon a previous legal consideration as, where one promises 
to pay a debt that is barred by limitation or by infancy. But a merely 
moral consideration as one founded upon natural love and affec- 
tion is no legal consideration. No consideration is sufficient in law 
if it be illegal in its nature, or if distinctly opposed to public policy. 
If a note is payable at a bank it is only necessary to have the note 
at the bank at the stipulated time to constitute a sufficient de- 
mand; and if there are no funds there to meet it, this is suf- 
ficient refusal. 

DATS of Grace. — In a great many States three "Days of 
Grace," as they are termed, are allowed on negotiable instruments 
beyond the date set for payment. This is not the universal rule, 
however, as the tendency of late years has been toward doing 
away with this custom, and a number of States have already 
passed laws abolishing the "Days of Grace." Where the rule is 
in effect, however, and it is not specifically waived in the instru- 
ment the payor is entitled to three days as fully as though it were 
so stipulated, and the holder cannot enforce collection until the 
expiration of three days after the date set for payment. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE. 

THE "bill of exchange" is an open letter or order whereby 
one person requests another to pay a third party (or order 
or bearer) a certain fixed sum of money. They are of two 
kinds, the Inland and Foreign bills, the names of which im- 
ply the difference between them. The three parties to the bill are 
called the Drawer, Drawee and Payee. The bill must be presented 
to the Drawee and if he agrees to obey the order, he "accepts" the 
bill by writing the word "accepted" across its face and signs his 
name below it — and thus becomes the "Acceptor." The instrument 
is usually made negotiable and the payee can transfer it to others 
by endorsement, which method of transfer may go on indefinitely. 
The following is a common form of an inland bill of exchange: 
Bill op Exchange. 
§600 Chicago, III., June 1, 1894. 

Sixty days after sight pay to John Sims, or order, Six Hun- 
dred Dollars, and charge same to my account. 

To Henry Holt & Co., John Doe. 

Boston, Mass. 



CHECKS. 

A CHECK on a bank is one form of "Inland Bill of Ex- 
change,*' but there is some slight difference in the liability 
of the parties to it. A check requires no acceptance, as a 
bank is bound to pay the checks of its depositors while 
Still in possession of their funds, and the drawer of a check having 
funds on deposit has an action for damage for refusal to honor his 
check, under such circumstances, on the ground of an implied ob- 
ligation to pay checks according to the usual course of business. 
Checks are usually drawn payable immediately, but they may be 
made payable at a future day, and in this case their resemblance 
to a bill of exchange is very close. As stated, a check requires no 
acceptance, so far as payment or liability of the drawer is con- 
cerned, but it creates no obligation against a bank in favor of 
the holder until acceptance. When accepted by the bank the word 
"Accepted" is stamped on its fact with the signature of the banker. 
It is then said to be certified and thereafter the bank is liable to 
the holder. As soon as the check is "certified" the amount is 
charged against the account of the "drawer" the same as if paid, 
and it is considered paid so far as the "drawer" is concerned. 

The drawer of a check is not a surety in the same sense as is 
the drawer of a bill of exchange, but is the principal debtor like 
the maker of a note. He cannot complain of any delay in the pre- 
sentment, for it is an absolute appropriation to the holder of so 
much money, in the hands of the bank, and there it may lie at 
the holder's pleasure. The delay, however, is at the holder's risk, 
and if the bank should fail after he could have got his money the 
loss is his. If, before he presents the check, the bank pays out 
all the money of the drawer, then he may look to the drawer for 
payment. If the holder of a check transfers it to another he 
has the right to expect that it will be presented for payment with- 
in a reasonable time. He has the right to expect that it will 
either be presented the next day or started to the point on which 
it is drawn. If it is held beyond a reasonable time and a loss is 
occasioned thereby, the party responsible for the delay must bear 
the loss. If a bank pays a forged check it is so far its own loss 
that it cannot charge the money to the depositor whose name was 
forged. But it is entitled to recover the money from the party 
who presented it. If it pay a check of which the amount has been 
falsely and fraudulently increased, it can charge the drawer only 
with the original amount, provided the drawer himself has not 
caused or facilitated the forgery by carelessly writing it or leaving 
it in such hands as to make the forgery or alteration easy. In 
some of the States the Supreme Court has decided in cases where 
checks were "raised" that the drawer must bear the loss as they 
had failed to take reasonable precaution to prevent it. Perforat- 
ing and cutting machines are on the market which make it almost 
impossible to raise or alter the amounts so as to avoid detection, 
and the tendency of the decisions is to regard the use of these as 
only a reasonable precaution on the part of check drawers to save 
their bank from trouble and loss. Some, however, adopt the plan 
of writing the amount in red ink across their signature. 

If many persons, not partners, join in a deposit they must join 
in a check. If a payee's name is misspelled or wrong in a check, 
the usual plan is to endorse it first exactly as it appears and then 
sign the name correctly. 

There is no settled rule as to how checks should be drawn. In 
nearly all the cities it is an almost invariable rule to make them 
payable "to order" so as to require the endorsement of the payee; 
but in smaller towns many check drawers make them payable "to 
bearer," in which case they require no endorsement, and if lost or 
stolen may cause loss — as whoever presents such a check at the 
bank is entitled to payment. 

DRAFTS. 

A DRAFT is a form of an "inland bill of exchange." The two 
forms of bills of exchange called "drafts" are the bank 
draft (or exchange) and the "sight or time draft." The 
bank draft is, to all intents and purposes, the same as a 
check, but the term is usually applied to "checks" drawn by one 
bank upon funds which it may have in some other bank, termed 
its "correspondent." A draft is but very seldom made payable to 
bearer, it being almost an invariable rule to make them payable 
to a certain payee or order. They are negotiable and can be 
transferred indefinitely by endorsement. If a draft is lost or stolen, 
by applying to the bank that issued it, the payment can be stopped, 
and after the expiration of thirty days a duplicate will be issued. 

The "Sight Draft'" or "Time Draft," in which case it reads to 
pay after a certain number of days, is a very common method of 
making collections to-day by creditors, and it serves the double 
purpose of being an order to pay to a bank or third party, and is 
also a receipt to the debtor. It is simple in its wording, the fol- 
lowing being a general form: 

$1000 Chicago, June 1, 1894. 

At sight (or so many days after sight as the case may be) pay 

to the order of Bank One Thousand Dollars and charge 

to my account. John Sims. 

To Geo. Sims., New York, N. Y. 

ENDORSEMENTS. 

THE signature of any payee or holder on the back of any 
check, draft, note, bill of exchange or other negotiable in- 
strument is termed his "endorsement." It simply means the 
placing of the name of the holder, or payee, on the back 
of the instrument, thus indicating that, for a consideration, he 
has relinquished his title to it, and in the absence of any condi- 
tion or qualification expressed in the endorsement, it implies that 
the endorser will see that the instrument is paid in case it is not 
taken up by the maker or payor. Where the instrument is made 
payable to "bearer," as to "John Sims or bearer," no endorsement 
is necessary to pass the title — it passes with delivery and any 
holder may collect or sue upon it the same as if he were the 
payee named therein. In a case of this kind if any holder en- 
dorses the instrument, the law is construed strictly against him, 
and, as it was not necessary for him to endorse to pass title, the 
law' presumes in the absence of a positive qualification that his en- 
dorsement was made for the purpose of indicating that he would 
pay it if the payor failed to do so. Where several payees are 
named in the instrument it must bear the endorsement of all of 
them to pass the title and make one transfer of it. In this case, 
however, their liability as endorsers is joint, not several. But 
where two or more holders endorse one after the other in making 
a transfer from one to the other their liability is several, not joint. 

Every check, draft, bill of exchange, note or other negotiable 
instrument which is made payable to a certain "payee or order" 
must bear the endorsement of the party named, to pass the title, 
and even in cases where they are made payable to "bearer" it is 
generally customary for the party to whom a transfer is made to 
require the person from whom he secures it to place his endorse- 
ment thereon. 

There are several kinds of endorsement which should be men- 
tioned in this connection. The first is the "blank endorsement," 
or "endorsement in blank," in making which the payee simply 
places his signature on the back of the instrument, without condi- 
tion or qualification of any kind. This passes the title to the in- 
strument, and, from that time on, it becomes payable to bearer, 
and the title passes with delivery, until some subsequent holder 
sees fit to limit by making it payable to some other payee, or 
places some other qualification or condition in the endorsement. 
When a negotiable instrument bearing a "blank endorsement" has 
once been put into circulation, any subsequent holder of it has the 
right to limit or restrict it by writing the conditions over his own 
endorsement, or, by writing over the endorsement of the original 
payee, words making it payable to himself or some other party, 
"or order." This point has been decided by the supreme courts 
of several of the States. 

The endorsement may be restricted or qualified in a number of 
ways. One, which is called a "full endorsement," is very common 
in the business world. It is simply the act of the payee named 
making it payable to some other certain payee or order. To do 
this, the endorser writes on the back of the instrument, the di- 
rections, as: "Pay to John Sims, or order," and places his sig- 
nature below it. This does not limit his liability as an endorser, 
but the title to the instrument must thereafter pass through John 
Sims, and it must bear his endorsement before it will be paid or 
honored. 



± 



Copyright 1910, by geo, a. ogle & CO. 



Supplement VIII. 



GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS, METHODS. 



Another common form of limiting the endorsement is to enable 
the payee (when it is made payable to his order) to transfer his 
title to the instrument without becoming responsible for its pay- 
ment, and making the party to whom it is transferred assume all 
responsibility concerning payment. To do this the endorser writes 
the words "Without Recourse" over his signature, which has the 
effect of relinquishing his title without making him liable to the 
holder in case the payor fails to take it up. 

Another method of limiting the endorsement is to make it con- 
ditional, a good illustration of which is the following: "Pay to 
John Sims or order upon his delivering to the First National Bank 
a warranty deed to lot 5, block 4, etc.," below which the endorser 
places his signature. He can also make it payable to "A. B. only,'' 
or in equivalent words, in which case "A. B." cannot endorse it 
over. 

In fact, the endorser has the power to limit his endorsement as 
he sees fit, and either to lessen or increase his liability, such as 
either "waiving notice of demand;" making his endorsement a 
"general and special guaranty of payment" to all future holders, 
etc., but he cannot, by his endorsement, either increase or lessen 
the liability of any other endorser on the instrument. 

An endorser, as a rule, is entitled to immediate notice in case 
the payor fails to pay. This is the case in nearly all of the United 
States, as it has been a rule of the "law merchant" for many 
years. A few modifications, however, of the general "law mer- 
chant" have been made by statute in several of the States, relat- 
ing to negotiable paper, in changing the endorser's liability by 
rendering his contract absolute instead of conditional, making no- 
tice unnecessary unless he suffers damage through want of it, or 
requiring a judgment to be first recovered before he can be held. 
In the absence, however, of statutory provisions of this kind, and 
they exist only in a few of the States, it may be said that to hold 
endorsers they must have prompt notice of non-payment, and it 
may be said to be a general rule of the "law merchant" that all 
parties to negotiable paper as endorsers who are entitled to notice 
are discharged by want of notice. The demand, notice and pro- 
test may be made according to the laws of the place where pay- 
able. 

The term Protest is applied to the official act by an authorized 
person (usually a Notary Public), whereby he affirms in a formal 
or prescribed manner in writing that a certain bill, draft, check 
or other negotiable paper has been presented for acceptance or 
payment, as the case may be, and been refused. This, and the no- 
tice of the "Protest," which must be sent to all endorsers and 
parties to the paper is to notify them officially of its failure. 

GUARANTY. 

A "GUARANTOR" is one who is bound to another for the 
fulfillment of a promise, or of an engagement, made by a 
third party. This kind of contract is very common. Ac- 
cording to the "statute of frauds" it must be in writing, 
and unless it is a sealed instrument there must be a consideration 
to support it. As a rule it is not negotiable, so as to be enforced . 
by the transferee as if it had been given to him by the guarantor, 
but this depends upon the wording, as, if it contains all the char- 
acteristics of a note, payable to order or bearer, it will be held 
negotiable. A contract of guaranty is construed strictly, and if the 
liability of the principal be materially varied by the act of the 
party guaranteed, without the consent of the guarantor, the guar- 
antor is discharged. The guarantor is also discharged if the liabil- 
ity or obligation is renewed, or extended by law or otherwise, un- 
less he in writing renews the contract. In the case of a bank 
incorporated for twenty years, which was renewed for ten years 
more without change of officers, the courts held that the original 
sureties could not be held after the first term. 

The guaranty can be enforced even though the original debt 
cannot, as is the case in becoming surety for the debt of a minor. 
A guarantor who pays the debt of the principal is entitled to de- 
mand from the creditor all the securities he holds, or of the note 
or bond on which declares the debt ; and, in some States, the cred- 
itor cannot fall back upon the guarantor until he has collected 
as much as possible from these securities and exhausted legal 
remedies against the principal. If the debt or obligation be first 
incurred and completed before the guaranty is given, there must 
be a new consideration or the guaranty is void. 

A guaranty is not binding unless the guarantor has notice of 
its acceptance, but the law presumes this acceptance when the 
offer of guaranty and acts of the party to whom it is given, such 
as delivery of goods or extending credit are simultaneous. But 
an offer to guarantee a future operation does not bind the offerer 
unless he has such notice of the acceptance as will afford him rea- 
sonable opportunity to make himself safe. A creditor may give 
his debtor some indulgence or accommodation without discharging 
the guarantor, unless it should have the effect of prejudicing the 
interests of the guarantor, in which case he would be released. 
Generally a guarantor may, at any time, pay a debt and so, at 
once, have the right to proceed against the debtor. Where there 
has been failure on the part of the principal and the guarantor 
is looked to, he must have reasonable notice — and notice is deemed 
reasonable if it prevents the guarantor from suffering from the 
delay. 

It is, in many cases, difficult to say — and upon it rests the ques- 
tion of legal liability — whether the promise of one to pay for goods 
delivered to another is an original promise, as to pay for one's 
own goods, in which case it need not be in writing; or a promise 
to pay the debt or guranty the promise of him to whom the goods 
are delivered, in which case it must be in writing. The question 
generally resolves itself into this: To whom did the seller give 
and' was authorized to give credit? This is a question of fact and 
not of law. If the books of the seller show that he charged them 
to the party to whom he delivered them, it is almost impossible 
for him to hold the other party for it, but if on the other hand it 
is shown that he regarded the goods as being sold to the party 
whom it is desired to hold, but delivered them to another party 
and it is so shown on his books, it is not regarded as a guaranty, 
but an original or collateral promise, and would make the party 
liable. In general, a guarantor of a bill or note is not entitled to 
such strict and exact notice as an endorser is entitled to, but only 
such notice as shall save him from actual loss, as he can not make 
the want of notice his defense unless he can show that it was 
unreasonably withheld and that he suffered thereby. There is a 
marked difference in the effect of a guaranty of the "payment,' 
or of the "collection" of a debt. In the first case, the creditor can 
look to the guarantor at any time ; in the latter, the creditor must 
exhaust his legal remedies for collecting it, 

ACCOMMODATION OF PAPER. 

AN accommodation bill or note is one for which the acceptor 
or maker has received no consideration, but has lent his 
name and credit to accommodate the drawer, payee or 
holder. He is bound to all other parties just as completely 
as if there were a good consideration, for, if this was not the case, 
it would be of no value to the party accommodated. He is not 
allowed to set up want of consideration as a defense as against any 
holder for value. But he is not bound to the party whom he thus 
accommodates, no matter how the instrument may be drawn. 

IDENTIFICATION. 

THE mere act of identifying a party or making him known 
to a banker carries with it no liability on the part of the 
party who thus performs it, unless it can be shown there 
was fraud or collusion. Customers of banks are frequently 
asked to identify and make known to their own bankers, strangers 
who desire checks or drafts cashed or other accommodations. In 
some cases a mere introduction is all that is necessary, but only 
because the banker relies upon the honor and integrity of his cus- 
tomer, knowing that an improper person would not be introduced, 
for in a case of this kind the bank assumes all the risk. Generally 
speaking, however, it is an almost invariable rule with bankers, as 
it should be, to require their customer to endorse all drafts or 
checks which are honored for the stranger. In this case the en- 
dorser becomes personally liable to the bank if any or all of the 
drafts or checks prove worthless. 

An endorsement which is frequently made by parties who are 
asked to identify others is to merely indicate that they know the 



party to be the payee named in the check or that the signature 
of the payee or party is correct. This is done by writing the 
words "Signature O. K" under the party's name and signing- it. 
This has the effect of guaranteeing that the party's name is as 
written and that it is his proper signature. It does not guaran- 
tee that the check or draft is good or will be paid, but merely as 
expressed, that the signature is correct and the only liability as- 
sumed is that he will pay the amount in case the signature proves 
a forgery. Many banks, however, will not accept papers endorsed 
this way and justly so, for it throws upon them the burden of 
the risk. 

RECEIPTS AND RELEASES. 

ANT acknowledgment that a sum of money has been paid 
is a receipt. A receipt which reads "in full" though ad- 
mitted to be strong evidence is by no means legally conclu- 
sive. If the party signing it can show an error or mistake, 
it will be admitted in his favor. Receipts for money will be held 
open to examination, and the party holding it must abide the re- 
sults of such examination — the great aim of the law being to ad- 
minister strict justice. A receipt may be of different degrees of 
explicitness, as the word "Paid" or "Received Payment" written on 
a bill. A "release" is simply a form of receipt, but is more bind- 
ing upon the parties, inasmuch as, if properly drawn, under seal, 
for a consideration, it is a complete defense to any action based 
on the debts or claims so released. Herein, releases differ from 
receipts. A release is in the nature of a written contract and 
therefore cannot be controlled or contradicted by evidence, unless 
on the ground of fraud. But if its words are ambiguous, or may 
have either two or more meanings, evidence is receivable to de- 
termine the meaning. 

INFANTS AND MINORS. 

THE incapacity of a person to make a valid contract may 
arise from several causes, and the fact of being an infant, 
or minor, is one of them. The general rule of law may be 
stated as being that the contract of an infant or minor 
is not always void, but is voidable, and in many cases special 
exception is made, giving validity to their contracts for necessa- 
ries. By being voidable but not void in themselves, means that 
the infant has the right to disavow and annul the contract, either 
before or within a reasonable time after he reaches his majority. 
He may do this by word only, but a mere acknowledgment that 
the debt exists is not enough, and it must be substantially a new 
promise. 

AGENCY. 

THERE are a few well-settled and important rules of law 
governing the matter of agents and agency, which every 
business man should understand thoroughly. The relation 
of principal and agent implies that the principal acts by 
and through the agent. A principal is responsible for the acts of 
the agent only when he has actually given full authority to the 
agent, or when he has by his words, or his acts, or both, caused 
or permitted the person with whom the agent deals to believe him 
clothed with this authority. This is a point which is not always 
thoroughly understood, but it is a well-settled principle of law. 
There are two kinds af agents — general and special. A general ■ 
agent is one authorized to represent his principal in all his busi- 
ness, or in all his business of a particular kind, and his power is 
limited by the usual scope and character of the business he is 
empowered to transact. If he is given out as the general agent, 
the principal is bound, even if the agent transcends his actual au- 
thority, but does not go beyond the natural and usual scope of 
the business. . 

On the other hand, a special agent is one authorized to do only 
a specific thing, or a few specified things, or a specified line of 
work. If this special agent exceeds his authority, it may be stated 
as an almost invariable rule that the principal is not bound, be- 
cause the party dealing with the agent must inquire for himself 
and at his own peril, into the extent and limits of the authority 
given to the agent. Especially is this the case where the party 
knew that the agent had been or was engaged in attending to a 
particular and specified line of work connected with the business 
of the principal. The party, however, is not bound by any special 
reservations or limitations made secretly by the principal of 
which he had no reasonable or easy means of having notice. The 
authority of an agent may be given by the principal, by writing 
or oral, or may be implied from certain acts. Thus, if a person 
puts his goods into the custody of another whose business it is to 
sell such goods, he authorizes the whole world to believe that this 
person has them for sale ; and any person buying them honestly, 
in this belief, would hold them. If one, knowing that another had 
acted as his agent, does not disavow the authority as soon as he 
conveniently can, but lies by and permits a person to go and deal • 
with the supposed agent, or lose an opportunity of indemnifying 
himself, this is an adoption and confirmation of the acts of the 
agent. 

A principal is bound by the acts of an agent even after the 
revocation of his agency, if such revocation has not been made 
public or is unknown to the party dealing with the agent. An 
agent can generally be held personally liable if he transcends his 
authority ; but this is not the case if the party with whom he dealt 
knew that the authority was transcended. 

ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF BANKING. 

IN general, banks may be said to be credit institutions or 
dealers in credit. John Jay Knox once said that "the ex- 
changes of the modern world are barter, effected by the indi- 
rect agency of the credit system, and banks and bankers 
are the machinery by which this is done." Metallic money and its 
representative, the circulating note, are only the small change of 
"Trade" employed in the settlement of balances and small purchases 
and payments. This fact is illustrated by the operations of the New 
York clearing house. The exchanges have been about 800,000 mil- 
lions of dollars during the past thirty years, while the balances paid 
in money have only been about 36,000 millions, or about 4 per cent, 
of the amount of the settlements _ * ^ , . 

It has always been claimed that the business of banking orig- 
inated with the Venetian money changers who displayed their wares 
and moneys on the streets and thus supplied those in need of 
change According to the most eminent authorities the earliest 
banking institution in Europe was the Bank of Venice, which was 
founded in 1172, and was based upon a forced loan of the govern- 
ment Funds deposited in it could be transferred to others on the 
books of the bank at the pleasure of the owner, but they could not 
~be withdrawn. The perpetual annuities of the British debt are 
handled in a very similar manner at the present day. The Bank of 
Venice was continued until 1797. In 1401, the Bank of Barcelona 
was formed. At a period much earlier than this, the Jewish money- 
dealers had invented what was known as "foreign bills of ex- 
change" but it is said that this bank was the first institution that 
made a business of negotiating and handling them. The Bank of 
Genoa commenced operation in 1407 and for centuries was one ot 
the principal banks of Europe. It was the first to issue circulating 
notes which were passed only by endorsement, not being payable 

The Bank of Hamburg, established in 1619, was a bank of both 
deposit and circulation based on fine silver bars. This bank, like 
nearly all of that early time, had, as a principal object, the protec- 
tion of the people from worn, sweated, clipped and plugged coins, or 
coins of certain empires that were reduced in standard value. The 
remedy generally adopted was to lock up the debased and depre- 
ciated coins and circulate the credit granted for them. Various 
other banks sprang into existence throughout Europe, many of them 
being powerful government agencies, and in many cases exerted a 
Wide influence in shaping the destinies of empires. 

In 1694 the Bank of England was established, and there is no 
banking institution in the world equal to it in the management of 
national finances. The Bank of Prance was authorized in 1800. It 
is not a fiscal agent of the government as is that of England. It 
does not collect or disburse the revenues of the exchequer, but it 
lends to it largely, while its credits, in the form of circulating notes 
and other acceptances, have borne the government safely through 
extraordinary needs. 

It is claimed that the first organized bank in the United States 
had its origin in the formation of a banking company without 



1! 



charter June 18th, 1780, by the citizens of Philadelphia, and first 
action by Congress was taken June 22, of the same year, in refer- 
ence to this proposed association. Two years afterward a "per- 
petual charter" was granted to the Bank of North America at 
Philadelphia. In 1784 the State of Massachusetts incorporated the 
Massachusetts Bank. The Bank of New York was chartered in 
March, 1791, although it had been doing business since 1784, under 
articles of association drawn by Alexander Hamilton. Most of these 
institutions are still running and have been converted into na- 
tional banks. The Bank of the United States was organized in 
1791. The most of the stock was owned by the United States Gov- 
ernment but later the Government interest was disposed of, and in 
1843 the bank failed. 

State banks were organized rapidly, and private banking firms 
sprang into existence and the business of banking assumed immense 
proportions. 

In 1863, the National Bank System was adopted and in 1864 
the National Bank Bureau of the Treasury Department was organ- 
ized, the chief officer of which is the comptroller of the currency. 
In March, 1865, an act was passed providing for a ten per cent, tax 
on notes of any person or State bank issued for circulation, and 
making an exception of National banks. This had the effect of tax- 
ing the State bank circulation out of existence. As the National 
banking system has proven one of the most efficient and satisfactory 
methods the world has ever known, it will be of interest to review 
here some of its principal features Under this act National banks 
may be organized by any number of persons not less than five. Not 
less than one-third of the capital must be invested in United States 
bonds, upon which circulating notes may be issued equal to 90 per 
cent, of the par value of the bonds. These circulating notes are re- 
ceivable at par in the United States in all payments except for du- 
ties on imports, interest on the public debt and in redemption of the 
national currency. The National banks are required to keep a cer- 
tain reserve ; they are authorized to loan money at the rate of in- 
terest allowed in the various states — when no rate is fixed by the 
laws of the State, the banks may charge 7 per cent. Shareholders 
are held individually liable, equably and ratably, for all debts of the 
association to the extent of the amount of their stock, in addition to 
the amount invested therein.' The banks are required, before the 
declaration of a dividend, to carry one-tenth part of their net profits 
of the "preceding half year to a surplus fund until the same shall 
amount to 20 per cent, of the capital; and losses and bad debts 
must be deducted from net profits before any dividend is declared. 
A receiver may be appointed by the comptroller to close up under 
his supervision the affairs of any national bank which shall fail to 
keep good its lawful money reserve or which may become insolvent. 
While there have been national bank failures, there has never been 
any loss to the people whatever on the circulation. A suit may be 
brought for forfeiture of the charter of a bank if the directors shall 
knowingly violate the law; and in such cases they may be held 
liable in their individual capacity. There are other restrictions in 
the law — such as, for instance, the prohibition against loaning to 
any one borrower of more then ten per cent, of the capital ; or the 
holding of any real estate except such as is required for banking 
purposes, or the granting of loans upon the security of the bank 
stock. 

The national bank circulation has been gradually growing less 
during the past ten years, as the United States bonds available are 
quoted so high above par and the rate of interest so low that there 
is but little profit to the banks in it. All of the States have laws 
regulating State banks and providing certain restrictions, but as 
the laws of the various States are not alike it is impossible to give 
a general description of the matter that would apply to all the 
States. The laws, however, provide for and require State banks to 
hold a certain reserve, and at regular intervals they make full 
statements as to their condition and their affairs are examined into 
by certain State officials at frequent intervals. The laws of all the 
States have reached a high degree of perfection in the method of 
regulating and overseeing State banks, and the almost universal 
soundness and reliability of these institutions reflect credit upon the 
laws under which they exist. 



CLEARING HOUSE. 

THE Clearing-House is the place where the exchanges of the 
the banks are made in all the principal cities of the world. 
The clearing-house system was first established in London 
about the beginning of the present century. It was first in- 
troduced into this country by the banks of the city of New York ' 
organizing an association, under the name of the New York Clear- 
ing-House, which commenced operations Oct. 11, 1853. At that time 
it consisted of fifty-two banks, but five of them were soon closed 
because of inability to meet its requirements. Clearing Houses have 
since been established in nearly all of the principal cities of the 
continent. 

In all cities a bank receives large amounts of bills and checks 
on other banks, so that at the close of each day's business every 
bank has, in its drawers, various sums thus due it by other banks. 
It is, in like manner, itself the debtor of other banks, which have 
during the day received its bills and checks drawn upon it. Prior 
to the establishment of the clearing house it was necessary for 
each bank, every morning, to make up its account with every other 
bank, and to send its' porter or agent to present the bills and checks 
so received to the debtor banks for payment. The balances were 
adjusted by payments in gold, which became so laborious, danger- 
ous antt complicated that the balances were settled only weekly in- 
stead of daily — a plan that resulted in great risk and evil. This 
was obviated by the clearing-house system, through which the set- 
tlements are so simultaneously and quickly effected that in New 
York the transactions in one single day have amounted to over 
$300,000,000, in adjusting which the exchanges were settled in the 
space of an hour. Besides saving a vast amount of work, book- 
keeping and expense, it enabled the banks by united aid to 
strengthen each other in times of excitement and financial panic. 

The following is the manner in which the settlements are made 
in about all the clearing-houses of this country : The clearing-room 
is provided with a continuous line of desks, one for each bank that 
is a member of the association, each desk bearing the name and 
number of the bank. Each bank is represented every morning, at 
the hour fixed for settlement, by two clerks, one a messenger who 
brings with him the checks, drafts, etc., that his bank has received 
during the day previous upon the other banks — called the "ex- 
changes," and these are assorted for each bank and placed in en- 
velopes. On the outside of each envelope is a slip on which are 
listed the amounts of the various items which it contains. The mes- 
sengers take their places in a line outside the row of desks, each op- 
posite the desk assigned to his bank, while at each desk is a clerk 
with a. sheet containing the names of all the banks in the same 
order as the desks, with the aggregate amounts which his bank's 
messenger has against each bank. Just previous to the hour fixed 
for making the exchanges the manager takes his position and calls 
the house to order. At a signal the bell rings and each messenger 
moves forward to the desk next to his own and delivers the en- 
velope containing the checks, etc., for the bank represented at that 
desk to the clerk at that desk, together with a printed list of the 
banks in the same order, with the amount opposite each bank. The 
clerk receiving it signs and returns it to the messenger, who im- 
mediately passes on to the next desk; then to the next, and so on 
until he has made a complete circuit and has again reached the 
desk of his own bank — the starting point. All the other messen- 
gers moving in the same manner, each messenger has, by this 
means, visited every bank and delivered to each everything his bank 
held for it, taking a receipt for the same; and at the same time 
each bank has received all the exchanges that every other bank had 
against it. This operation, even in the greatest clearing-houses, 
only consumes from ten to fifteen minutes. 

This enables the banks to know at once the exact balance for or 
against it, as the clerks immediately enter from the slips on their 
own sheets the aggregate amount from each bank, and the differ- 
ence between the total amount brought by them, which at once 
shows the balance due to or from the clearing house to each bank. 
This is reported to their banks, and the balance is paid to or 
drawn from the clearing house, thus at once settling the accounts 
between all the banks. The lists are "proved" carefully and certain 
fines are laid for all errors, tardiness, etc. 



COPYRIGHT 1910 BY GEO. A. OGLE & CO 



SUPPLEMENT X. 



CHRONOLOGICAL- ARRANGEMENT 



OF- 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY 

Copyright, 1912, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. 
The chief aim of this Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive form the principal events of the history of the world free from unnecessary details. 
For convenience this history is arranged under— I. Ancient History. II. Medieval History. III. Modern History. The latter is given— First. From the beginning of the Six- 
teenth Century to American Revolution. Second. From the birth of the United States to the present time by countries. 



Ancient History 

B. C. 

4004 Biblical account of the creation. 

3800 Sargon I. King of Babylon. 

S200 *The first Egyptian dynasty under Menes. 

2800 Snefru, 3d Egyptian dynasty. 
Egyptian inscriptions begin. 
Phenieia said to have been peopled by 
the "sons of Anak." 

2750 Tyre and Sidon founded. 

2700 The 4th Egyptian dynasty begins. 
The Pyramid Tombs erected. 

2539 Meria Pepi I., Sixth Egyptian dynasty. 

2458 Chaldea said to have been conquered by 
Medes or Armenians. 

2448 The deluge. 

2300 The Elamitic Conquest. 

The Hittites in Cappadocia. 
Rise of Assyria. 

2280 Thebes, Egypt, founded. 

2231 Alleged beginning of Chaldean astronom- 
ical observations sent by Callisthenes 
to Aristotle; the earliest extant is of 
720 B. C. 

2200 The Hia dynasty in China founded. 
Cuneiform writing probably in use. 

2180 Nineveh built. 

2160 First Persian dynasty founded. 

2130 Amen-em-hat I. founds 12th Egyptian 
dynasty. 

2120 Pyramids built north of Memphis. 

2100 The Obelisk of On erected. y 

2093 Reign of Urich of Chaldea. 

2042 Uranus arrives in Greece. 

2008 Sicyon, Greece founded. 

1996 Birth of Abraham. 

1921 Call of Abraham. 

1920 Abraham arrives in Syria. 

1896 Isaac born. 

1882 Death of Abraham. 

1856 Kingdom of Argus founded. 

1850 Reign of Ismi-dagon, who conquers As- 
syria. 

1837 Birth of Jacob and Esau. 

1822 Memnon invents the Egyptian alphabet. 

1800 Hykos in Egypt. 

1729 Joseph sold into Egypt. 

1710 Arcadians emigrate to Italy and found a 
colony. 

1706 Jacob and his family settle in Egypt. 

1618 Sesostris conquers Asia and Ethiopia. 

1582 Beginning of the chronology of the Arun- 
delian marbles, which were brought 
to England, in A. D. 1627. 

1571 Moses born. 

Male infants in Egypt destroyed. 

1556 Athens founded. 

1516 Kingdom of Sparta formed. 

1530 Expulsion of the Hykos from Egypt. 

Aahmes I. founds 18th Egyptian dynasty. 

1500 The Kossean conquest of Babylon. 

Barneses I. founds 19th Egyptian dy- 
nasty. 
Arabians subdue Chaldea and establish 
a new dynasty. 

1497 Reign of Agenor, 1st king of Phenieia. 

1493 Cadmus founds Thebes. 
Discovery of brass. 
Introduction of the alphabet into Greece. 

1491 The passover instituted. 

Departure of the Israelites from Egypt. 
The law given from Mount Sinai. 

1490 Tabernacle established in the wilderness. 

1451 Death of Moses and Aaron. 

Joshua leads the Israelites into Canaan. 

1445 Joshua divides Canaan. 

1413to 1136 Hebrews subject to six periods of 
bondage. 

1402 Othniel, first judge in Israel. 

1400 King of Babylon marries the daughter 
of the Assyrian King. 

1394 Ehud, second judge of Israel. 

1384 Corinth built. 

1380 Kurigalzu King of Babylon. 

1355 Eglon, King of Moab. 

1350 Israel wars with her neighbors. 

1326 Eleusinian monasteries instituted. 

1321 King Thothmosis changes the Egyptian 
calendar. 

1320 Egyptian Obelisks erected. 

Ruth the Moabitess marries Boaz. 

1313 Kingdom of Myacena created. 

1308 Lethos builds temple of Vulcan at Mem- 
phis. 

1296 Borak and Deborah in Israel. 

1280 Pelops settles in South Greece. 

1273 Rise of the Assyrian Empire. 

1250 Babylon conquered by the Assyrians. 

1249 Gideon, the greatest of the judges of 
Israel- 

1240 Ramses-Sesostris reigns in Egypt. 

1209 Abimelech King of Israel. 

1200 Proetus in Egypt. 

1198 Helen carried off by Paris. 

1193 Trojan war begins. 

1184 Troy destroyed by Greeks. 

1180 Rameses III. the last Egyptian native 
hero. 

1171 Eli, High Priest of Israel. 

1161 Israel wars against Amorites. 

1152 Alba Longa founded. 

1150 Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invades 
Syria. 

1143 Jepthah judge over Israel. 

1136 Samson defeats the Philistines. 

1130 Tiglath Pileser I. invades Babylonia. 

1123 Samuel, judge and first prophet in 

1112 Death of Samson. _ 

1110 Tiglath Pileser seizes Babylon but is soon 

overcome. 
1103 Eolians settle in Asia Minor. t 
1100 (circa) The Chow dynasty in China 

founded. 
~1095 Saul made first King of Israel. 
1093 Saul defeats the Philistines. 
1081 Birth of David. 
1075 Death of Samuel. 

1056 Death of Saul and Jonathan, and acces- 
sion of David. 
1050 Tyre becomes the leading city. 

Hirhor seizes the Egyptian throne. 
1048 David takes Jerusalem. 
1047 King Hiram, of Tyre, aids the Israelites. 
1044 lonians settle in Asia Minor. 
1040 David defeats the Philistines and recov- 
ers the Ark. 

The Ark removed to Jerusalem. m 

David, of Israel, subdues the Syrians. 
1023 The revolt and death of Absalom. 
1015 Death of David. 

Solomon becomes King. 
10-11 Solomon's Temple begun. 
1004 Completion and dedication of Solomon'9 

990 Therein of Sheba visits King Solomon. 

*Egyptian History is in a state of almost 
hopeltss obscurity, .the estimates of the great 
Egyptologers differing more than 3,000 years. 
The dates here given are generally accepted 
by the greater part of Chronologists. 



B. C. 
975 



971 

957 

950 

916 
906 

901 

900 

897 
896 

895 
892 

884 



880 

87S 
875 
870 
860 

846 

834 
820 
800 



794 

776 

760 
753 
752 

750 



747 
745 

743 
741 
740 



730 
726 
723 
721 



717 
716 
715 
713 

710 



709 
698 

690 
686 
685- 

684 
681 

683 

678 
672 
671 

670 



667— ( 



Death of Solomon. 

Revolt of the Ten Tribes. 

Division into kingdoms of Israel and 

Judah. 
The kingdom of Israel established under 

Jeroboam. 
Syria recovers independence. 
Shishak, King of Egypt, captures and 

plunders Jerusalem. 
Abijah, King of Judah, defeats the King 

of Israel. 
The decline of Thebes, Egypt. 
Assur-dayan II., King of Assyria. 
Rhodians found navigation laws. 
Israel is afflicted with famine predicted 

by the Prophet Elijah. 
Syria makes war upon Israel and is de- 
feated.' 
Erection of the northwest palace of Nim- 

rod. 
Elijah translated to heaven. 
Jehoshaphat defeats the Ammonites. 
Death of Ahab, King of Israel. 
Miracles' of Elisha the Prophet. 
Samaria besieged by the Syrians. 
Lacedemon settled. 
Legislation of Lycurgus at Sparta. 
Assur-natsir-pal King or Assyria. 
The Assyrians again invade Babylonia. 
Carthage founded by Dido the Tyrian. 
Sardanapalus I. of Assyria. 
The Assyrians conquer Phenieia. 
Assyrian conquest under Shalmaneser. 
Hazael attacks Israel. 
Lycurgus flourishes. 

Olympic games revived in Elis, Greece. 
Assyria conquers Tarsus. 
Babylon becomes subject to Assyria. 
The Egyptians the most powerful nation 

on the sea. * 

Eolian colonies established. - 

Ionian colonies established. 
Commencement of the Olympiads. 
First authentic date in Greek history. 
The Etruscans in Campania. 
Rome founded by Romulus. 
Athens establishes decennial instead of 

perpetual Archons. 
Sabine war follows the abduction of the 

Sabine women. 
Ethiopia independent. 
Babylon independent of Nineveh. 
League between Romans and Sabines. 
Pul assumes the name of Tiglath Pileser 

and founds the 2nd Assyrian Empire. 
Assyria invades Palestine. 
Messenian wars. 
Sparta victorious. 

Pekah, King of Israel, besieges Jeru- 
salem. 
Tiglath Pileser destroys Syria. 
Israel forms an alliance with Syria 

against Judah. 
Syria becomes subject to Assyria. 
Shalmaneser subdues Israel. 
Hezekiah abolishes idolatry in Judah. 
Shalmaneser IV. invades Phenieia. 
Assyrians invest Samaria and carry the 

Ten Tribes into captivity. 
The Kingdom of Israel destroyed. 
Assyrians totally defeat the Hittites. 
Assassination of Romulus. 
Numa Pompilius, King of Rome. 
Sennacherib, the Assyrian, invades 

Egypt. 
Sennacherib invades Judah. 
185,000 Assyrians destroyed in one night 

by an angel. 
Sargon of Assyria conquers Babylon. 
Manasseh, King of Judah. 
Gross idolatry in Judah. 
Gyges founds the 3rd Lydian dynasty. 
Egypt divided between 12 Kings. 
-668 Second Messenian War, under Aris- 

tomenes. 
Archonship at Athens made annual. 
Esar-haddon King of Assyria. 
Babylon becomes the second capital. 
Creon becomes first annual archon of 

Athens. 
Samaria colonized by Assyrians. ^. 

Assyria conquers Egypt. 
Psamrneticus reigns in Egypt and en- 
courages intercourse with the Greeks. 
Alban invasion and battles of the Horath 

and Curiatii. 
Rise of Magaria, Greece. 
■625 Reign of Assur-bani-pal, King of 



662 
660 

659 

655 
650 
645 
642 

641 
640 



632 
625 



Assyria. 
Sea fight between Corinth and Corcyra. 
Tullius Hostillius defeats the Albans and 

destroys Alba Longa. 
Thebes destroyed by Assyrians. 
Messany, Italv founded. 
Buddha. , 

Byzantium founded by Meganans under 



623 
616 
615 

610 
605 



603 
602 
600 



Bacchiadac expelled from Greece. 
Median Monarchy founded. > 
Egypt independent of Assyria. 
Kaianite dynasty, Media, founded by 

Cyaxzares. 
Cyrene founded. 

Ancus Martius reigns in Rome. m 
Invasion of Scythians who subjugate 

Ostia, Italy, founded. 

Religious reformation under Josian, 
King of Judah. 

Invasion of Assyria by the Scythians. 

Babylon independent under Nabopolas- 
sar. 

Nineveh taken by the Medes. 

Assyrian Empire ends. 

Periander at Corinth. 

Legislation of Draco, Archon at Athens. 

In repairing the temple at Jerusalem. 
Hilkiah discovers the Book of the law, 
and Josiah keeps a solemn passover. 

Jeremiah prophet. 

Passover. 

The Ark restored. 

Tarquinius Priseus begins to reign m 
Rome. . , , 

The Capitol, Rome, begun m honor ot 
Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. 

Pharaoh Necho II. Egypt, circumnavi- 
gates Africa. 

Battle of Megiddo. 

Death of Josiah. 

Necho II. Egypt, attempts to eut a canal 
across the Isthmus of Suez. Failure 
after a loss of 100,000 men. 

The Circus Maximus, Rome, is erected. 

Necho II. of Egypt defeated by Nebu- 
chadnezzar. 

Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy- 
years' captivity. 

Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem. 

Jehoiakim, his vassal. 

Daniel prophesies at Babylon. 

Jehoiakim revolts from Babylon. 

The Cloace Maxime (great sewers) of 
Rome are built. 



B. C. 

598 Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnez- 
zar. 
Second captivity. 
597 Zedekiah made King over the remnant 

of Judah. 
596 Persians invade Syria, and Syria con- 
tinues a subject of Persia for three 
centuries. 
594 Code of Solon at Athens published. 
590 The seven wise men of Greece flourish, 
Solon, Periander, Pittacus, Chiton, 
Thales, Cleobulus and Bias. 
War between Media and Lydia. 
588 The Pythian games begin to be cele- 
brated every five years. 
Jerusalem, having rebelled against Baby- 
lon, is besieged, by Nebuchadnezzar. 
587 Nebuchadnezzar invades Phenieia. 
Golden image set up. 
Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego 

thrown into a furnace. 
Prophecies of Obadiah. 
586 Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Ne- 
buchadnezzar. 
End of the Kingdom of Judah. 
585 Death of Periander, tyrant of Athens 
forty years. 
Treaty between Media and Lydia. 
580 Copper money coined at Rome. 
579 Nebuchadnezzar takes Tyre. 
578 Accession of Servius Tullius, Rome. 
575 Civil war in Egypt. 
570 Amasis reigns in Egypt. 
569 Egypt conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. 
566 The first census of Rome taken— 84,700 

inhabitants. 
562 Death of Nebuchadnezzar. 

Nabonidos King of Babylon. 
560 Pisistratus becomes tyrant of Athens. 
Confucius and Zoroaster. 
Esop's fables. 
559 Anacreon begins to be known. 

Persian Empire founded by Cyrus. 
556 Birth of Simonides (died B. C. 467). 
554 Conquest of Lydia and capture of Cresus 

by Cyrus. 
549 Death of Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum. 
546 Fall of Lydian Empire. 
543 Cyrus annexes Asia Minor to Persia. 
540 — 510 Era of Pythagoras. 
539 (circa) Marseilles founded by Pheni- 

cians. 
538 Daniel interprets handwriting on the 
wall. 
Cyrus conquers Babylon. 
Belshazzar, King of Babylon, is slain. 
536 Cyrus ends the captivity of the Jews. 

Return of the first caravan to Jerusalem 

under Zerubbabel and Joshua. 
Cyrus also subdues Phenieia. 
535 Rebuilding of the Temple commenced, 

Thespis first exhibits tragedy. 
534 Servius assassinated by Tulla, his daugh- 
ter. 
Her husband, Tarquiniua Superbus, be- 
comes King of Rome. 
532 Polycrates, tyrant of Samos (put to death 

B. C. 522). 
531 Reign of Darius I. begins after assas- 
sination of Smerdis, the Magian. 
529 Death of Cyrus. 

Accession of Cambyses. 
525 Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. 

Birth of Eschylus (died B. C. 456). 
The temple of Isis, Egypt, completed. 
Smerdis usurps the Persian throne, de- 
feated by Darius, 522. 
522 Death of Cambyses. 

Greeks colonize the Thracian Cherson- 
ese. 
Lestos founded. 
521 — 485 Reign of Darius I. (Hystaspis) King 

of Persia. 
520 Sibylline books brought from Cume. 

Decree of Darius for re-building the 
Temple at Jerusalem. 
518 Birth of Pindar (died B. C. 439). 
515 The Temple rebuilt and dedicated. 
514 Insurrection in Athens. 
Hipparchus slain. 
Hippias rules in Athens. 
510 Croton destroys Sybaris. 

Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome. 

Foundation of the Republic. 

Junius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus 

consuls. 
The Pisistride expelled from Athens. 
Athens a republic. 
509 Commercial treaty between Carthage and 

Rome. 
508 First treaty between Rome and Car- 
thage. 
First Valerian Laws. 
The Scythian Expedition of Darius. 
507 Capitol at Rome completed and dedi- 
cated. 
504 Sardis burned by the Greeks. 
501 Siege of Naxos by Aristagoras. 

Titus Lartius made Dictator of Rome. 
Ionian revolt in Asia Minor. 
500 Burning of Sardis by the lonians and 

Athenians. 
499 The revolt of the lonians (Greece). 
498 Persia recovers Cyprus. 
497 Battle of Lake Regillus. 

Tarquin and his Latin allies defeated by 

Romans. 
First authentic date in Roman history. 
496 Histieus, the Persian, sent to the coast 

by Darius. 
495 Birth of Sophocles (died B. C. 406). 
Revolt of the lonians, aided by Athens, 
suppressed. 
494 Tribunes at Roma appointed. 

Patricians secede. . 

493 Independence of the Latins recognized._ 
Corioli taken by Caius Martius (Cori- 
olanus). The Latin League. 
492 First Persian expedition, under Mar- 
donius against Greece, is defeated and 
fleet destroyed near Mt. Athos. 
491 Coriolanus banished from Rome. He is 

received by the Volscians. 
490 Second Persian expedition, under Datis 
and Artaphernes. 
Their defeat, and victory of Miltiades at 
the battle of Marathon. 
489 Coriolanus and the Volscians besiege Rome. 
488 Coriolanus withdraws from siege of 
Rome at his mother's entreaty and is 
slain by the Volscians. 
486 Egyptian revolt. 

First Agrarian Law of Cassius proposed. 
485 Accession of Xerxes L, King of Persia. 

• Gelon tyrant of Syracuse. 
485 Recovery of Egypt by the Persians. 

Birth of Herodotus (died after B. C. 409). 
483 Banishment of Aristides the Just by the 

Athenians. 
481 Athenian fleet built. 

Third and greatest invasion of Greece by 
the Persians,- led by Xerxes. 
480 Battle of Thermopyle — fall of Leonidas. 



of Athens, 
with the 



B C 

480 *Battle of Salamis — victory of Themisto- 
cles. 

Xerxes destroys Athens. 

First invasion of Sicily by Carthage. 

Defeat of the Carthaginians by Gelon at 
Himera. 

Birth of Euripides (died B. C. 406). 
-450 Anaxagorus (b. 500, d. 428) teaches 
philosophy at Athens. 

Occupation of Athens by Mardonius. 

Persians defeated at Platea and Mycale 
and retreat from Greece. 

Siege of Sestos. 

Beginning of the supremacy 

The Fabii perish in battle 
Veientes. 
-478 Heiro I — at Syracuse. 

Esther and Mordecai. 

Banishment of Themistocles. 

Birth of Thucydides (died after B. C. 403). 

First Pubillian Laws. 

Election of plebeian magistrates given to 

the Comitia Tributa — Rome. 
Victory of Cimon over the Persians at 
the Eurymedon. 

Antium (Rome) taken. 

Suicide of Appius Claudius. 

Pericles begins to take part in the pub- 
lic affairs of Athens. 

Birth of Socrates. 

Destruction of Mycene by the Argives. 

Diogenes of Appolonio flourishes. 

Flight of Themistocles to Persia. 

Siege of Naxos. 

Battles at the Eurymedon. 

Phenicians aiding Persia are defeated 
by the Greeks under Cimon. 

Xerxes I. assassinated. 

Reign of Artaxerxes I. in Persia. 

Revolt of Thasos. 

Revolt of the Helots at Sparta. 

Third Messenian War. 

Sparta defeats Messenia. 

Egypt revolts against Persia. 

(The revolt is suppressed in 455.) 

Birth of Democritus and Hippocrates 
(both died in B. C. 357). 

The Athenian in Egypt. 

Gorgias flourished. 

Commission of Ezra to rebuild Jerusalem. 

Birth of Lysias the orator (died 378). 

Cincinnatus made dictator at Rome. 

Defeats the Equi. 

Battle of Tanagra. 

The Long Walls of Athens completed. 

The first Decemvir ate or council of ten 
at Rome. 

Laws of the Twelve Tables or code of 
laws instituted. / 

The Greeks defeat the Persians at Sala- 
mus in Cyprus. 

Virginius kills his daughter to save her 
from Appius Claudius. 

First Decemvirate abolished. 

Appius Claudius, Rome. 

Valerian and Horatian Laws. 

Tyranny of the second Decemvirate. 

Secession of the Plebs from Rome. 

Abdication of the Decemvirs. 

Second Sacred War in Greece. 

Battle of Coronea, defeat of Athens. 

Syracuse subdues Agrigentum and de- 
feats the Etruscans. 

Thirty years' truce between Athens and 
Sparta concluded. 

Decline of the Athenian Empire. 

Revolt of Eubea and Megara. 

Canuleian Laws, Rome. 

Nehemiah governor of Judea. 

Athenian Colony to Thurii. 

Pericles becomes supreme at Athens. 

Birth of Xenophon about this time (died 
359). 

Commission of Nehemiah. 

The walls of Jerusalem rebuilt. 

Roman Consular Tribunes established. 
-328 The Parthenon at Athens built by 
Phidias. 

Herodotus flourishes in Greece. 

New constitution at Rome — censors and 
military tribunes appointed instead of 
consuls. 

Rome visited by a terrible famine. 
-439 The Samian war. . 

Siege and reduction of Samos by Pericles. 

Death of Spurius Melius — Rome. # 

Cornelius Cossus and Lars Tolumnius. 

Second Spolia Opima, Rome. 

Birth of Isocrates (died 338). 

Rome declares war against the Etrus- 
cans. 

Treaty between Athens and Corcyra. 

Meton, astronomer, flourished. 

Peloponnesian War begins between 
Athens and a confederacy with Sparta 
at the head, lasting twenty-seven 
years and ending in the defeat of 
Athens. 

Potidea besieged by the Athenians (tak- 
en in 429). 

Death of Pericles. 

Rise of Cleon. 

Battle of Mt. Algidus ; the 
Volsci defeated. 

The plague at Athens. 

Plato born (died 347). 

Siege of Platea. 

Naval victories of Phormio. 

Revolt and fall of Mytilene. 

Reduction of Mytilene. 

First Athenian expedition to Sicily. 

First comedy of Aristophanes exhil 

Corcyrean massacre. ^ 

Demosthenes in Etolia. 

Destruction in Fidene. 

Reign of Xerxes II. followed br Log- 
dianus. 

Sphacteria taken. 

Darius II. reigns in Persia. 

Congress of Sicilians at Gela. 

Alcibiades begins to act in Athenian af- 

The Samanites (Rome) capture Valter- 
nium. 

Capua taken by the Samanites. t 

Birth of Diogones the Cynic, (died 324) . 

Battle of Mantinea. 

Spartans defeated by Athens. 

The Hebrew, Malachi, prophesies. 

Invasion of Sicily by the Athenians un- 
der Nicias. 

Siege of Syracuse. m 

Defeat and surrender of Nicias to Gelip- 

First * treaty between Sparta and Persia. 

Constitution of the Four Hundred at 

Athens. . 

Intrigues of Alcibiades with the Persi- 
ans. , 

Beginning of the wars of Syracuse and 

Carthage. They continue seventy 



479- 



477 



475- 
474 
471 
471 



470 



468 



465 



464 



460 



459 
458 



457 
456 
451 



449 



448 



447 
446 

445 



444 



443- 



443 

442 



440 
440- 



437 

436 
434 

433 

431 



Equi and 



430 
429 



428 

427 



426 

425 



424 
423 



423 

419 
418 

415 



414 
413 

412 



410 



exhibited. 



B. C. 

409 



407 
406 



405 
404 



403 



402 
401 



401- 

400 



396 

395 
394 

393 

392 
391 
390 

339 

387 



385 
384 



382 



379 
378 
376 



375 
372 
371 



370 
367 



409 Three plebeian questors of Rome elected. 



365 
362- 

360 
358 
357- 
356 



355 



354 
353 
352 



351 



350 
348 



346 



343 



342 
342- 

340 



Second invasion of Sicily by the Carth- 
aginians. 
The Volscians defeat the Romans. 
Rhodes founded. 
Battle of Arginuse. 
Condemnation of the ten generals. 
Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse ; reigns 

thirty-eight years. 
The siege of Veii, Rome. 
Battle of Egospotami. Dionysius I. 

reigns in Syracuse. 
Athens taken by Lysander. End of the 

Peloponnesian War. 
Government of the Thirty Tyrants at 

Athens. 
Spartan supremacy. 
Death of Alcibiades. 

Thrasybulus restores democratic govern- 
ment at Athens. 
Birth of Phocion (died 317). 
Expedition of Cyrus the younger who 
rebels ; at the battle of Cunaxa he is 
defeated and slain and the "Retreat of 
ten thousand" Greeks under Xenophon 
begins. 
-384 Ctesias flourished. 
Malachi. 

Death of Socrates. 

Campaign and peace of Dercyllidas. ^ 
First Campaign of Agesilaus in Asia. 
The Roman dictator Camillos captures 

Veii. 
Greecian coalition against Sparta ; Lysan- 
der slain. 
Persians assist the Athenians and defeat 
the Spartans at the naval battle of the 
Cnidus. 
The Corinthian War begins. 
The second battle of Coronea. 
The Long Walls of Athens restored by 

Corion. 
Veii stormed by Hamillus. ^ 
Camillus impeached and exiled. 
Battle of Allia. 
The Romans defeated by Brennus and 

the Gauls. Rome burnt. 
Siege of the Capitol. 
Victory of Dionysius at Helorus. 
Birth of Eschines. 

The Gauls expelled from Rome and city 
rebuilt. ,, 

Peace of Antalcidas, Persia. 
Greek cities in Asia subjected to Persia. 
End of the Corinthian War. 
Capitoline games established in Rome. 
Defeat of the Persians under Evagoras. 
Birth of Aristotle. 
Manlius hurled from Tarpeian rock for 

having aimed at sovereignty. 
Battle of Lecheum. 

The Olynthian war begins, and ends 379. 
Seizure of the Cadmea at Thebes by 

Phedibas. 
Birth of Demosthenes (died 322). 
Death of Aristophanes. 
Height of Spartan power. 
Recovery of the Cadmea by Pelopidas. 
The Athenians allied with Thebes. 
Roman civil war between patricians and 

plebeians. 
Law passed that one consul shall be a 

plebeian. 
Battle of Leuctra, Greece. 
Peace between Athens and Sparta. 
Victory of Epaminondas over the Spar- 
tans at Leuctra. 
Foundation' of Megapolis. 
Jason of Phere assassinated. 
Alexander of Phere in Thessaly. 
Embassy of Pelopidas, the Greek to 

Persia. 
Aristotle goes to Athens, and remains 

with Plato twenty years. 
Licinian laws passed at Rome. 
Joshua slain by the High Priest. 
Birth of Zeno, the Stoic (died 264). 
Institution of pretorship and curule 

edileship at Rome. 
First Plebeian consul elected. 
Great Plague at Rome. 
Legend of M. Curtius. 

-346 Rome wars with the Gauls, Etrus- 
cans and Hernicans. 
Battle of Mantinea (circa). 
Victory and death of Epaminondas. 
The Samaritans build the Temple at 

Gerizim. 
Kingdom of Pontus founded. 
Beginning of the Social War in Greece. 
Siege of Chios and Byzantium. 
Amphipolis taken by Philip II. 
_352 — 347 Roman laws of debt. 
Phocian (or Sacred) War begins. 
Expedition of Dion to Sicily. 
Second Sacred War, the Phocians hav- 
ing seized the Temple of Delphi. 
Birth of Alexander the Great. 
Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, burned. 
Dion expels Dionysius from Syracuse. _ 
Caius Marcius Ratilus first Plebeian Dic- 
tator at Rome. 
End of the Social War in Greece. 
Independence of Rhodes, Cos, Chios and 

Byzantium acknowledged by Athens. 
Revolt of Artabazus, the Persian. 
Siege of Methone, Greece. . 

Demosthenes delivers his first Philippic. 
Phenieia revolts from the Persian mon- 
archy. 
C. Marcius Rutilus first Plebeian censor, 

Rome. 
Sidonians revolt and destroy Sidon. 
The Roman Popilius defeats the Gauls. 
Oiynthus taken by Philip of Macedon. 
Treaty between Carthage and Rome. 
Surrender of Phocis to Philip. 
End of the Sacred War. ,.*••« 

Philip admitted to the Amphyctionic 

Council. „ 

Dionysius recovers the tyranny. 
First Samnite war begins. 
Battle of Mt. Gaurus. 
Conquest of Syracuse by Timoleon. 
Expulsion of Dionysius. 
Embassy of Demosthenes and others to 

Philip. 
Roman Genucian laws. 
Mutiny* at Lantule, Rome. 
-341 Philip of Macedon's expedition to 
Thrace. 
Birth of Epicurus (died 270). 
Perinthus and Byzantium besieged by 

Philip. 
Victory of Timoleon over the Cartha- 
ginians at the Crimisus. 
Battle of Mt. Vesuvius, Rome. 
Second Roman Pubilian laws. 
Third Sacred War begins between Philip 

and the Athenians. 
Philip general of the Amphyctionic 

League. 
Battle of Cheronea. 
Philip subjugates Greece. 



SUPPLEMENT XI. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



b. c. 

337 First Roman Plebeian pretor. 

337—335 The Latin War begins; after two 

years the Romans are victorious. 
336 Murder of Philip. 

Accession of Alexander III. the Great. 
Accession of Darius Codomanus. 
335 Alexander destroys Thebes; is chosen 
generalissimo of the Greeks, Athens 
having submitted. 
834 Battle of the Grariicus. 

Macedonian Empire formed. 
Alexander invades Persia. 
333 Battle of Issus. 

Damascus taken and Tyre besieged by 
Alexander. 
332 Capture of Tyre and conquest of Egypt 
by Alexander. 
Alexandria, Egypt, founded on the 

Egyptian village Rhacotis. 
Treaty between Alexander and Rome. 
Alexander visits Jerusalem and worships 
at the Temple. 
331 Phenicia subdued by Alexander. 
Battle of Arbela. 
Subjugation of Persia. 
Settlement of the Jews at Alexandria. 
330 Darius III. assassinated. 

Demosthenes' oration for the crown. . 
Persia becomes a part of the Macedonian 
Empire. 
327 — 325 Campaigns of Alexander in India. 
Voyage of Nearchusi from the Indus to 
the Euphrates. 
326 Roman servitude for debt abolished. 
324 Exile of Demosthenes. 
323 Death of Alexander at Eabylon. 

Alexander succeeded by Perdiccas as 

Regent. 
Antipater in Macedonia. 
Lysimachus in Thrace. 
Cassander in Greece. 
Antigonus in Syria. 
Eumenes in Cappadocia. 
Seleucus at Babylon. 
Second Samnite War, lasts twenty-one 

years. 
Antipater, a Macedonian general, defeats 
Athens and allies. 
322 Ptolemy I., surnamed Soter, receives the 
Egyptian Kingdom. 
Phenicia annexed to Egypt by Ptolemy 
Soter I. 
321 First war among the "successors of 
Alexander." 
Battle of the Caudine Forks. 
Romans terribly defeated by Pontius and 
pass under the Samnite yoke. 
320 Ptolemy Soter takes Jerusalem. 
Revolt of Phenicia. 

Jewish settlements in Egypt and Gyrene. 
317 Agathocles at Syracuse. 
315 Thebes rebuilt by Cassander. 

Conquest of Antigonus of Phrygia. 
314 Palestine under Antigonus. 

Roman victory at Cinna. 
313 Samnite victory at Lantule. 
312 Battle of Gaza. 

Victory of Ptolemy and Seleucus over 

Demetrius Poliorcetes. 
Pyrrhus King of Epirus. 
Appius Claudius censor. 
Appian Way and aqueduct. 
The great Roman military road com- 
pleted. 
312 — 160 Sandracottus, Indian empire. 
311 — 309 The Etruscan War. 
310 L. Papirius Cursor, Roman Dictator. 

Agathocles defeated at Himera. 
308 Fabius crosses Ciminian Hills; defeats 

the Tuscans at Vadimon. 
307 — 305 Naval war at Cyprus and Rhodes. 
304 Siege of Rhodes by Demetrius. 
^ f 301 Battle of Ipsis between Ptolemy Soter 
/ and Antigonus. 

Final division of Alexander's dominions. 
300 Athenian democracy restored. 

Chandrogupta (Sandracottus) reigns in 
India ; makes a treaty with Seleucus. 
Foundation of Antioch by Seleucus. 
Light-house, on island of Pharos erected. 
299 Athens besieged and taken by Demetrius. 
298 Third Samnite War. (Samnites, Etrus- 
cans, Umbrians and Gauls). 
Gellius Egnatius, leader, of the Samnites. 
296 The Capitoline wolf. 
295 Quintus Fabius defeats the Samnites, 

Etruscans and Gauls at Sentinum. 
292 Execution of C. Pontius. 
290 The Third Samnite War ends in sub- 
jugation to Rome. 
287 Birth of Archimedes (died 212). 
286 The Hortensian Law passed at Rome; 
plebiscita declared binding on all the 
people. 
285 Ptolemy abdicates in favor of his. son, 
Philadelphus, who becomes Ptolemy II. 
Under his reign Egypt rose to a high 
rank among the nations in power and 
wealth. 
284 Alexandrian Library founded by Ptolemy 

Soter. 
284 The Etolian League formed. 
283 Kingdom of Pergamus founded. 

Renewed Gallic and Etruscan War. 
Second battle of Lake Vadimon. 
281 Rome wars with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. 
Rome at war with Tarentum. 
Lysimachus defeated and slain by Se- 
leucus at Corupedion. 
280 Achean League between twelve cities 
of Achea established. 
Battle of Pandosia. 
Romans defeated by Pyrrhus. 
Birth of Chryssippus (died 207). 
279 Irruption of the Gauls into Greece. 
First Plebeian censor at Rome. 
Romans again defeated by Pyrrhus at 

Asculum. 
Rome and Carthage allied. 
277 League between Athens, Sparta and 
Egypt. 
The Septuagmt written. 
The Gauls settle in Galatia. 
276 Birth of Eratosthenes — died 196. 

The great wall of China built (?). # 
274 Battle of Beneventum. Rome victorious 

and Pyrrhus leaves Italy. 
273 Egyptian embassy to Rome. 
272 Antigonus Gonatus recovers Macedon. 
269 Silver money first coined at Rome. 

Hiero II. of Syracuse. 
268 Berosus flourished. 

Antigonus of Macedon takes Athens. 
Rome supreme over all Italy. 
First Punic War begins. 
Carthage disputes Rome's Empire. 
Chronology of Arundelian (Parian) mar- 
ble ends. 
260 First Roman fleet launched. 
Victory of Duilius off Myle. 
Rise of Parthia. 
26o — 230 Reign of Asoka in India. 
256 Naval victory of Regulus over the Car- 
thaginians at Ecnomos. 
Invasion of Africa. 
The Arsacide. 
255 Defeat and capture of Regulus by the 
Carthaginians. 
Evacuation of Africa. _ 
254 The Kingdom of Dactia. 
250 Parthia becomes an independent King- 
dom under Arsaces. 
Dynasty of Tsin in China founded. 
247 Ptolemy III. makes war on Syria. 

Restores the Egyptian gods carried off 

by Cambyses, 525 B. C. 
Birth of Hannibal — died 183. 
245 Aratus of Sicyon, general of the Achean 

Leagues. 
241 Defeat of Carthaginians by Catulus at 
the E gates insule. 
End of the First Punic War. 
Sicily made a Roman Province. 
Atalus, King of Pergamus. 
Agis IV. killed at Sparta. 



B. C. 

240 The plays of Livius Andronicus exhib- 
ited (the first tragedies) at Rome. 
238 Date of the decree of Canopus; tablet 

of .San. 
237 Conquest of Spain attempted by the Car- 
thaginians. 
Seizure of Sardinia and Corsica by the 
Romans. 
235 The gates of the Temple of Janus at 
Rome shut for the first time since 
Numa. No war existing at the time. 
234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato— died 149. 
233 Antigonus Doson in Macedon. 
229 Athens joins the Achean League. 
227 Cleomenic War with Achean League be- 
gins. 
226 Reforms of Cleomenes at Sparta. 
225 Invasion of Cisalpine Gaul and battle of 

Clusium. Rome victorious. 
222 Ptolemy IV. reigns in Egypt. 

Defeats Antiochus III. of Syria at Ra- 

phia. 
Gallia Cisalpina becomes a Roman Prov- 
ince. 
221 Battle of Sellasia. 

Aratus and Antigonus take Sparta. 
Philip V. of Macedon. 
Alliance between Philip and Acheans 
against Etolians. 
220 Hasdrubal assassinated in Spain. 
219 Antiochus overruns Palestine. 

Siege of Saguntum by Hannibal. 
Second Illyrian war. 
218 Second Punic War begins. 

Hannibal marches from Spain across the 

Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy. 
Battles of the Ticinius and the Trebia, 
and defeat of Scipio. 
217 Hannibal passes the Apennines. 

Battle of Lake Trasimene. ■ Flaminius 
defeated. 
217 The two Scipios sent to Spain. 
216 Battle of Canne. Romans defeated- with 
immense loss. 
Revolt of Capua. 

Alliance of Hannibal with Philip V. of 
Macedon. 
214 — 212 Siege and capture of Syracuse by 

Marcellus. 
214 First Commercial War. 
Byzantium and Rhodes. 
212 Battle of Anitorgis. 

Greek works of art brought to Rome. 
211 -Greece concludes treaty with the Romans 
against Philip V. of Macedon. 
Defeat and death of the two Scipios iii 

Spain by Hasdrubal. 
Capua recovered by Rome. 
Conquest, of Judea by Antiochus. 
Hannibal before Rome. 
208 Battle of Metaurus. 

Battle of Elinga. 
207 Battle of the Metaurus; Hasdrubal de- 
feated and slain by the Romans. 
iGold money first coined in Rome. 
205 Ptolemy V. The decline of Egypt. 
204 P. Cornelius Scipio conducts the war 
in Africa, 
Siege of Utica. 
203 Hannibal leaves Italy. 

Attalus and Rhodians war with Philip. 
202 Defeat of Hannibal at Zama, in Africa, 

by Scipio Africanus. 
201 Treaty of peace between Rome and Car- 
thage; end of the Second Punic War. 
200 — 197 First Macedonian War. 

Allies attack Macedon and defeat Philip. 
198 T. Quintus Flaminius proclaims liberty to 
the Greeks. 
Syria becomes independent of Egypt. 
197 Battle of Cynocephale. 

Philip defeated by Flaminius. 
Palestine and Cele-Syria conquered by 
Antiochus the Great, and confirmed to 
him by the peace with Rome. 
The Rosetta Stone written. 
196 Dynasty of Han, China, founded. 

Hannibal joins Antiochus. 
195 Birth of Hipparchus, first systematic as- 
tronomer. 
192 — 188 War between the Romans and Antio- 
chus the Great. 
Philopemen pretor of the Achean 

League. 
Greece declared free from Macedon by 

Flaminius. 
Philopemen defeats Nabis, of Sparta. 
Sparta joins the Achean League. 
190 Battle of Magnesia. 

188 The laws and discipline of Lycurgus abro- 
gated by Philopemen. 
184 Death of Plautus. 
183 Death of Hannibal and Scipio. 

Lycortas, general of the Achean League. 
182 — 174 Encroachments of Massinissa. 
181 Ptolemy VI. reigns in Egypt. 

The Villian Law, Rome. 
179 Perseus King of Macedonia. 

Embassy of Callicrates to Greece. 
Pharnaces, of Pontus, ■ cedes Paphlagonia 
to Rome. 
176 Antiochus makes war on Egypt. 
171 — 168 Second Macedonian War. 
170 Antiochus takes Jerusalem. 

40,000 Jews slain and Temple pillaged. 
Birth of Attius, Roman dramatist (died 

168 Battle of Pydna; victory of Emilius Pau- 
lus over Perseus; Macedonia made a 
Roman province. 
Eumenes II. visits Rome. 
Antiochus Epiphanes takes Jerusalem. t 
Beginning of the Maccabean war of in- 
dependence. 
Athenians attack Oropus. 
167 Judas Maccabeus defeats the. Syrians 
and occupies Jerusalem, except the Cit- 
adel. 
Romans ravage Epirus and Achea. 
166 Rededication of the Temple. 

One thousand Acheans imprisoned at 

Rome. 
First comedy of Terence performed at 
Rome. 
166 — 145 Hipparchus flourishes. 
165 Rise of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 
164 Death of Antiochus. 

He is succeeded by Antiochus V. Eupator, 
who takes Bethoura, and besieges Jeru- 
salem, but makes peace with the Jews. 
Cyrene and Libya separate from Egypt. 
163 Birth of M. Emilius Scaurus, Roman 

orator (died 90). 
161 Victory of Judas Maccabeus at Adosa. 

Embassy of Cameades, Diogenes and 

Critolans to Rome. 
Death of Judas. 

Alliance between Rome and Judea. 
Jonathan Maccabeus succeeds Judas. 
160 Bactrians in India. 
159 Death of Terence. 
155 Athenians fined by Rome. 
153 War in Spain. 
150 — 138 Lusitanian War. 

Viriathus commands the Lusitanians. 
149 Third Punic War begins. 
Scipio invades Africa. 
Andriscus in Macedonia. 
148 Birth of Lucilius— died 103. 
147 The Achean war with Rome begins. 
146 Ptolemy VI. killed in battle. 

Carthage taken by Scipio and destroyed 

by order of the Roman Senate. 
Corinth taken and destroyed by Mum- 

mius. 
Province of Africa constituted. 
Greece becomes a Roman province. 
145 Ptolemy VII. reigns, marries Cleopatra, 
widow of Ptolemy VI. 
Polybius legislates for the Achean cities. 
Demetrius Nicator in Syria. 
144 The Tower of Zion taken by the Jews. 
Judea becomes independent. 
Rise of the Asmonean dynasty. 



B.C. 
143 Birth of Antonius, Roman orator (died 

70). 
142 Scipio Africanus (Minor) Roman Censor. 
140 Birth of Crassus, Roman orator (died 
91). 
Simon made hereditary prince of the 

Jews. 
Death of Viriathus — Rome. 
Macedon formally absorbed by Rome. 
138 Birth of L. Cornelius Sulla, (died 78). 
136 Hycanus Governor of Judea. 
134 — 132 Servile War in Sicily. 

Sicilian slaves rebel, are conquered and 
slain. 
133 Laws of Tiberias Gracchus passed at 
Rome. 
Gracchus murdered. 

Kingdom of Pergamus bequeathed to 
Rome. 
130 Demetrius Nicator, Syria, restored. 
129 Hycranus subdues Idumea and Samaria 

and destroys Temple at Gerizim. 
125 Rise of the .Essenes. 

Fluvius Flaccus and L. Drusus popular 

Roman leaders. 
L. Caelius Antipater, Roman jurist, flour- 
ished. 
123 Scipio takes and destroys Numantia. 

Roman Colony sent to Carthage. 
121 Civil war in Rome arising from Agrarian 
troubles- — Caius Gracchus is murdered. 
Metullius leader of Roman Senate. 
120 Parthians subdue Bactria. 
117 Ptolemy VIII. reigns jointly with his 

mother, Cleopatra. 
116 Birth of Varro (died 28). 
113 The Teutones and Cimbra invade Gaul. 
Ill — 106 The Jugurthine War — peace conclud- 
ed. 
War renewed two years later. 
Metellus and Marius defeat Jugurtha and 
subject Numidia. 
109 — 101 W 7 ar of Rome with the Cimbri and 

Teutones. 
109 Hyrcanns destroys the Samaritan temple 
on Mount Gerizim. 
Atricus born (died B. C. 32). 
106 Birth of Pompey and of Cicero. ' 
102 Victory of Marius over the Teutones at 
Aque Sexte (Aix). 
Second Servile war breaks out in Sicily. 
101 Victory of Marius over the Cimbri at 
Vercelle and end of the war. 
Battle of Campus Raudius. 
100 Birth of Julius Cesar. 

C. Marius bom 157 (died 86). Sixth Ro- 
man Consul. 
L. App. Saturnius Tribune (Rome). 
96 Ptolemy Apion leaves Cyrene. 
95 Birth of Lucretius (died 55). 
92 Sulla on the Euphrates. 
90 — 88 The Social or Marsic .War in Italy. 
The Marsians, at first successful, are fin- 
ally defeated. 
88 — 84 First Mithridatic War. 
Mithridates seizes Athens. 
Civil War of Marius and Sulla and expul- 
sion of Marius. 
Sulla occupies Rome. 
87 Marius retakes Rome. 

Proscription. 
86 Revolt and siege of Egyptian Thebas. 
Death of Marius and return of Sulla. 
Athens stormed by Sulla. 
Birth of Sallust (died 34). 
85 Tigranes at war with Rome. 
84 Sulla makes peace with Pontus, King of 

the Mithridates. 
83 War with Marian party in Italy. 

Tigranes I. of Armenia annexes Phrygia. 
83 Birth of Marcus Antonius (died 30). 
82 Thebes destroyed. 
Second Civil War. 
Victory at the Colline gate. 
Occupation of Rome. 
Sulla becomes Dictator. 
79 Abdication of Sulla. Dies in 78. 

The Cornelian Laws of Rome. 
79 — 72 Civil war of Sertorius in Spain ; and 

of Lepidus and Catulus in Italy. 
78 Alexandra Queen of Judea. 
75 Nicomedes III. leaves Bithnia to Rome. 
74 — 65 Third Mithridatic War. 
74 — 66 Victories of Lucullus in Asia. 
73 — 71 Servile war in Italy, led by Spartacus, 

who is defeated and slain by Crassus. 
70 Consulship of Pompey and Crassus. 
Birth of Virgil (died 19). 
Scythians expelled from India. 
69 Victory of Lucullus over Tigranes. 
67 Cesar begins to take part in public af- 
fairs. 
Pompey subdues the pirates. 
66 Lucullus recalled. 

Pompey sent into Asia and war ended. 
Birth of Strabo, geographer (died A. D. 
22). 
65 Birth of Horace (died B. C. 8). 

Antiochus Asiaticus dethroned by Pom- 
pey. 
64 Birth of Messalla (died 4). 

Pompey reduces Syria to a Roman prov- 
ince. 
63 Jerusalem taken by the Romans under 
Pompey. 
Birth of Augustus. > 

Second conspiracy of Cataline suppressed 

by Cicero. 
Orations of Cicero. 
Lucullus founds Library at Rome. 
Phenicia absorbed in the province of 
Syria. 
60 Pompey, Cesar and Crassus form the first 
Roman Triumvirate. 
Birth of Seneca (died 30). 
59 . Birth of Livy (died A. D. 17). 
58 The Gallic War begins. 
Cicero banished. 
Cesar invades Gaul. 
Helvetii and Ariovistus defeated. 
57 Cyprus becomes a Roman province. 
End of the Seleucide. 
Cesar defeats the Beige and Nervii. 
55 — 54 Cesar invades Britain. ' 

Crassus plunders the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem ; is defeated and killed ,by the Par- 
thians at Car r he, 53. 
54 Cesar defeats Treviri and crosses the 
Rhine. 
Birth of Tibullus (died 18). 
52 — 51 . Cesar conquers Vercingetorix and 
Alesia. 
Murder of Claudius by Milo. 
51 Subjugation of Gaul completed, and be- 
comes a Roman province. 
50 Quintus Sextius (Stoic) flourished. 
49 Civil war between Cesar and Pompey. 
Pompey driven' from Italy. 
The Pompeians defeated in Spain. 
Cesar dictator. 
48 Battle of Pharsalia. 
Cesar defeats Pompey. 
Murder of Pompey in Egypt. 
Ptolemy Dionysus and Cleopatra inherit 
Egyptian throne. 
47 Cesar again dictator. 
War in Egypt. 

Partial destruction of the library of Alex- 
andria during the siege of Alexandria. 
Cesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela. 
46 The African War. 
Battle of Thapsus. 
Suicide of Cato. 

Reformation of the calendar by Cesar. 
His triumphs. 
45 War in Spain. 

Battle of Munda; defeat of tne Pom- 
peians. 
Cesar Pater Patrie Imperator, for life, 

Dictator. 
First year of Julian calendar. 
44 Assassination of Cesar by Brutus, Cas- 
sius and others. Flight of the assas- 
sins. 
Antony becomes master of Rome. 



i.e. 

44 Corinth and Carthage rebuilt. 
43 Cleopatra poisons her brother Ptolemy 
and reigns alone. 
Battle of Mutina. 

Second Triumvirate — C. Octavius, M. An- 
tony, M. Lepidus. 
Cicero put to death. 
Birth of Ovid (died A. D. 18). 
End of the Ragida. 
42 Battle of Philippi. 

42 Defeat and death of Brutus and Cassius. 
The Triumviri masters of the Roman 
world. 
41 Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra at Tar- 
sus. 
40 Herod the Great made king of the Jews. 

Library of Pergamus to Alexandria. 
37 Jerusalem taken by Herod and the 
Romans. 
Agrippa crosses the Rhine. 
36 Sextus Pompeius driven from Sicily (put 
to death 35). 
Lepidus deprived of power. 
Defeat of Antony in Parthia. 
34 Antony invades Armenia. 
32 War between Octavius and Antony. 
31 Battle of Actium. 

Establishment ^ of the Roman Empire. 
30 Battle of Actium. Octavius successful. 
Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra. 
Criticism of the best Attic Literature at 
Rome. 
29 The Gates of Janus shut. 
27 Cesar Octavius is made Emperor under 
the title of Augustus Cesar. 
Pantheon dedicated by Agrippa. 
25 Tiridates seeks Roman court. 
24 Defeat of Romans in Arabia. 
23 Death of Marcellus. 
21 Augustus Cesar founds Confederacy of 

Raconian cities. 
20 Roman standards restored by Parthia. 

India embassy to Rome. 
18 Death of Dionysus of Halicarnassus. 
17 — 7 Temple at Jerusalem rebuilt by Herod. 
Agrippa invades Asia. 
Cappadocia created a province of Rome. 

16 German war; Roman defeat under Lol- 

lius. 
15 Victories of Drusus over the Rheti. 
12 Invasion of Germany by Drusus. 
11 — 9 Campaigns of Tiberias in Pannonia 

and Dalmatia. 
9 Death of Drusus. 

8 Tiberius defeats the Germans. 
Diodorus Siculus, historian, flourished. 

4 Birth of Jesus Christ, according to Ush- 
er's system. 
Death of Herod, king of Judea. 
V. D. 

1 Tiberius commands on the Rhine. 
3 Birth of Seneca (died A. D. 65). 
6 Judea a Roman province under Syria. 

9 Destruction of the Romans under Varus 

and three legions by the Germans under 
Hermann. 
Romans defeated by Charusci under Ar- 

minius. 
Banishment of Ovid. 
14 Death of Augustus Cesar. 
Accession of Tiberius Cesar. 
Accession of Artatanus in Parthia. 
14 — 16 Campaigns of Germanicus in Germany. 

17 Germanicus in Parthia and the East. 

19 Death of Germanicus. 

War between Artabarus and Marbad. 

20 Valerius Maximus. 

M. Elino Sejanus dominant at Rome. 
23 Pretorian camp at Rome. 
25 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea. 
26 — 37 Tiberius retires to Capre. 

30 The Crucifixion, according to Eusebius. 

Lactantius, Augustine, Origen and other 
authorities give A. D. 29 as the proper 
year. 
Agrippina I. banished. 

31 Marco, Prefect of Pretorians, upon fall 

of Sejanus. 
37 Accession of Caligula, Rome. 
Birth of Josephus (died 97). 

40 Philo Senior ambassador to Rome. 
Birth of Plutarch— died 120. 

41 Claudius Emperor of Rome. 

42 Claudius conquers Mauretania. 
Birth of Quintilian — died 118. 

43 Expedition of Claudius to Britain. 
Successes of Aulus Plautius. 
Birth of Martial— died 104. 
Lycia becomes a Roman province. 

44 Judea and Samaria directly Roman. 
47 London founded by the Romans. 

Birth of Juvenal—died 130 (?). 

Thrace directly Roman. 

The Frisians subdued by Rome. 

50 Defeat and capture of Caractacus; taken 

prisoner to Rome. 
Claudius marries Agrippiana II., and 
adopts Nero. 

51 South Britain a Roman province. 

54 Agrippiana poisons Claudius and Nero 

becomes emperor. 

55 Birth of Tacitus; died 117 (?). 
>56 Corbulo in Parthia. 

59 Britannicus poisoned by Agrippiana. 
Agrippiana murdered by Nero. 
Parthia and Armenia at war. 

60 St. Paul at Malta. 

61 Insurrection of the Britons under Boa- 

dicea. 
Victory of Suetonius Paulinus. 
Birth of Papinius Statius, poet; died 96. 
Birth of Pliny the Minor; died 105. 

64 Rome on fire six days. 
Persecution of the Christians. 

65 Deaths of St. Peter and St. Paul (?). 
Deaths of Seneca and Luscan. 
Conspiracy of Piso. 

Revolt of the Jews. 

66 Josephus governor of Gallilee. 

67 Nero at the Olympic games. 

68 Death of Nero. 

Galba becomes emperor. 

69 Civil war at Rome. 
Otho kills himself. 
Viteliius killed. 

70 Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus. 
Civilis leads a Batavian revolt. 
Vespasian emperor at Rome. 

70 — 80 Colosseum at Rome built. 

71 The Gates of Janus closed. 
Triumph of Vespasian and Titus. 
Philosophers expelled from Rome. 
Reform of Treasury, Rome. 

71 — 75 The Stoic philosophers expelled from 
Rome by Vespasian. 

78 Agricola commands in Britain. 
Titus becomes Roman emperor. 

79 Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed by 

an eruption of Vesuvius. 

79 Death of Pliny, the Elder. 
The Laocoon group sculptured. 

80 Advance of Agricola to the Tay. 
Amphitheatre of Verona built. 

81 Domitian emperor of Rome. 

82 Rome wars with Chatti. 

83 Paris (Pantomime) killed. 

84 Agricola defeats the Caledonians, and 

sails around and subdues Britain. 

85 Agricola recalled to Rome. 

86 Rome wages an unsuccessful war against 

Gate or Dalia. 
Quadi and Marcomanni. 
91 Insurrection of Antonius suppressed. 

95 Rome persecutes Jews and Christians. 
St. John banished to Patmos. 

96 Domitian killed. 

Nerva becomes emperor. 
Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, born (died 
166). 
96 — 98 Relief of taxes and distribution of 

lands. 
98 Trajan emperor of Rome. 
Plutarch flourishes. 
103 Birth of Justin Martyr (died 166). 
103—107 Subjugation of Dacia. 



A. D. 
104 Birth of Herodes Atticus, antiquarian 

(died 180). 
114 — 117 Trajan's expedition to the East. 
117 Hadrian emperor. v 

He abandons the conquests of Trajan. 
The Euphrates made the eastern bound- 
ary of the empire. 

120 Hadrian visits Gaul and Britain. 
Statues of Antonous (Hadrian's page). 
Birth of Ireneus, Bishop of Lyons; died 

200. 
Birth of Lucian ; died 200. 

121 Hadrian's walls built — Newcastle to Car- 

lisle — Rhine to the Danube. 
Birth of Marcus Aurelius ; died 180. 
125 First apology for the Christians present- 
ed at Athens by Quadratus and Aris- 
tides. 
130 Birth of Appuleius. 

Birth of Galen; died 200. 
Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem. 
132 Second Jewish War. 

Barchochebas, leader of the Jews. 
Edictum perpetuum of Hadrian. 
135 Dispersion of the Jews. 

138 Antonius Pius, emperor. 
The empire at peace. 
Faustina I. flourishes. 

Wall of Antoninus (Graham's Dyke) 
built. 

139 Conquests of LolMus Urbicus in Britain. 

140 Vallum Antonio in Britain. 
145 — 175 Fustiana II. flourishes. 

147 Development of Roman civil laws. 
150 Establishment of schools in Roman prov- 
inces. 

161 Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus joint 

emperors. 
161 — 166 Pestilence and famine at Rome. 

162 Rome wars with Parthia. 

163 Persecution of Christians. 
166 Polycarp suffers martyrdom. 

167 — ISO War with the Marcomanni, Quadi, 
etc. 

Greek philosophers patronized by Rome. 
169 Death of L. Verus. 

Marcus Aurelius sole emperor. 
175 Rome quells rebellion in Syria. 

177 Christians in Gaul persecuted. 
Advance of the Goths. 

178 Goths attack Dacia. 

180 Commodus emperor of Rome. 
Statue of Aurelius erected. 
Perennis prefect of Pretorians. 

183 Successes of Ulpius Marcellus in Britain. 

184 Commodus takes the name of Britanicus. 

185 Birth of Origen (died 253). 

186 Oleander prefect of Pretorians. 
190 Birth of Tertullian (died 240). 

,192 Britanicus, as gladiator, killed. 

193 Pertinax, emperor of Rome, is murdered. 
Didius Julianus buys the empire. Is op- 
posed by Pescennius Niger and Sep- 
timius Severus and killed. 

194 Septimius Severus sole emperor. 
Defeat and death of Niger. 

196 Severus captures Byzantium after a siege 

of three years. 

197 Temple of the Sun at Baalbec. 
Battle of Lyons. 

Death of Albinus. 

198 Caracalla named Augustus. 
Defeat of Parthians by Romans. 

202 Persecution of the Christians. 
204 Birth of Plotinus, philosopher (died 274). 
209 Invasion of Britain by Severus. His wall 
completed, 220. 

211 Death of Severus at York. 
Caracalla and Geta emperors. 

Roman citizenship extended to the whole 
empire. 

212 Geta murdered. ' 
Caracalla, sole emperor. 

213 Death of Clement of Alexandria. 

214 First contact of the Romans with the 

Alamanni German tribes on the upper 
Rhine. 

217 Macrinus emperor. 

218 Heliogabalus emperor. 

222 Alexander Severus emperor. 

225 Sextus Empiricus, philosopher, flour- 

ishes. 

226 Dissolution of the Parthian Empire and 

end of Arecide. 
Foundation of the new Persian Kingdom 

of the Sassanide by Ardshir (Arta- 

xerxes). 
228 Ulpian (lawyer) died. 
231 Persian War begins. 
233 Triumph of Severus. 

235 Maximin murders Severus and succeeds 

to the throne. 

236 Persecution of the Christians. 

238 The Gordiani, Pupienus and Balbinu 
(jointly) and Gordianus III., emperors. 

242 Gordianus defeats Sapor, King of Persia. 

244 Gordianus murdered and succeeded by 
Philip the Arabian. 

249 Decius emperor of Rome. 

250 Decius orders a persecution of the Chris- 

tians. 
First invasion of the empire by the 
Goths. 

251 Death of Decius and his son. 
Gallus emperor. 

252 A pestilence breaks out in the empire * 

and lasts fifteen years. 

253 Irruption of the Goths and Burgundians 

into Mesia and Pannonia. 
First appearance of the Franks in Gaul 
about this time. 

254 Valerian emperor. His son Gallienus as- 

sociated with him. 
Persecution of the Christians. 

258 Trapezus taken by the Goths. 

259 Sapor ravages Syria. 
Valerian taken prisoner. 

260 Gallienus sole emperor. 

The Thirty Tyrants between 260 and 268. 

262 The Goths in Macedonia and Asia Minor. 
They destroy the Temple of Ephesus. 
Antioch taken by Sapor. 

263 The Franks invade Gaul. 

267 The Heruli invade Greece, and are re- 

pulsed by Dexippus. 

268 Claudius emperor. 

269 Claudius defeats the Goths in Mesia. 

270 Aurelian emperor of Rome. 

Victories over the Goths and the Ala- 
manni. 
Zenobia queen of Palmyra. 

272 Expedition of Aurelian to Palmyra. 

273 Capture of Palmyra and of Queen Ze- 

nobia. 

274 Birth of Constantine (died 337). 

275 Tacitus emperor. 

276 Probus emperor. 

277 Probus drives the Alamanni from Gaul. 
282 Carus emperor. 

Expedition to the East. 
284 Diocletian emperor of Rome. 
286 Maximian joint emperor with Diocletian. 

Revolt of Carausius in Britain. 
289 Victory of Carausius over Maximian. 
292 Constantius and Galerius named Ce- 
sars. 

Division of the empire. 

296 Britain recovered by Constantius. 

297 Siege of Alexandria by Diocletian. 
Persian War. 

298 Constantius defeats the Alamanni near 

Langres. 
Defeat of Narses. 
303 Persecution of the Christians by Diocle- 
tian. 

305 Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian. 
Constantius and Galerius emperors. 
Beginning of monasticism in Egypt •un- 
der St. Anthony. 

306 Death of Constantius at York. 
Constantine (the Great) proclaimed em- 
peror by the troops. 

307 Revolt of Maxentius. 
Six emperors. 
Elevation of Licinius. 



A I 



SUPPLEMENT XII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL 'AND MODERN HISTORY. 



A.D. 
311 



312 
31S 



314 
316 

323 
324 

325 

326 

326 
337 



340 
347 
348 



354 
357 



361 
362 



. 363 



364 



370 
373 
375 



376 

377 
378 
379 

381 



382 
383 
390 



393 
394 



395 



396 
397 



Rome proclaims Christianity. 

Edict of Nicomedia to stop the persecu- 
tion of the Christians. 

Defeat and death of Maxentius. 

Defeat and deatn of Maximian. 

Edictf of Milan, by Constantine and Li- 
cinius, for general religious toleration. 

Britain subdued. 

"War between the two emperors. 

Birth of St. Martin, Bishop of Tours. 

Constantine sole emperor. 

Constantinople founded; dedicated as the 
capital of the empire, 330 (or 334). 

First General Council of the Church 
meets at Nicea. 

Athanasius Patriarch of Alexandria. 

Controversy with Arzus. 

Death of Arius. 

Constantine II., Constans and Constan- 
tius II. joint emperors. 

Nephilas Meso — Gothic gospels. 

Death of Eusebius. 

Birth of St. Jerome — died 420. 

Synod of Sardica. 

Ulfilas Bishop of the Goths (died 388). 
350 — '52 Revolt of Magentius. . Defeated by 
Constantius. 

Birth of St. Augustine (died 430). 

Victory of Julian over the Alamanni 
at Argentoratum (Strasburg). 

Julian emperor. 

Julian recalls the banished bishops, and 
proclaims general religious toleration. 

Persian War. 

Julian killed. 

Jovian emperor. 

Valentinian and Valens joint emperors. 

Final division of the empire. 
367 — '69 Theodosius in Britain; aids Britons 
against Picts and Scots. 

The Saxons land on the coasts of Gaul. 

Death of Athanasius. 

War with the Quadi. 

Gratian emperor of the West with Val- 
entinian II. 

Invasion of the Huns. 

Valens allows the Huns to Settle in 
Thrace. 

Birth of St. Patrick (died 493?). 

Constantinople threatened by the Goths. 

Theodosius the Great, Emperor of the 
East. 

Second General Council held at Con- 
stantinople. 

Pagan rites prohibited. 

Alaric King of the Goths. 

Revolt of Maximus in Britain. 

Final suppression of Paganism. 

Massacre at Thessalonica. 

Death of Gregory at Nazianzus. 

Honorius Emperor of the West. 

Theodosius master of the whole Roman 
world. 

Death of Theodosius. 

Arcadius emperor of the East. 

The Huns invade the eastern provinces. 

Augustine made Bishop of Hippo (died 
430). 

Alaric in Greece. 

Stilicho attains chief power under Hono- 
rius. 

The Britons ask aid of Honorius, against 
the Picts and Scots. 

Deaths of Martin of Tours and Ambrose 
of Milan. 

Chrysostom Bishop of Constantinople 
(died 407). 

Alaric ravages Italy. 

Battle of Pollentia. 

Defeat of Alaric by Stilicho. 

The Vandals, Alani and Suevi invade 
Spain. . . 

The Roman legions recalled from Britain; 
final withdrawal about 418. 

Sack of Rome by Alaric. 

Death of Alaric. 

Pelagius begins to preach about this time. 

Proclus, the philosopher, born (died 485). 

Marriage of Ataulphus, King of the 
Goths, to Placida, daughter of Theo- 
dosius the Great. 

Persecution of the Christians in Persia 
begins; lasts thirty years. 

Death of St. Jerome. 

Orosius, the Spanish presbyter and his- 
torian, flourished. 

Death of Honorius at Ravenna. 

Administration of Etius begins, lasting 
about thirty years. 

The Traveler's Song published. 

Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, 
banished (435). 
429 The Vandals under Genseric invade Af- 
rica. 

Death of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsues- 
tia. 

Third General Council held at Ephesus. 

St. Patrick, arrives in Ireland. 

A+tila King of the Huns. 

Theodosian code published. 

The Vandak surprise Carthage. 

Leo I. (the Great), Bishop of Rome. 

Treaty of peace betwetr Valentinian and 
Genseric. 

Attila in: Thrace and Macedoiu . 

Messages of the Britons to Etii-i for aid 
against the Saxons. 

Attila ravages the Eastern Empire. 

Theodosius concludes a treaty with At- 
tila. 

The Robber Council of Ephesus. 

Landing of the English in Britain. 

Hengist and Horsa in Kent. 

Death of Theodosius II. 

Invasion of Gaul by Attila. 

Victory of Etius at Chalons. 

Fourth General Council held at Chalce* 
don. 

Monophysite controversy begins. 

Invasion of Italy by Attila. 

Venice founded. 

Death of Attila. Dissolution of his em- 
pire. 

St. Patrick fixes this see at Armagh. 

Sack of Rome by Genseric. 

Intercession of Leo. 

Hengist founds the Kingdom of Kent. 

The epic poem of Beowulf (?). 
-'67 Rule of Ricimer. 

Severus nominal emperor. 
-'72 Conquests of the Visigoths in Spain 
and Gaul. 

Great fire at Constantinople. 

Birth of Boethius (died 526). 

Romulus Augustulus Emperor of the 
West (banished 476). 

Odoacer captures and sacks Rome and 
becomes King of Italy. 

Succession of Western Emperors ends. 
Close of the period of Ancient History. 



398 



400 
403 



406 
409 



410 



412 
414 



420 



423 
425 



428 



431 

422 
433 
438 
439 
440 
442 

447 
446 

447 



449 



450 
451 



452 

453 

454 
455 

457 
460 
^461- 

462- 

465 
470 
475 

476 



Medieval History 

476 Establishment of the Kingdom of the 

Franks. 

477 Second Saxon invasion of Britain. 

480 Birth of St. Benedict (died 543). 

481 Clovis I. (Merovingian) reigns in Belgie 

Gaul. 
485 Proclus, philosopher, died. 
483 Battle of Soissons. 

Clovis I. defeats the Gauls. 
489 Ostrogoths invade Italy. 
491 Ella founds the Kingdom of Sussex. 



A.D. 

493 



Theodoric establishes the Ostrogothic 
Kingdom of Italy, South Germany and 
Hungary, capital at Ravenna. 

495 Third Saxon invasion of Britain. 
Cerdic founds the Kingdom of Wessex. 

496 Clovis of France embraces Christianity. 

501 Laws of Burgundy published. 

502 Charbades, the Persian, ravages the 

Greek Empire. 

503 Fergus lands in Scotland from 'Ireland. 
506 — '42 The famous King Arthur said to 

reign in England. 
507 Clovis, having conquered the country 
from the Pyrenees to the Loire, founds 
the Kingdom of all Franks. 

510 Clovis makes Paris the capital of the 

Franks. 

511 Salic Law established by Clovis in 

France. 
Division of the monarchy between Clovis' 
four sons. 

514 Vitalianus, the Goth, besieges Constanti- 
nople. 

519 Cerdic founds the Kingdom of Wessex 
in Britain. 

527 Justinian I. becomes Emperor of Rome. 
Fourth Saxon invasion of Britain. Essex 
founded. 

529 Justinian Code published. 

534 Belisarius conquers Africa. 

538 The Franks appear in Italy. 

539 Italy made subject to Belisarius. Goths 

ravage Milan. 

544 Birth of Gregory of Tours (died 590). 

545 The Turks enter Asia. 

547 Northumbria founded in Britain. 

550 The Angles form the Heptarchy — Anglia, 

Deira, Mercia, etc. 
552 Totila, the Ostrogoth, defeated in Italy 
.by the imperial generals Narses and 

Belisarius. 
554 Narses overthrows Gothic power in Italy. 
558 Clotaire sole ruler in France. 

560 Fergus Moor II. of Scotland (?). 

561 Death of Clotaire. His four sons divide 

the kingdom between them. 

562 St. Colomba lands in Scotland. 

563 Constantinople destroyed by fire. 

564 History of Gildas (?). 

565 Death of Justinian I. Ethelbert becomes 

King of Kent. 

568 Italy invaded by the Longobardi from 
Germany, who found the Kingdom of 
Lombardy. Narses governor of Italy. 

570 Birth of Mohammed (died 632). 

577 Battle of Durham; West-Saxons defeat the 
Britons. 

581 Paris mostly destroyed by fire. 
Sclavonians ravage Thrace. 

584 Franks invade Italy and are repelled. 
The Mayors of the palace the real rul- 
ers in France. 

586 Kingdom of Mercia founded in Britain. 

587 Franks expelled from Spain by Recared I. 
590 Gregory I., the Great, becomes Pope. 
595 The Lombards besiege Rome and overrun 

Italy. 

597 St. Augustine arrives in England. 

598 Ethelbert, King of Kent, embraces Chris- 

tianity. 
600 Italy ravaged by Sclavonians. 
603 Scots invade Bernicia ; are driven back. 

611 The Persians make conquests in Syria, 

Egypt, and Asia Minor, and besiege 
Rome. 

612 Jews persecuted in Spain. 

613 Clotaire II. King of France. 

614 Jerusalem captured by Persians. 

622 Mohammed secretly leaves Mecca and en- 
ters Medina. 
The Hegira or Arab emigration — not 
flight as commonly translated. 
628 Dagobert, the "Solomon of the Franks," 
becomes King. 
Revises and publishes the Salic and Ri- 
parian Laws. 
630 Mohammed re-enters Mecca; installed as 

prince and prophet. 
632 Death of Mohammed. 

His religion spreads through Persia. 
634 The Koran published. 

638 Syria occupied by Saracens. 

Clovis II., son of Dagobert, King of 
France. 

639 Omar institutes the new Moslem Calen- 

dar. 

640 Alexandrian Library burnt. 

642 In Britain the Mercians defeat the Berni- 

cians. 
653 Rhodes taken by the Saracens. 
656 Clotaire III. becomes King of France. 
662 In Italy, Constans II., Emperor of the 

East, is defeated by the Lombards. 
668 Constantinople besieged by Saracens. 
672 Saracens driven from Spain. 
672 — '77 Wamba's "good reign" in Spain. 
678 Cadwallader, the last king of the Britons, 

reigns. % 
Bulgarians occupy Bulgaria, in Northern 

Greece. 
681 Mebrouin, last of the Merovingians, as- 

685 Saxons drive Britons into Wales and 
Cornwall. 

687 Sussex united to Wessex. 

In France, Pepin defeats Thierry.' 

694 Kent devastated by West Saxons. 

697 Anaiesto becomes the first doge of Ven- 
ice. 

709 The Saracens invited into Spain to over- 
throw King Roderick. 

711 The Saracens cross from Africa to Spain. 
The Bulgarians ravage the Eastern Em- 
pire. 

712 The Gothic Kingdom of Spain overthrown 

by the Arabs. 
Establishment of the Saracen kingdom of 
Cordova. 

714 Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and 
real ruler of France. 

716 Independent Gothic Monarchy founded in 
the Asturias. 

718 Leon and Asturias formed into a King- 
dom by Pelays, who checks the con- 
quests of the Saracens in Spain. 

720 The Saracens are defeated at Constanti- 
nople. 
Charles Martel created Duke of France. 
The Saracens invade France. 

730 Pope Gregory excommunicates the Em- 
peror Leo. 

732 Battle of Tours, or Poitiers; crushing de- 
feat of the Saracens by the Franks. 

739 Charles Martel conquers Provence. 

746 Slavic settlements in Grecian Pelopon- 

nesus. 

747 Carloman of France abdicates. 

752 Pepin, the Short, son of Charles Martel, 
becomes King of France. 

754 Pepin gives Ravenna to the Pope. 

755 Insurrection in Mercia, Britain. 
Abderahman I. becomes King of Cordova. 

756 Pepin annexes Ravenna to the See of 

Rome. 

760 Insurrection of Toledo. 

768 Death of Pepin, who is succeeded by his 
two sons, Charlemagne and Carloman, 
who rule in France and Germany. 

771 Charlemagne rules alone. 

772 — '85 Charlemagne, after a severe strug- 
gle, conquers the Saxons; they em- 
brace Christianity. 

774 Charlemagne annexes Italy after con- 
quering the Lombards. 

778 Battle of Roncesvalles. 

Beginning of the age of chivalry. 
Charlemagne unsuccessfully invades 

Spain. 

785 Saxons, subdued by Charlemagne, be- 
come Christians. 

787 The Danes land in England. 

793 — '96 Charlemagne establishes the Margra- 
viate of Austria. 
Reign of Alfonso, the Chaste, in Spain ; 
independence of Christians established. 



A.D. 

799 The Avars subdued by Charlemagne. 

800 Charlemagne crowned at Rome ; be- 

comes Emperor of the West by Pope 
Leo III. 

S02 Ruric, the Norman, establishes the first 
regular government in Russia at Nov- 
gorod, and becomes grand duke. 

St)7 War between Slavs and Polyponnesian 
Greeks. 

814 Louis I., Emperor, dethroned, but re- 
stored to his dominions. 

817 Louis, the German (France), conquers 
Austria. 

820 Michael II., of the Byzantine Empire, 
founds the Armorian dynasty. 

823 In England, Essex (and, two years later, 
Kent and Northumbria) are annexed to 



825 
827 



840 
841 



846 

848 

850 

850( 

851 

865 

867 



871 

873 

S75 



875- 
877 
878 
879 

881 
888 
S90 



895 



901 

904 



907 



910 
911 



912 
918- 



921 

928 

933 
934 
936 
937 



939 

944 
951 
962 

978 
979 



987 

988 



995 
996 



999 
1000 
1002 



1003 



1013 
1014 



1015 
1016 



1017 



1019 
1026 



1035 



1037 
1039 



1040 



1041 
1042 



1043 
1051 
1052 

1058 



1065 
1066 



1070 
1071 
1073 



1075 
1076 
1077 
1081 

1084 



The Servians occupy Dalmatia. 

The Saxon Heptarchy ends and Egbert, 
king of Wessex, becomes king of all 
England. 

Louis the Debonair imprisoned in France. 
-'40 Louis separates Germany from 
France. 

Charles the Bald King of France. 

German princes assert their independ- 
ence. 

Treaty of Verdun; the sons of Louis di- 
vide the empire. 

Spain ravaged by the Northmen. 

The Saracens sack Rome. 

Brittany becomes independent. 

Russian monarchy established by Ruric. 

?) Scots and Picts united under Kenneth. 

Northmen pillage France. 

Russians attack Constantinople. 

Bassillian Dynasty founded at Constanti- 
nople. 

Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. 
(Latin Church.) 

The Danes defeat Alfred at battle of Mer- 
ton. 

Kingdom of Navarre founded by Sancho 
Iuigo. 

Charles, the Bald, becomes Emperor ; is 
poisoned by Zedechias, a Jewish physi- 
cian. 
-1154 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 

Louis II. King of France. 

Alfred the Great driven from England. 

Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. 
(Greek Church.) 

Danes ravage Scotland. 

Paris attacked by Northmen. 

Italy subjected to the Eastern Empire. 

Alfred of England founds Oxford, and 
establishes a code of laws; organizes 
militia and a navy; subdivides the 
country and causes surveys of the King- 
dom. 

Alfred's translations. 

The Germans, under Arnold, seize Rome. 

Alfred of England vanquishes the Danes. 

Death of Alfred the Great. 

Russia invades Greek Empire under 
Oleg. 

The Russians receive tribute from Con- 
stantinople. 

Assers life of Alfred written. 

Death of Louis the Child, last of the 
German Carolingians. 

Rollo the Northman becomes Robert, 

Duke of Normandy. 
-'34 Henry I., the Fowler, reigns in Ger- 
many; conquers the Huns, Danes, Van- 
dals and Bohemians. 

Italy invaded by the Burgundians. 

Five Emperors rule the Byzantine Em- 
pire. 

Athelstan ravages Scotland. 

Henry I. of Germany defeats the Danes. 

Otho the Great, in Germany. 

Athelstan wins a great victory over the 
Danes, Scots, etc., and becomes first 
King of England. 

Louis IV. of France subdues Hugh Ca- 
pet, Count of Paris. 

Malcolm I. in Scotland. 

Otho invades Italy. 

Otho the Great becomes Emperor of the 
West ; Italy and Germany united. 

Otho II. invades France. 

Assassination of Edward, the Martyr, of 
England. 

Battle of Basientello; Otho III. of Ger- 
many defeated by Greeks and Saracens. 

Hugh Capet becomes King of France. 

Vladimir marries Annie, sister of Basil 
II. of Russia, and embraces Chris- 
tianity. 

Elfric's Homilies. 

Otho III. makes the German Emperor 
elective. 

Paris made the capital of all France. 

Death of St. Adelbert, who first intro- 
duced Christianity into Prussia. 

Gerbert, Silvester II., Pope. 

Genoa, Italy, becomes rich and powerful. 

Massacre of Danes in England by Ethel- 
red. 

Reign of Robert II. in Burgundy. 

Sweyn, King of Denmark, avenges the 
massacre. 

Ethelred flees to Normandy. 

Malcolm II. King of Scotland. 

Sweyn conquers England. 

Battle of Zetunium ; Basil II. of Con- 
stantinople defeats the Bulgarians. 

Vladimir I. dies ; Russia is divided. 

Ethelred dies ; Edmund Ironsides and 
Canute divide England. 

Italy invaded by Northmen. 

Expulsion of Saracens. 

Canute, the Dane, becomes King of all 
England. 

The Moors enter Spain. 

Sancho II. of Navarre founds the King- 
dom of Castile. 

Arragon becomes a Kingdom under Ram- 
irez I. 

Union of Leon and Austria with Castile. 

Duncan I. of Scotland murdered by Mac- 
beth. 

Sicily restored and Servia lost to the 
Eastern Empire. 

The Cid (Ruy Diaz) in Spain. 

Danes driven from Scotland. 

The Saxon Dynasty restored. Edward 
the Confessor, King of England. 

Conquest of Bohemia by Henry III. 

Russians defeated before Constantinople. 

Rebellion of Godfrey in Kent. 

War of Roderigo, the Cid, with the 
Moors. 

Moors expelled from Italy. 

Macbeth defeated and slain. 

Malcolm III. of Scotland. 

Philip I., the Fair, King of France. 

Lambert of Herzfeld. 

Jerusalem captured by the Turks. 

William of Normandy invades England, 
and wins the battle of Hastings. 

Harold defeats the Norwegians, and is 
crowned King of England, January 6. 

Death of Harold. 

William L, the Norman, crowned King, 
December 25. 

The feudal system introduced in Eng- 
land. 

Norman Kingdom of the two Sicilies. 

Herewa-rd in the Isle of Ely. 

Hildebrand made Pope Gregory VII. 

Gregory VII. establishes universal sov- 
ereignty of the papacy, and reforms 
abuses in the Church. 

Henry VI. of Germany disputes his title. 

Odericus Vitalis. 

Justice of the Peace appointed. 

Henry IV. submits and does penance. 

Italy invaded by the Germans. 

Henry IV. takes Rome. 

The Pope flies to Salerno and dies there, 
in 1085. 

Clement III. made Pope by Henry IV. 



A.D. 
1086 



1087 
1088 
1090 
1091 



1095 



1096 



1098 
1099 



1104 
1106 



1107 
1108 

1110 
1114 
1116 

1119 
1120 



1124 
1125 



1132 
1135 



1138 
1139 



1143 
1144 



1146 



1147 



1150 
1152 



1153 

1154 



1156 

1161 
1162 
1163 

1165 
1166 
1167 



1169 
1170 

1172 
1176 

1180 

1181 
1183 



1187 
1189 



1191 



1198 
1199 
1200 
1202 
1203 

1204 

1207 
1208 



1209 



1210 
1213 



1214 
1215 



1216 
1217 



1220 
1222 



1223 

1224 
1226 

1227 
1228 
1229 
1229 



1231 
1232 
1233 



1235 
1236 



1237 



Domesday Book completed in England; 
commenced in 1077. 

Burno founds Carthusians. 

William II. crowned King of England. 

Urban II. Pope. 

Mantua taken by Henry IV. 

The Saracens of Spain invite the African 
Moors ^ to their aid in driving back the 
Christians. 

The Moors defeat the Christians and seize 
the Saracen possessions. 

Portugal becomes a separate principality 
under Henry of Besancon. 

William of Malmesbury. 

First Crusade begun. 

Verse Edda compiled (?). 

War between France and England. 

Death of the Cid. 

Jerusalem captured by Godfrey de Bouil- 
lon. 

Henry I. crowned King of England. 

Grants a charter restoring the Saxon 
laws. 

Crusaders capture Acre. 

Milan becomes a free republic. 

Henry I. defeats his brother Robert, and 
gains Normandy. 

Alexander I., Scotland. 

Louis VI. le Gros (the Lusty), King of 
France. 

Henry V. of Germany invades Italy. 

Henry V. marries Matilda of England. 

University of Bologna founded. 

Euclid translated into English. 

Play of St. Catherine at Dunstable. 

Rise of the Lombard (Italy) cities. 

Shipwreck of Prince William. 

Treaty of Worms, between the Emperor 
and Pope. ^ 

David I. King of Scotland. ^ 

Era of the glory of Venice. Victories 
over the Eastern Empire. 

Arnold of Brescia. 

Stephen becomes King of England. 

Henry's daugher, Maud, disputes the 
crown ; civil war ensues. 

Louis VI. grants letters of franchise to 
cities and towns. 

Empress Maud's partisans defeated at 
the battle of the Standard, Aug. 22. 

Portugal becomes a kingdom. 

Maud lands in England, and defeats Ste- 
phen ; is crowned at Winchester, March 
3, 1141. 

Moors rebel in Spain. 

Alphonso of Leon defeats the Moors. 

Wars of the Lombard cities. 

Second Crusade ; Louis VII. of France 
and Conrad III. of Germany are de- 
feated by Greek treachery, A. D. 1148. 

Greece, plundered by Roger of Sicily. 

Maud is defeated by Stephen, and retires 
to France. 

Arthurian Legends published. 

Frederick Barbarossa made Emperor of 
Germany. 

Maud concludes a peace with Stephen. 

Malcolm IV. King of Scotland. 

Frederick Barbarossa invades Italy. 

Henry II., King of England, the first 
Plantagenet, crowned December 19. 

Adrian IV. Pope. 

Constitutions of Clarendon enacted in 
England. 

Margraviate, Austria, made a hereditary 
duchy by Frederic I. 

War of Guelphs and Ghibellines. % 

Barbarossa destroys Milan. 

Berlin founded by a colony from the 
Netherlands. 

William the Lion, King of Scotland. 

Assizes of Clarendon and Northampton. 

Frederick Barbarossa takes Rome. 

The Lombard League formed against the 
Emperor. 

University of Paris founded. 

Thomas a Becket murdered in England 
December 29. 

The Sultan Saladin makes great eon- 
quests in Asia. 

Ireland conquered by the English. 

Battle of Legnano. Barbarossa defeated 
by the Lombard League. 

Six circuits for the administration of 
justice established in England. 

Glanvil Chief Justice of England. 

Philip II. (Augustus) King of France. 

Glanvil makes a digest of English law. 

Peace of Constance establishes the free 
cities of Italy. 

Provinces of Amiens and Valois annexed 
to France. 

Saladin seizes Jerusalem. 

Third Crusade by England, France and 
Germany. 

Siege of Acre begun. 

Richard I. crowned in England, Sept. 3. 

Terrible massacre of Jews in London. 

Frederick I. (Barbarossa), drowned. 

Order of Teutonic Knights established. 

Henry V. invades Italy. 

University of Oxford founded. 

Richard 1. joins the Crusades. 

Acre captured. 

Jerusalem opened to pilgrim. 

Kingdom of Cyprus founded. $ 

Artois annexed to France. 

Richard I., Coeur de Lion, made prisoner 
in Germany by Henry IV. ; ransomed 
(1194) for £400,000. 

Richard defeats Saladin. 

Innocent III. Pope. 

John becomes King of England, May 27. 

University of Salamanca founded. 

Fourth Crusade; capture of Zora. 

Constantinople besieged and captured by 
the Crusaders. 

Normandy lost to England. 

Latins possess and divide Greece. 

Albigensian Crusade. 

Otho crowned Emperor of Germany at 
Rome. 

England interdicted by the Pope. 

French Crusade against the Albegeoise. 

Inquisition established. 

War between Venice and Genoa. 

Battle of Muret; defeat of Albigenses. 

Interdict of England removed. 

Alexander II. of Scotland. 

French defeat Germans at Bouvines. 

Magna Charta signed at Runnymede, 
June 15 ; confirmed and renewed 30 
times. 

Birth of Roger Bacon (died 1292). 

Henry III. becomes King of England, 
October 28. 

Fifth crusade by Germans and Hun- 
garians. 

Frederick II. becomes Emperor of Italy. 

Matthew Paris born. 

The Teutonic" Knights undertake the con- 
quest of Poland. 

Tartars conquer a large part of Russia. 

Louis VIII. King of France. 

Louis frees his serfs. 

St. Louis becomes King Louis IX. of 
France. 

Gregory IX. Pope. 

Sixth Crusade; Frederick II. at Acre. 

The Inquisition begun. 

Ten years' truce with the Sultan. 

Jerusalem restored to the Christians. 

Frederick crowned King of Jerusalem. 

Albigenses defeated in France. 

University of Cambridge founded. 

Fall of Hubert de Burgh. 

Wars between Castile and Moors, and 
capture of Cordova, Seville, Toledo, and 
other cities by Ferdinand III. 

The Mongolians invade Russia. 

War between the Emperor and the Lom- 
bard League. 

The Grand Duke Juric (Russia) slain in 
battle. 



A. D. 

3238 Moorish Kingdom of Grenada founded 

by Mohammed I. 
1239 Seventh Crusade, by Thibaud, Count o£ 

Champagne. 

1241 Prose Edda. 

1242 Tartars establish the empire of Kahn of 

Kaptschak. 

1244 Jerusalem seized by the Carismians. 
Danes invade Russia, and are defeated by 

Alexander Newski. 

1245 The Hanseatic League formed. 

1246 Frederick II. of Austria killed in battle 

with the Hungarians. 

1250 Louis defeats King Henry of England. 
Louis captured by the Saracens; truce 

for ten years. 
Mamelukes rule Egypt. 

1251 Rise of Medica family in Italy. 

1252 Alexander Newski is made Grand Duke 

of Russia, and reigns as Alexander L 
1254 Ottocar of Bohemia acquires the Aus- 
trian Provinces. 

1259 Kubla Kahn builds Pekin. 

1260 Ottocar wars with Hungary over Styria. 
1262 — '68 Barons' War in England. 

1263 Ottocar inherits Corinthia. 

1265 The first regular Parliament of England 

meets. 
Birth of Dante; died 1321. 

1266 Naples and Sicily conquered by Charles 

of Anjou. 
1268 Ninth Crusade, by Louis IX. and Ed- 
ward, Prince of Wales. 

1270 Louis IX. dies at Carthage. 

Philip III. (the Hardy) King of France. 

1271 The English quit Palestine. 

1272 Reign of Edward I. of England; 

Crowned Nov. 20. 
Ottocar declines the Imperial Crown of 
Germany. 

1273 Randolph, Count of Hapsburg, chosen 

Emperor of Germany; Ottocar refuses 
to acknowledge him. 

1274 Navarre passes to the royal family of 

France. 
Rudolph makes war upon Ottocar, and 
gains Austria, Corinthia and Styria. 

1275 Wars of Robert Bruce and John Baliol 

for the crown of Scotland. 

1276 House of Hapsburg, of Austria, founded. 

1277 Rule of the Visconti, Milan. 

1278 Ottocar slain at the battle of Marshfeld. 

1282 Sicilian Vespers, massacre of Sicilians 

by the French. 
Crusade against Aragon; the French ex- 
pelled. 

1283 Wales subjected to England. 

1285 Philip IV. (the Fair) King of France. 

1286 Kenigsberg made the capital of Prussia. 

1287 Jews banished from England. 

1288 Nicholas IV. Pope. 

1289 Second invasion of the Mongols. 
1291 Mamelukes take Acre. 

Christian power in Syria destroyed. 

1296 Scotland subdued by England. 

1297 Sir William Wallace fights for the inde- 

pendence of Scotland. 
Revolt of Scotland. 

1299 Battle of Falkirk; Bruce and Douglas 

defeated by Edward I. 
Osman I. establishes the Turkish Em- 
pire. 

1300 Moscow becomes the capital of Russia, 

1301 Philip IV. quarrels with the Pope. 
Charles of Valois in Italy. 

1302 First convocation of States- General in 

France. 

1303 Edward I. invades Scotland. 

1305 William Wallace executed. 

1306 Robert Bruce crowned as King of Scot- 

land. 

1307 Edward II. crowned, July 8, King of 

England. 
1307 — '14 Philip suppresses the Knights Temp- 
lar, and burns the Grand Master at' 
Paris. 

1308 Pope Clement V. removes to Avignon, in 

France. 
Albert I., of Austria, attempts to sub- 
due the Swiss, who have revolted un- 
der William Tell. (?) 

1309 The Swiss revolt successful. 

1310 Henry VII. subdues the Lombards. 

1313 Louis V. and Frederick of Austria con- 

tend for the German Empire. 
Birth of Boccaccio ; died 1375. 

1314 Battle of Bannockburn ; the Scots, un- 

der Robert Bruce, defeat the English 

under Edward. 
Louis IV. King of Germany. 
Union of France and Navarre. 
1315 — '25 Insurrection of English Barons. 

The Swiss totally defeat the Austrians at 

Morgarten. 
1316 John I., a posthumous son of Louis X., 

King, dies at the age of four days. 
Philip II. (the Long) King of France. 

1321 Death of Dante. 

1322 Battle of Muehldorf; Louis V. defeats 

Frederick. 
Charles IV. King of France. 
1324 Birth of John Wickliffe ; died 1384. 

1326 Germany invaded by Turks. 

1327 Edward III. crowned, Jan. 25, King of 

England. 
Independence of Scotland. 
200,000 Moors brought from Africa by the 

King of Grenada. 

1328 Charles the Fair, of France, dies; Philip 

VI., of the House of Valois, reigns. 
Ivan I. rules Russia. 

1329 David II. King of Scotland. 

1333 The Scots defeated by Edward at Hali- 

don Hill. 
1337 War between France and Flanders. 
Birth of Froissart; died 1401. 

1339 First Doge of Genoa appointed. 

1340 Birth of Gerhard Groot; died 1380. 
Battle of Tarifa in Spain ; Moors terri- 
bly defeated by Alphonso XL, of Cas- 
tile. 

1346 Battle of Crecy; French, under Philip, 

routed by the English, under Edwardt 

III., and the Black Prince. 
Battle of Durban, in Scotland. 
Battle of Neville's Cross. 

1347 The English take Calais. 

Rienzi, last of the Tribunes, establishes 
a democracy in Rome. 

1348 University of Prague founded. 

1349 Dauphiny annexed to France. 
The black death in England. 

1350 Order of the Garter instituted by Ed- 

ward and John II., King of France. 

1352 Marino Faliero at Venice. 

1353 Turks enter Greece. 

1354 Rienzi slain at Rome. 

1356 Battle of Poitiers, September 19; 8,000 
English defeat 60,000 French; the 
Black Prince takes John II. captive to 
London, where he dies. 
Charles IV., of Germany, sipr^ the 
Golden Bull, the basis of tb*- German 
Constitution until 1806. 

1358 Insurrection of the Jacquerie in France. 

1360 Peace of Bretigny, between English and 

French. 

1361 Italy overrun by the Free Lances. 
Turks enter Greece. 

1362 The English language ordered to be used 

in legal proceedings, England. 

1363 Austria acquires the Tyrol. 

1364 Charles V. (the Wise) King of France. 
Philip, the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. 
Treaty between Austria and Bohemia. 

1866 H. Van Eyck, painter, born. 
1367 The Mamelukes conquer Armenia. 

1369 Empire of Tamerlane founded. 
Langland's "Piers Plowman." 

1370 Pope Gregory XL goes to Avignon. 

1371 Stuart line begins with Robert II. @i 

Scotland. 

1374 Death of Petrarch. 
Rebellion against the Pope. 

1375 Death of Boccaccio. 



SUPPLEMENT XIII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



A. B. 

1377 Richard II. King of England, June 22. 
Papacy restored to Rome. 

1380 Battle of the Don; Dimitri II., of Rus- 

sia, defeats the Tartars. 

Wyckliffe's translation of the Bible pub- 
lished. 

Thomas A. Kempis born. 

Russia wars with the Tartars. 

Charles VI., King of France. 

1381 Watt Tyler's insurrection in London 

crushed. 
Ghiberti, artist, born; died 1455. 

1382 "Legend of Good ■Women," England. 

1383 The Tartars burn Moscow. 
1385 Death of John Wyckliffe. 
1E86 John of Ghaunt in Spain. 

Battle of Lempach ; defeat of the Aus- 
trians by the Swiss, and death of Duke 
Leopold. 
1387 German Empire divided. 

Fra Angelico,' painter, born ; died 1448. 
1S88 Battle of Chevy Chase, or Otterburne, 

between Scots and English. 
138® Margaret of Norway. 
139© The Eastern Empire loses power in Asia. 
Kobert III. King of Scotland. 
The Canterbury Tales published. 
J. Van Eyck, painter, born. 
13S2 The Portuguese discover the Cape of 

Good Hope. 
13®5 Tamerlane, the Tartar, invades Russia. 

The Wakefield and Towneley mysteries. 
IBM Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks, under Ba- 
jazet L, defeat the Hungarian Chris- 
tians. 
1397 Persecution of the Wycklifites or Lol- 
lards. 
Union of Calmar. 
13®@ Henry IV. crowned King of England, 
Sept. 30th; Order of the Bath founded. 

1400 Birth of Delia Robbia, architect and 

sculptor. 
Death of Chaucer and Froissart. 

1401 Rebellion in Wales; Glendower and the 

Percies defeated. 
1462 Battle of Angora; Timour tae Tartar de- 
feats the Turks and captures Bajazet I. 
Masaccio, painter, born. 

1405 Prince James of Scotland captured. 

1406 Albany, regent, in Scotland. 

1407 France interdicted by the Pope. 

1409 Council of Pisa. Alexander V. made 

Pope by council of Pisa. 
141© Sigismund of Hungary becomes Emperor 

of Germany. 

1411 University of St. Andrews founded. 
Battle of Harlaw ; the Lowland defeat 

the Highland Scots. 

1412 Birth of Fra Filippo Lippi, painter. 

1413 Henry V. crowned, March 21, King of 

England. 

1414 Council of Constance; Pope John XXIII. 

deposed. 
Sigismund, King of Bohemia, Emperor of 
Germany. 

1415 Battle of Agincourt; 10,000 English, un- 

der Henry V., defeat 50,000 French. 

John Huss and Jerome of Prague burned 

at the stake, betrayed by Sigismund. 

1416 The partisans of Huss take up arms; 

a severe war ensues. 

1417 Cobham burnt. 

1419 The Hussites take Prague. 

1420 Paris captured by the English; Treaty 

of Troyes ; Henry wins the French 
crown ; birth of John Wessel. 

1422 Henry VI. proclaimed King of France 

and England. 
Ottoman Empire reunited by Amurath II. 

1423 James I. reigns in Scotland. 
1425 War between Milan and Venice. 

The Paston Letters. 

1429 Joan of Arc raises siege of Orleans, de- 

feats the English at Patay, and drives 
them from all their conquests in 
France except Calais. 
Charles VIII. King of France. 

1430 Henry VI. crowned at Paris, in Decem- 

ber. 
Amurath II. conquers Macedonia. 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester. 
The Medici at Florence. 

1431 Joan of Arc burned at Rouen. 
1433 Lisbon the capital of Portugal. 

Council of Basle. 

Birth of Thomas Malory. 

1435 Treaty of Arras, between France and 

Burgundy. 
Sicily and Naples united. 
End of Hussite wars. 
War of Turks w'ith Venice. 

1436 Invention of Printing by Guttenberg. 

1437 James I., of Scotland, murdered. 
James II. becomes King. 

Albert V., Duke of Austria, obtains Bo- 
hemia and Hungary, and is made Em- 
peror of Germany. 

1438 University of Florence founded. 

The Pragmatic Sanction; Albert V., of 
Austria, becomes Emperor of Ger- 
many. 

1439 Council of Florence. 

Title of Emperor limited to the Aus- 
trian Hapsburgs. 

1442 Battle of Vasag; Turks routed by Hun- 

garians. 

1443 Battle of Nissa ; Turks again defeated. 
1445 Birth of Leonardo da Vinci. 

The Arabian Knights issued (?). 
1447 Nicholas V. Pope. 

Duke of Gloucester murdered. 

1449 The Cforzas at Milan. 
Alphonso V. at Aragon. 
Peacock's "Repressor." 

1450 Jack Cade's insurrection. 
Early English Ballads. 
Birth of DmiDar; died 1530. 

1451 University of Glasgow founded. 

1452 Earl Douglas murdered by James II. 
The Archduchy of Austria created, with 

sovereign power, by Frederick III. 

1453 Constantinople captured by Mohammed 

II. ;.< end of the Eastern Empire. 

End of the French and English wars. 

The Mazarin Bible issued. 
1455 — '71 War of the Roses, between Henry VI. 
and the Duke of York, afterwards Ed- 
ward IV. 

Battle of St. Albans. 

1456 Battle of Belgrade; Turks repulsed by 

Hungarians. 

1457 Frederick III. divides Austria with his 

relatives. 

1458 Pius II. Pope at Rome. 

1460 Birth of Skelton ; died 1528. 
The Turks conquer Greece. 

1461 Edward IV. deposes Henry VI. of Eng- 

land. 
Louis XI. King of France. 

1462 Ivan, tha Great, of Russia, founds the 

modern Russian Empire. 

1463 Turkish war with Venice. 

Close of Austria's war with Frederick 
III. 

1464 "League of the Public Good," formed by 

the nobles, against Louis. 

1467 Birth of Erasmus; died 1536. 

1468 The Coventary mysteries. 

1470 — '92 Lorenzo de Medici flourished. 
1471 League of Italian cities against the 
Turks. 
William Caxton establishes 1 first English 

printing-press. 
Battle of Tewkesbury. 
Warwick, king-maker. 
Birth of Durer, painter; died 1528. 

1473 Birth of Copernicus. 

Birth of Michael Angelo, architect and 
sculptor ; died 1556. 

1474 Birth of Ariosto ; died 1533. 
Ferdinand II., of Aragon, marries Isa- 
bella, of Leon and Castile. 

1475 Edward IV. invades France. 

Ivan introduces cannon and firearms 
into Russia. 



A. D. 

1475 
1476 

1477 



1478 
1479 



1480 
1481 
1482 

1483 



1484 
1485 

1486 

1487 

148S 



1490 
1491 



1493 



1495 
1496 



1497 



1498 
1499 



1500 
1501 
1502 

1503 

1504 



1505 
1506 



1508 
1509 

1510 

1511 

1512 



1513 



1514 
1515 



Birth of Sir John Fortescue. 

Battle of Murten. 

Russian war with Tartars. 

Artois and Burgundy united to France 
by Maximillian's marriage. 

Birth of Titian, painter ; died - 1576. 

Duke of Clarence murdered. 

Union of Aragon and Castile, under 
Ferdinand and Isabella. 

Great invasion of Russia by Tartars. 

Mongolian power in Russia destroyed. 

Mohammed II. takes Otranto. 

Frederick IV., of Nurenberg, purchases 
Brandenburg from Sigismund. 

Ivan assumes the title of the Czar of 
Russia. 

Birth of Raphael, painter ; died 1520. 

Birth of Stephen Hawes; died 1512. 

Edward V. made King of England ; April 
8 murdered in the Tower. 

Richard III. usurps the throne, June 25. 

Charles VIII. King of France. 

Birth of Luther; died 1546. 

Spain invaded by Turks; first auto da 
f e at Seville. 

Bosworth Field. 

August 22, death of Richard I. 

Henry VII. crowned. 

Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward IV. 

B. Diaz rounds Cape of Good Hope. 

The Court of the Star Chamber insti- 
tuted in England. 

Province joined to France. 

War between Russia and Sweden. 

The Yeoman of the Guard organized in 
England. 

Leonardo da Vinci, painter, flourished. 

Charles VIII. marries Anne of Brittany, 

Alexander VI. Pope. 

Sevnigorod defeats and annihilates the 
Tartars. 

Columbus sails from Spain, August 3, 
and discovers America, October 12 ; 
discovers Cuba, October 28 ; Hayti, De- 
cember 6. 

Ferdinand conquers Grenada and de- 
stroys the Moorish • power in Spain. 

Cesar Borgia poisons Pope Alexander 
VII. 

Henry sells the sovereignty of France. 

Warbeck's insurrection ; quelled in 1498. 

Spanish persecution of the Jews. 

Treaty of Barcelona, between . France 
and Spain. 

League between Russia and Denmark. 

Birth of Correggio, painter; died 1534. 

Charles VII. invades Italy and conquers 
Naples. 

Lollards persecuted in England. 

Poynings' Act in Ireland. 

Naples lost to Charles. 

Spain accrues to Austria by the marriage 
of Philip I. with the heiress of Ara- 
gon and Castile. 

Cabot discovers Labrador, June 26 ; and 
surveys Hudson's Bay, July 3. 

Louis XII. King of France. 

The French unite with Venice and seize 
Milan. 

Battle of Lepanto ; victory of the Turks. 

Mohammedans expelled from Spain. 

Swiss Confederacy independent. 

Perkin Warbeck executed. 

Pinzon discovers Brazil, January 26. 

Cabral, the Portuguese, lands in Brazil, 
May 3. 

Brasle and Schaffhausen join the Swiss 
Confederation. , 

Negro slaves imported into Hispaniola. 

Spanish Moors compelled to adopt Chris- 
tianity. 

Columbus sails on his fourth voyage and 
discovers various isles on the coast of 
Honduras, and explores the coasts of 
the islands; discovers and names Por- 
to Bello, November 2. 

Reign of Montezuma in Mexico. 

Louis XII., of France, invades Spain. 

Portuguese in India. 

Birth of Wyatt; died 1542. 

Birth of Mendoza, historian ; died 1575. 

Death of Queen Isabella of Spain. 

Brazil explored by Americus Vespucius. 

Columbus, worried by the machinations 
of his enemies, returns to Spain, No- 
vember 7. 

Birth of John Knox; died 1572. 

Death of Columbus, May 20 ; he was 
treated with the basest ingratitude by 
the Spanish Government. 

Buchanan born; died 1582. 

Rule of Charles V., of Spain, in Hol- 
land. 

Birth of Francis Xavier ; died 1552. 

Yucatan discovered by Solis and Pinzon. 

League of Cambray, between Louis XII. 
and Maximillian, against Venice. 

Henry VIII. King of England ; he mar- 
ries Catherine of Aragon. 

Venice stripped of its Italian possessions. 

Russia again invaded by Tartars. 

Execution of Dudley and Empson. 

Ojedo founds San Sebastian. 

Pope Julius II. forms the Holy League 
with Ferdinand and' Venice. 

Velasquez subdues Cuba. 

Selim I. made King of Turkey by Janis- 



1517 



1518 
1519 



1521 



1522 



Ponce de Leon discovers the Florida 

coast. 
Birth of Vasari, painter; died 1571. 
Birth of Tintoretto, painter; died 1594, 
Navarre annexed to Spain. 
England invades France. 
Battle of Guinegate or Spurs ; French 

defeat. 
Scotland invades England. 
Battle of Flodden Field; Scots defeated. 
Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Darien, 

and discovers the Pacific ocean. 
Leo X., Pope, encourages literature and 

the arts. 
Wolsey's power begins in England. 
Battle of Marignano. 
Francis I. defeats the Italians, Swiss and 

Germans. 
Maximillian I. secures the Hungarian 

succession. 
Francis I. becomes King of France. 
First English prose history. 
Birth of St. Theresa; died 1582. 
Death of Ferdinand, King of Spain. 
Rule of Cardinal Ximenes. 
Charles I. King of Spain. 
Accession of the House of Austria. 
Turks gain Egypt. 

Europeans first obtain a footing in China. 
Selim I. defeats Mamelukes and adds 

Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. 
Luther begins the work of reformation 

in Germany. 
Fernando de Cordova discovers the Mex- 
ican coast. 
Luther translates and publishes the Bible 

and Liturgy in German. 
Birth of Surrey; died 1547. 
Grijalva penetrates! into Yucatan, and 

names it New Spain. 
Cortez lands in Mexico. 
Charles I., of Spain, elected Emperor of 

Germany as Charles V. 
"Field of the Cloth of Gold" meeting of 

Francis I. with Henry VIII. 
Balboa passes through Magellen's 

Straits. 
Battle of Razau ; Russia defeats Poland. 
Martin Luther excommunicated at the 

Diet of Worms. 
Conquest of Mexico by Cortez. 
Henry VIII., styled the "Defender of the 

Faith" by the Pope. 
France and Spain at war. 
Cortez made governor of Mexico by 

Charles V. 



A. D. 

1522 



1523 



1524 
1525 



1527 



1528 



1529 



1530 



1531 



1532 
1533 



1534 



1537 
1539 

1540 



1541 
1542 

1543 
1544 

1545 

1546 

1546- 

1547 



1548 
1549 



1551 
1552 



1553 



First Scotch invasion of England. 

The Louvre, Paris, commenced. 

Italian League against Francis I. 

Clement VII. Pope at Rome. 

Berner's Froissart. 

Honduras conquered by the Spaniards. 

Verazzani's discoveries in North Amer- 
ica. 

Birth of Rousard; died 1586. 

Settlement of New France (Canada). 

Battle of Pavia. 

Francis I. defeated and taken prisoner 
by Charles V. 

Peasants' War in Germany. 

Albert of Brandenburg embraces Luth- 
eranism and becomes Duke of East 
Prussia and Fief of Poland. 

Ferdinand I. unites Bohemia and Hun- 
gary to Austria. 

Pizarro discovers the coast of Quito. 

Selim I. defeats the Hungarians. 

Mongol dynasty founded in India. 

Tyndale's new Testament published. 

Germans capture Rome. 

Papal war. 

Insurrection of Moriscoes suppressed, in 
Spain. 

Death of Machiavelli. 

Birth of Camoens; died 1579. 

Sackville, earliest dramatist, born. 

Narvaez's expedition to Florida coast. 

Constable Bourbon at Rome. 

James V., of Scotland, reigns. 

Birth of P. Veronese, painter; died 1588. 

Diet at Spiers, Germany. 

Turks invade Austria. 

France and Spain sign treaty of peace at 
Cambria. 

Sir Thomas More, Chancellor. 

The Augsburg Confession published. 

Persecution of Protestants begun in 
France. 

Fall and death of Cardinal Wolsey. 

Reformation makes great progress in 
Switzerland. 

Italy conquered by Charles V. 

Russia makes peace with the Tartars. 

League of Smalkald formed by Protes- 
tant princes. 

First European Colony in South Amer- 
ica. 

San Vincente founded. 

Royal printing- press established in 
France. 

Elliot's "Governor" issued. 

Death of Zwingle; born 1484. 

France annexes Brittany. 

Conquest of Peru begins. 

Calvin at Geneva. 

Ivan I., Czar, noted for his cruelty. 

Henry divorces Catherine, and marries 
Anne Boleyn. 

Birth of Montague; died 1592. 

The Hotel de Ville, Paris, founded. 

The Anabaptist war; they capture Mun- 
ster. 

Henry VIII. is styled "Head of the 
Church"; authority of the Pope of 
Rome abolished in the kingdom. 

Carter's expedition to the Gulf of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Rebellion of Fitzgerald in Ireland. 

Foundation of Jesuit order. 

Comeggio died ; born 1493. 

Execution of Sir Thomas More, in Eng- 
land. 

Cartier's second Voyage, enters and 
names the St. Lawrence, ascends the 
river as far as present site of Montreal. 

Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and con* 
quers adjacent country. 

California supposed to have been discov- 
ered by an expedition fitted out by 
Cortez under Grijalva. 

Cromwell, vicar-general in England. 

Suppression of monasteries in England. 

Coverdale's Bible issued. 

Mendoza erects the first Mexican mint. 

Suppression of the Anabaptists, and 
death of John of Leyden. 

Anne Boleyn beheaded; Henry marries 
Jane Seymour. 

The Portuguese granted Macao, China. 

The Boulevards, Paris, commenced. 

English suppression of the monasteries. 

Death of Jane Seymour. 

Pilgrimage of Grace. 

Adoption of the six articles, England. 

First edition of Cromwell's Bible pub- 
lished. 

Cranmer's Anglican Liturgy. 

Execution of Cromwell. 

Greece subjected to the Ottoman Em- 
pire. 

Henry VIII. marries Annie of Cleves, 
January 6 ; divorced July 9 ; marries 
Catherine Howard, August 8. 

James V., of Scotland, dies. 

Mary proclaimed Queen of Scots; re- 
gency of Cardinal Beaton. 

Birth of Gascoigne; died 1577. 

Birth of Gilbert (magnetism) ; died 1603. 

Orellana sails down the Amazon to the 
sea. 

Great Tartar invasion of Russia repelled. 

De Soto discovers the Mississippi River. 

Catherine Howard executed. 

Henry VIII. takes the title of King of 
Ireland. 

Roberval's expedition to the St. Law- 
rence. 

Ivan IV., the Terrible, reigns, at the age 
of fourteen. 

Henry VIII. marries Catherine Parr. 

Death of Copernicus; born 1473. 

Grison League joins Swiss Confederacy. 

France at war with England and Spain. 

English invasion of France under Henry 
VIII. 

Birth of Tasso; died 1595. 

University of Konigsberg founded by 
Duke Albert. 

Ivan IV. crowned by the Patriarch. 

Pope Paul III. erects Parma and Pla- 
centia into a Duchy. 

Ascham "Toxophilus." 

Council of Trent. 

Death of Martin Luther. 

France concludes peace with England. 

Assassination of Beaton, regent of Scot- 
land. 

-'52 Charles V., of Germany, makes war 
on the Protestants, who are assisted 
later by Henry II. 
Earl of Surrey, England, executed. 
Death of Henry VIII. 
Edward VI. reigns under protectorship 

of the Duke of Somerset. 
Henry II. King of France. 
Battle of Pinkey. 

Death of Victoria Colonna ; born 14 
The Smalcadic war. 
Birth of Cervantes; died 1616 
Hall's Chronicle issued. 
Execution of Lord Seymour, England; 
arrest of his brother, the Duke of Som- 
erset. 
John Knox's Scotch reformation. 
Udal, earliest English comedy. 
Birth of Coke; died 1634. 
Wilson's Art of Rhetoric published. 
The Book of Common Prayer published 

in England. 
Duke of Somerset beheaded. 
Metz successfully* defended by the Duke 

of Guise. 
Close of religious war in Germany by 

the Peace of Passan. 
Massacre of Cazan, Russia. 
Birth of Sir Walter Raleigh; died 1618. 
Mary Tudor, daughter of Catherine of 

Aragon, succeeds Edward, July 6. 
Lady Jane Gray proclaimed Queen of 
England, July 10, but relinquishes the 
title. 



A. D. 
1553 



1554 



1555 



1556 



1557 



1558 



1559 



Ridley, 
at the 



retires 



1563 



1564 



1565 



1566 



1567 



1568 



1569 
1570 



1571 



1572 



1574 



1575 



1576 



1576 



1577 
1579 



1580 



1581 
1582 



1583 
1584 



1585 



1586 



1587 



1588 



1590 



1591 
1592 



1593 
1594 



Restores the Roman Catholic religion in 
England. 

Trade between England and Russia be- 
gun by the "Russian Company." 

Servetus burnt by Calvin. 

Birth of Hooker; died 1600. 

Birth of Spenser; died 1599. 

Lady Jane Gray and Lord Guilford Dud- 
ley beheaded. 

Mary marries Philip of Spain. 

Birth of Sir Philip Sydney; died 1586. 

Persecution of Protestants in England. 

Siberia discovered. 

Wyatt's insurrection suppressed in Eng- 
land. 

The English martyrs, Latimer, 
Rogers, and Cranmer burned 
stake. 

Philip II. rules in Holland. 

Religious peace of Augsburg. 

Bale's "King John" issued. 

Charles, of Spain and Germany, 
to a monastery. 

Philip II. King of Spain. 

Ferdinand, his brother, succeeds in Ger- 
many. 

Reign of Akbar, the greatest sovereign 
of Hindoostan. 

Spain at war with France. 

Battle of St. Quentin ; Philip gains a 
decisive victory. 

Alva takes Rome. 

Calais retaken by the French. 

Mary, of Guise, in Scotland, marries the 
Dauphine. 

Elizabeth accedes to English throne, No- 
vember 17. 

Re-establishes the Church of England. 

Francis II. King of France. 

Treaty of Cateau-Camhrerzs signed, 

William Cecil Secretary in England. 

Charles IX. King of France; regency of 
Catherine de Medici. 

The Geneva Bible issued. 

Birth of Southwell; died 1596. 

Persecution of Protestants begun in 
Spain. 

Birth of Bacon; died 1626. 

Mary Stuart reigns in Scotland. 

Religious wars in France. 

Massacre of Protestants at Vassy. 

Huguenots defeated at Dreux by Guise. 

Russia and Sweden unite against Poland. 

Port Royal, Carolinas, founded by Hu- 
guenots. 

Guise killed at the siege of Orleans. 

Temporary peace with the Huguenots. 

The Escurial Palace of Spain founded. 

Tusser's Bucolics issued. 

Birth of Drayton; died 1631. 

Maximillian II. King of Germany. 

Florida colonized by Huguenots. 

Birth of Shakespeare ; died 1616. 

Birth of Galileo; died 1640. 

The Tuileries, Paris, begun. 

Philip establishes the Inquisition in Hol- 
land. 

Mary Queen of Scots marries. Lord Darn- 
ley. 

St. Augustine, Florida, founded by Mel- 
endez. 

Confederacy of "Guenx" (beggars) 
against Philip's cruelty. 

Murder of Rizzio, hy Darnley, March 9. 

Religious wars resumed in France; 
Huguenots defeated at St. Denis. 

Alva enters the Netherlands. 

Assassination of Darnley, Feb. 10; Mary 
accused of connivance. 

Mary marries Brothwell, May 15 ; abdi- 
cates in favor of her son. 

James VI., Earl of Murray, regent. 

Mary escapes from prison, is defeated 
by Murray, at Langside, May 13, and 
seeks shelter in England. 

Bishop's Bible issued. 

Huguenots defeated at Jarnac and Mou- 
contour. 

Rebellion of Moriscoes, in Spain, put 
down. 

Ivan massacres 25,000 persons at Novgo- 
rod, Russia. 

Hungary definitely annexed to Austria. 

Murray murdered ; Lennox becomes 
regent. 

Birth of Kepler; died 1630. 

Spain allied with Venice and the Pope 
against the Turks. 

Battle of Lepanto; Turkish power crip- 
pled. 

Moscow, Russia, burned by the lartars. 

Lennox murdered; Mar becomes regent. 

Rebellion of William of Orange against 
Philip's tyranny. 

Massacre of St. Bartholomew, France, 
August 24. 

Henry of Navarre marries Marguerite, 
of Valois. 

Birth of Inigo Jones; died 1652. 

Accession of Henry III., of France, 
last of the Valois. 

Birth of Ben Jonson ; died 1637. 

Elizabeth, of England, declines the sov- 
ereignty of Holland. 

Birth of Guido Reni, painter; died 1642. 

Ghent pacified. 

Provinces in Holland unite against 
Spain. 

Accession of Rudolph II., of Germany. 

Frobisher enters San Francisco Bay. 

The Holy Catholic League organized. 

Birth of Burton; died 1640. 

Birth of Fletcher; died 1625. 

Birth of Rubens, painter; died 1626. 

League of Utrecht. 

Northern provinces of Holland declare 
their independence. 

Fitzgerald's Irish rebellion suppressed. 

Sir Francis Drake lands in the Moluccas. 

Alva, of Spain, conquers Portugal; the 
united provinces renounce their alle- 
giance. . 

English take fortress of Smerwick, in 
Ireland, from Italians, and butcher 700 
prisoners. . 

Birth of Alexander, of Sterling; died 

1640. , 

Campian's Jesuit conspiracy suppressed. 

Sante Fe, New Mexico, founded by Es- 

pejo. 
Birth of Hugo Grotius ; died 1645. 
William of Orange assassinated. 
Henry III. killed by Jacques Clement; 
accession of Henry IV., of Navarre, 
first of Bourbon line. 
Expedition of Amidas and Barlow to 

America. 
Southern provinces of Holland subdued 

by the Duke of Parma. 
Treaty of Peace between Holland and 

England. 
Failure of Raleigh's Roanoke Island set- 
tlements. 
Davis Strait discovered by Davis. 
Battle of Zutphen. 
Sir Philip Sydney killed. 
Birth of Beaumont; died 1616. 
Prince Maurice becomes Stadtholder of 
Holland. ■ n l l 

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots at 

Frotheringay Castle. 
Assassination of the Duke of Guise and 

his brother, by order of the King, 
Destruction of the Spanish Armada off 

the English coast. 
Battle of Ivry. 

Henry IV. defeats the League. 
Barnevaldt, grand Pensionary of Hol- 
land. 
Birth of Herrick; died 1674. 
Sigismund, of Poland, in Sweden. 
Birth of Quarles; died 1644. 
Birth of Gassendi; died 1655. 
Henry IV. adopts the Catholic faith. 
Birth of Shirley; died 1666. 



the 



A. D. 

1595 Shakespeare's poems first issued. 

1596 Capture of Cadiz by Essex. 
University of Barcellona founded. 
Birth of Descartes; died 1650. 

1597 Bacon's essays published. 

1598 Death of Philip II., of Spain. 

Philip III. King; he banishes 300,000 
Moors from Spain by A. D. 1610. 

The Netherlands ceded to Austria. 

Edict of Nantes in favor of Protestants, 
by Henry IV. 

Irish rebellion of O'Niel, or Tyrone; de- 
feat of the English at Blackwater. 

Henry IV. commissions De la Roche to 
conquer Canada, in which he fails. 

The race of Ruric, who had governed 
Russia for 700 years, becomes extinct. 

Bodleian founded. 

1599 Appenzel joins the Swiss Cantons. 
Birth of Vandyck, painter; died 1641. 
Birth of Velasquez, painter; died 1660= 



Modern History. 

1600 Maurice, of Holland, invadea Flanders. 
The Dutch East India Company char- 
tered with a capital of $360,000. 

Chauvin's trading voyages to Tadoussac, 
Canada. 

Birth of the painter, Rembrandt ; died 
1669. 

Birth of Claude Lorraine, painter; died 
1682. 

Portuguese introduce tobacco into In- 
dia. 

1601 Execution of the Earl of Essex, Febru- 

ary 25. 
Alleged discovery of Australia by Portu- 
guese. 

1602 Siege of Geneva, Switzerland ; Charles 

of Savoy defeated. 
Champlain's first expedition to the St. 
Lawrence. 

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth; accession of 

James IV., of Scotland, to English 
Crown, as James I. 
Union of England and Scotland, March 4. 

1604 First settlements in Nova Scotia by 

Acadians. 
Port Royal, on Bay of Fundy, founded. 
Hampton Court Conference. 

1605 Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot to blow 

up Parliament. 

1606 Groat fire in Constantinople. 
Matins at Moscow. 

Demetrius, a pretended son of Ivan, and 

many Poles massacred. 
Liberty of worship given to Protestants, 

in Austria, by peace of Vienna. 
Australia observed by the Dutch. 
Silk and other manufactures introduced 

into France. 
Mantua ceded to the Emperor of Austria. 
Birth of Corneille ; died 1684. 

1607 Settlement of Jamestown, Va., by Lord 

de la Warr. 

1608 Quebec founded by Champlain. 

John Sigismund created Elector of Bran- 
denburg and Duke of Prussia. 
Ulster settlements made by the English, 
Birth of John Milton; died 1674. 

1609 Truce of Antwerp ; independence of 

united provinces of Holland. 

Moriscoes expelled from Spain by Philip 
III. 

The Douay Bible first issued. 

Peace between Spain and the Dutch. 

Henry Hudson discovers Hudson River. 

Champlain's discoveries in Canada. 

Virginia obtains a new charter. 

Hawkins at Mogul Court. 

King James drives the Irish from Ul- 
ster and divides the land between Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

1610 "King James' Version" of the Bible 

completed. 
Henry IV. of France assassinated ; Marie 

de Medici Regent. 
Louis XIII. King of France. 
The Palais-Royal, Paris, built. 

1611 The title of Baronet created by James I. 
Champlain returns to America, founds 

Montreal, and is in supreme command 

in Canada. 
Issue of the English Bible, "King James' 

Version." 
Carr, afterwards Somerset, favorite in 

England. 

1612 Mathias becomes Emperor of Germany. 
English factories established in India. 
Virginia receives a third charter. 
Death of Prince Henry. 

1613 Accession of the Romanoff Dynasty in 

Russia. 

Michael Fedorvoitz Czar. 

Champlain explores the Ottawa River, 
Canada, 

The Overbury murder, England. 

Louis XIII. assumes the exercise of the 
Government. 

Princess Elizabeth, of England, marries 
Frederic, Elector of Palatine. 

English defeat Portuguese in Bombay. 

New Amsterdam, now New York, built 
by the Dutch. 

Smith explores the New England coast. 

Dutch settlements in New Jersey. 

Napier's Logarithms. 

Villier's Duke of Buckingham, favorite. 

The present Tsing Dynasty in China es- 
tablished by Mantchou Tartars. 

Death of Cervantes and Shakespeare. 

Harvey discovers circulation of blood. 

Ladislaus, of Poland, marches on Mos- 
cow. 

Finland ceded to Sweden. 

The thirty years' war begins in Bohemia, 
between the Protestants, under the 
Elector Palatine, and the Catholic Ba- 
varian League. 

Sir Walter Raleigh executed. 

Matthias II., of Hungary, abdicates ; ac- 
cession of Ferdinand II. 

Australian coast surveyed by Zeachen 
and others. • 

Kepler's Laws published. 

1619 Execution of Barneveldt, Holland. 

The Dutch visit India and establish a 
united East India Company. 

1620 Battle of Prague; defeat of Hungarian 

Protestants. 

Puritans arrive at Plymouth. 

"Great Patent" to Virginia company is- 
sued. 

Dutch vessels with first negro slaves 
enter James River. 

Navarre annexed to France. 

1621 Spain and Holland at War. 
Philip IV. King of Spain. 

The Dutch West India Company formed. 
Lord Bacon impeached and overthrown. 

1622 Seldom and Pym imprisoned. 
Birth of Moliere; died 1673. 

1623 New Hampshire first settled. 

First edition of Shakespeare's works. 

1624 Richelieu's reforms, begins with the 

finances. 
England declares war with Spain. 

1625 Prince Frederick Henry reigns in Hol- 

land. 

Accession of Ferdinand III., of Hungary. 

Accession of King Charles I., of Eng- 
land ; he marries Princess Henrietta 
Maria, of France. 

Huguenot uprising. 

1626 Death of Lord Bacon, 



1614 



1615 
1616 



1617 



1618 



SUPPLEMENT XIV. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1627 

1628 

1629 

1630 
1631 

1632 



1636 
163? 



1641 



1642 



1643 



1644 



1645 



1646 

164" 
1648 



1648 



1649 



1650 
1651 



1652 



1653 



1655 
1656 



War of the Mantuan succession, in Italy. 

Delaware settled by Swedes and Finns. 

Cardinal Richelieu's scheme for coloniz- 
ing Canada. 

The company of one hundred associates 
formed. 

War between England and France. 

Birth of Brossnet; died 1704. 

The Duke of Buckingham assassinated. 

Rochelle surrenders after a memorable 
siege. 

Petition of Right, England. 

Massachusetts Bay settled. 

Elliot sent to the Tower of London. 

Birth of John Bunyan ; died 1688. 

English seize French possessions in. Can- 
ada. 

Champlain made prisoner and sent to 
England. 

Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay 
Company. 

Edict of Restitution. 

The city of Boston founded. 

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, in- 
vades Germany. 

Treaty . of Cherasco, between Louis of 
France and Victor Amadeus I.» of Sa- 
voy. 

Birth of Dryden; died 1700. 

Charter of Maryland granted to Lord 
Baltimore, and settled by Irish Cath- 
olics. 

Canada restored to the French by treaty 
of St. Germain. 

The Cavalier Poets. 

Birth of Lock; died 1704. 

Champlain returns to Canada with new 
settlers. 

Battle of Lutzen ; victory and death of 
Gustavus Adolphus. 

French Academy established by Riche- 
lieu. - . 

Spain at war with France, which is in- 
vaded. 

Assassination of Wallenstein. 

Ship money levied in England. 

Connecticut settlements at Hartford, 
Windsor and Weathersfield. 

Rogers Williams driven from Massachu- 
setts, settles in Rhode Island. 

Death of Champlain. 

The "Tulip mania" prevails in Holland. 

University of Utrecht founded. 

Claius' play of Creation. 

Pequod Indian war in Connecticut. 

Gov. De Montmagny arrives in Canada. 

The Island of Montreal settled. 

Hampden's trial in England respecting 
"ship money." 

Prynne fined by Star Chamber. 

Harvard College founded. 

First settlement at Brooklyn, Long 
Island. 

New Haven colony founded. 

First peace between the Iroquois and 

Turks defeat Persians, and take Bagdad. 

Solemn League and Covenant between 
England and Scotland. 

Van Tromp, of Holland, captures two 
Spanish fleets. 

Pacification of Dunse. 

Withdrawal of English army from Scot- 
land. 

First printing press in America. 

Birth of Racine; died 1699. 

John of Braganza drives Spaniards from 
Portugal. 

Portugal wins its independence. 

Beginning of the Long Parliament. 

First American book issued. 

Earl of Stafford beheaded. 

Judgment against Hampden annulled. 

Ulster rebellion in Ireland ; massacre of 
English. 

Fort St. George built at Madras. 

Death of Galileo and Richelieu. 

Charles I. attempts to seize members m 
the House. 

Civil war in England. 

Battle of Edgehill, Oct. 23. 

Tasman coasts, South Australia and Van 
Diemans Land explored. 

Hobb's Leviathan published. 

Birth of Newton; died 1727. 

First ferry between New York and 
Brooklyn established. 

Accession of Louis XIV., the Great, in 
France. 

Regency of Anne of Austria, and ascend- 
ency of Mazarin. 

Battle of Chalgrove, June 18, and New- 
bury, Sept. 20. 

Covenant approved by Parliament. 

Turrene on the Rhine. 

Torricelli's Barometer. 

Battle of Marston Moor; victory of 
Cromwell. 

Second battle of Newbury, Oct. 27. 

Charter granted to Rhode Island. 

Indian massacre in Virginia. 

Self-denying ordinance, England. 

Birth of William Penn; died 1718. 

Archbishop Land beheaded, Jan. 10. 

Battle of Naseby, June 14 ; decisive de- 
feat of royalists. 

Battle of Philiphaugh ; Montrose defeat- 
ed by Cromwell. 

Alexis, called the Father of Ms country, 
Czar of Russia. 

Royal Society of England founded. 

Charles I. seeks refuge in Scotland, and 
is surrendered to the Parliament. 

Birth of Leibnitz; died 1716. 

Conversion of Indians in Canada to Chris- 
tianity. 

Treaty of Westphalia. 

Switzerland's independence acknowl- 
edged. 

Holland given up by Spain, becomes a 
republic. 

End of the thirty years' war between 
Catholics and Protestants. 

Pomerania, and other territory, annexed 
to Prussia. 

Civil wars of the Froude. 

Canadians at war with the Indians. 

The House of Brandenburg acquire Hal- 
berstadt and Minden. 

New Amsterdam contains about 1,000 in- 
habitants. 

Trial and execution of Charles I. 

Massacre and capture of Drogheda, Ire- 
land, by Cromwell. 

Confession of Faith. 

Marquis of Montrose beheaded in Scot- 
land. 

Leopold I. made King of Hungary. 

Charles II. crowned at Scone, Scotland, 
Jan. 1. 

Battle of Worcester, Sept. 3, and defeat 
of Royalists. 

Charles II. flees to France. 

"Barebones" Parliament. 

Birth of Fenelon; died 1715. 

English Navigation Act. 

England at war with Holland. 

The Dutch, under Van Tromp, "sweep 

the Channel." 
De Ruyter defeated by Blake. 

Negro insurrection suppressed in Mex- 

Peace between England and Holland. 

Death of Van Tromp. 

Long Parliament dissolved by Cromwell, 

April 20. He becomes Lord Protector, 

Dec. 16. 
Jesuits establish themselves among the 

Onondaga Iroquois. 
Russian victories in Poland. 
Spain and Englano at war, which lasts 

five years. 
Russian Truce of Nvemetz, or Wilma, 

. with Pola-nd. 
Prussia declared independent of Poland. 
Frederic William, the Great Elector. 



1667 



1668 



1670 



1671 

1672 



1656 Jamaica conquered. 

1657 Convention gives Cromwell power to ap- 

point his successor. 
Death of Admiral Blake. 

1658 Accession of Leopold I. in Germany. 
Death of Oliver Cromwell ; # Richard 

Cromwell, his son, succeeds him. 

1659 Auto de fa, of the Inquisition, Mexico. 
Richard Cromwell resigns title of Lord 

Protector. 
Peace of the Pyrenees. 

1660 The restoration. 

• Charles II. returns to England ; the mon- 
archy re- established. 
Birth of Stahl; died 1734. 

1661 Death of Mazarin. 

Colbert, Minister of Finance, in France. 

Execution of the Marquis of Argyle, in 
Scotland. 

Birth of De Foe; died 1731. 

The Royal Palace at Versailles com- 
menced ; court opened there in 1672. 

1662 Terrible earthquake in Pekin; 300,000 

lives lost. 
Act of Uniformity, May 19. 
The Church of England restored. 
Charles marries Catherine of Braganza, 

May 20. 

1663 Canada becomes a royal government "un- 

der Louis. XIV. 
Earthquake in Canada. 
Birth of Cotton Mather; died 1728. 

1664 France begins war with Holland. 

New Jersey sold to Lord Berkeley ; set- 
tled at Elizabethtown. 

The English take New Amsterdam and 
name it New York. 

North Carolina settled. 

De Courcelles governor in Canada. 

War with the Mohawks. 

1665 Second Dutch war with England. 
Death of Philip II.; regency of Anne. 
The Great Plague in London. 

Western Australia named New Holland, 

. by Dutch. 
Canada granted to French West India 
Company. 

1666 De Ruyter defeated by Monk. 
Mohawk villages destroyed by the 

French. 

Great fire in London. 

The French Academy of Sciences found- 
ed. 

Perpetual edict abolishes ofBce of stadt- 
holder in Holland. 

First Russian vessel built. 

Birth of Swift; died 1745. 

■New York ' City ; 384 houses. 

Triple Alliance; England, Holland and 
Sweden united against France. 

Treaty of Lisbon. 

Spain recognizes Portugal's independ- 
ence. 

Russian ambassador sent to France and 
Spain. 

France and Sweden break the triple 
Alliance, and declare war against Hol- 
land. 

First settlements of English in South 
Carolina. 

Champs Elysees, Paris, planted. 

Birth of Steele; died 1729. 

Coude and Turenne overrun Holland. 

Perpetual edict of 1667 revoked. 

William of Orange, stadtholder. 

The De Witts assassinated in Holland. 

The Holland dikes opened, and French 
driven out. 

The French acquire Pondieherry, India. 

Count de Frontenac, Governor of Can- 
ada. 

Paris Academy of Music founded. 

Birth of Addison; died 1719. 
,1673 Virginia granted to Arlington and Cul- 
pepper. 

Discoveries of Marquette and Joliet in 
the northwest. 

1674 Death of the poet John Milton. 
Discovery" of the Mississippi. 

1675 King Philip's war in New England. 
Birth of Clarke; died 1729. 

1677 William of Orange marries Mary. 
"Paradise Lost" first published. 

1678 Russia begins war with the Turks. 
Peace of Nimeguen, France. 

England alarmed by Titus Oates, stories 
of a false "Popish plot." 

Sir Edward Berry Godfrey found mur- 
dered. 

Expedition of La Salle. 

Bunyan's "Pilgrim's* Progress" published. 

Birth of Bolinbroke; died 1751. 

1679 Habeas Corpus Act passes parliament. 
Archbishop Sharpe murdered by cove- 
nanters, who defeat Cloverhouse at 
London Hill, but are routed at Both- 
well Bridge. 

1680 East India Company begins trading in 

China. 
Execution of Lord Stafford, Dec. 29. 
Mississippi river explored by Hennepin. 
Charleston, South Carolina, founded. 
The Exclusion Bill, England. 
Origin of the Whig and Tory. 
Mahratta power begins in India. 

1681 La Salle sails down the Mississippi, and 

names Louisiana. 
De Frontenac recalled from Canada. 
Reign of Ivan and Peter I., the Great, 
i in Russia. 
Murder of La Salle, in Louisiana. 
The Cossacks subdued by Russia. 
William Penn settles in Pennsylvania. 
Delaware granted to Penn. 
Sobieski, of Poland, raises the siege of 

Vienna. 
Discovery of Rye House plot, to secure 

succession for Duke of Monmouth. 
Execution of Lord Russell, July 21, and 

Algernon Sydney, Dec. 7. 
Canada renews war with the Iroquois. 
Mahomet I. besieges Vienna, but fails. 
Greece invaded by the Venetians. 
Birth of Berkeley; died 1753. 
Revocation of Edict of Nantes; terrible 

persecutions of French and Protestants 

follow. 
Accession of James II. of England. 
Argyle's rebellion suppressed, and his 

execution. 
Duke of Monmouth, natural son of 

Charles II., lands at Lyme, June 11 ; 

proclaimed king at Taunton, June 20. 

1685 Battle of Segemoor, July 6 ; defeat and 

execution of Monmouth. 
Texas colonized by Spaniards. 
Birth of Handel; died 1759. 
Birth of Bach; died 1750. 

1686 William Dampier lands in Australia. 
Louis marries Madame de Maintenon. 
Alliance between Russia and Poland 

against the Turks. 
Birth of Allan Ramsay; died 1757. 
Birth of Young; died 1765. 

1687 Athens captured by the Venetians. 
Hungarian crown declared to be in the 

Austrian male line. 

Accession of Joseph I. 

Madame Guyon, and the "Quietists," per- 
secuted. 

1688 Trial and acquittal of the seven bishops, 

June 30. 
Abdication and flight of James II., Dec. 

23. 
. Landing of the Prince of Orange on 

English soil. 
Bonsset's Variations issued. 
Birth of Pope; died 1744. 

1689 William and Mary proclaimed King and 

Queen, Feb. 13. 

James II. lands in Ireland. 

Peter the Great, sole sovereign in Russia. 

Cloverhouse's rebellion in Scotland sup- 
pressed. 

King William's war. 



16S2 
1683 



1684 
1685 



French and Indians ravage New England 
frontier. 

Canadian expedition fails. 

The Toleration Act passes Parliament. 

Iroquois lay waste the Island of Mon- 
treal. 

Frontenac again made Governor of Can- 
ada. 

France at war with England. 

Birth of Montesquieu; died 1755. 

1690 French and Indians destroy Schenectady, 

New York. 

Massacre of Salmon Falls. 

Siege of Londonderry. 

British colonies in America resolve to 
invade Canada. 

Unsuccessful attack made on Quebec by 
the British fleet. 

Spain joins the "Grand Alliance" against 
France. 

William III. lands in Ireland, June 10. 

Battle of the Boyne, July 1 ; James de- 
feated. 

1691 French invasion of Spain. * 
Aragon and Catalonia ravaged. 

Treaty of Limerick deprives James of 
power in Ireland, and grants amnesty 
to rebels. 

1692 Beginning of the English national debt. 
Insurrection in the City of Mexico. 
Massacre of Glencoe. 

Battles in Steinkirk and Landen. 
Birth of Bradley; died 1762. 

1693 Battle of Marsaglia ; the Duke of Savoy 

defeated by the French under Catinat. 

1694 Bank of England established. 
Mary, Queen of England, dies. 
Dictionary of French Academy issued. 
University of Halle founded. 

Birth of Bishop Butler; died 1752. 
Birth of Voltaire; died 1778. 
Birth of Chesterfield; died 1773. 

1695 Turks again invade Hungary. 
Bayle's Dictionary published. 
Abolition of censorship of the English 

press. 
Namur falls. 

1696 Trinity Church, New York, founded. 

1697 Peace of Ryswick. 

Treaty between England, France, Spain 

and Holland. 
Peter, Czar of Russia, visits Holland and 

England, and learns useful trades. 
Peter suppresses the conspiracy of the 

Strelitz, and punishes its members with 

barbarous cruelty. 
End of King William's war. 
Birth of Hogarth, painter; died 1774. 

1698 Death of Frontenac. 

First Partition treaty, regulates Spanish 
succession, and cedes territory to 
France. 

The Darien expedition sails. 

Second East India Company formed. 

Birth of Savage; died 1743. 

Birth of Warburton; died 1779. 

1699 Peace of Carlowitz, between Turks and 

the Allies. 
The Morea ceded to Venice. 
Further explorations of the Mississippi. 
Fenelon's "Telemaque" issued. 

1700 The French in Canada make peace with 

the Iroquois. 

Second Partition treaty in Spain, declares 
the Arch Duke Charles next in suc- 
cession. 

Charles II., of Spain, the last of the 
House of Austria, dies, and is suc- 
ceeded by Philip V., of the House of 
Bourbon. 

1701 War of the Spanish succession begins in 

Italy and continues until 1713. 

Death of James II., in exile, at St. Ger- 
main, Sept. 16. 

Spain allied with France and Mantua. 

The French found Detroit. 

The Prussian monarchy established by 
Frederick, and recognized by Leopold, 
of Germany. 

Russia at war with Sweden. 

Total defeat of Peter at the battle of 
Narva, by Charles XII. 

Census of New York gave 6,000 inhabit- 
ants. 

1702 Death of William III. of England. 
Anne succeeds to the English throne, 

March 8. 

Beginning of "Queen Anne's War." 

Prussia takes Guelders from the Dutch. 

Holland, Austria and England declare 
war with France and Spain. 

Treaty of French with the Five Nations. 

Massachusetts frontier ravaged by In- 
dians. 

1703 Peter founds St. Petersburgh, and makes 

it the capital of the empire. 
Portugal joins alliance against Spain and 

France. 
Irish parliament petitions for union. 
Birth of Jonathan Edwards; died 1758. 
Birth of John Wesley; died 1794. 

1704 Battle of Blenheim ; English and their 

allies, under Marlborough, victorious 

over the French. 
The English capture Gibraltar. 
Peter abolishes the Strelitz, or royal 

body guard. 
England passes the Irish "Popery Act." 
Battle of Donanwerth.- 

1705 Charles .acknowledged King of Spain at 

Barcelona. 
Joseph I. becomes Emperor of Germany. 

1706 Defeat of the French at Rarailles. 
Battle of Turin. 

The French raise the siege and surrender 

Naples and Lombardy. 
Birth of Ben Franklin; died 1790. 

1707 Union of England and Scotland as the 

Kingdom of Great Britain. 

Nuenburg seized and Lecklenburg pur- 
chased by Frederick I. 

Holland, Germany and England at war 
against France. 

First expedition against Port Royal, 
Nova Scotia, fails. 

Defeat of the allies, at Almauze. 

Death of Aurungzebe. 

Birth of Fielding; died 1754. 

Birth of Buffon; died 1788. 

1708 Mantua ceded to Joseph L, of Austria. 
The French squadron routed by the 

English, under Admiral Byng. 
Discovery of Herculaneum. 

1709 England determines upon the conquest 

of Canada. 
Battle of Pultowa; Peter totally defeats 

Charles XII., of Sweden, who flies to 

Turkey. 
14,000 Swedish prisoners sent by Peter to 

colonize Siberia. 

1709 Battle of Malplaquet ; Marlborough again 

defeats the French. 
Birth of Samuel Johnson; died 1784. 

1710 Capture of Port Royal, Nova Scotia, by 

the English, and name changed to An- 
napolis. 

Rout of Spaniards, under Philip V., at 
battle of Almenava. 

Sacheverell's riots in Great Britain ; dis- 
senting meeting houses destroyed. 

The "Tattler" first published. 

1711 Attack and repulse of English fleet on 

Quebec. 
Russia at war with Turkey. 
Accession of Charles VI., of Germany. 
A slave market opened in Wall Street, 

New York. 
Birth of Hume; died 1776. 

1712 The principality of Meurs acquired by 

Prussia. 
Peace of Aargau ; end of the religious war 

in Switzerland. 
Accession of Charles as Emperor cf 

Austria. f - 
Birth of Rosseau; died 1779. 



1713 Treaty of Utrecht between the great 

powers, and terminates the wars of 

Queen Anne. 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia ceded to 

England. 
Italy divided ; a part of the Duchy of 

Milan given to the Emperor of Austria. 
Barcelona, Spain, besieged. 
Frederick William I. becomes King of 

Prussia. 
Peter takes the title of Emperor of Rus- 

Birth of Sterne; died 1768. 

1714 Death of Queen Anne. 

George I. becomes King of England, 

Aug. 1. 
Hanovarian succession begins. 
Treaty of Rastadt ; Austria acquires the 

Netherlands. 
Birth of Whitefield; died 1770. 
Birth of Gluck; died 1787. 

1715 Rebellion in Scotland under the Earl of 

Mar. 
Battles of Preston and Sheriffmuir and 

defeat of the rebels. 
Landing of the Chevilier at Peterhead, 

December 22. 
Louis XV., King of France, with the 

Duke of Orleans Regent. 
Austria acquires Naples, Milan, etc. 
Russia adds Esthonia, Levonia, and a 

large part of Finland to the Empire. 
Peter visits Germany, Holland and 

France. 
Occupation of the Morea by Turkey. 
Rule of Cardinal Alberoni in Spain. 
Prussia and Sweden at war. 
Death of Louis the Great; accession of 

Louis XV., his grandson. 

1716 Great era of speculation. 
George Law's financial schemes. 

The village charter of Brooklyn first issued. 
The Septennial Bill passed in England. 
Birth of Garrick, actor; died 1779. 

1717 New Orleans founded. 
Belgrade abandoned by Turkey. 

1718 The Duke of Savoy becomes King of 

Sardinia. 
Peace of Passavowitz. 
Austria gains additional territory. 
Russia expels the Jesuits. 
Turkey * re-establishes supremacy in 

Greece. 
Arch of St. Denis, Paris, completed. 

1719 Battle of Glenshiel. 

Ostend East India Company founded. 
Mohammed Shah ascends the throne of 

India. 
Robinson Crusoe published. 

1720 Sardinia is made a kingdom. 

Law's Mississippi South Sea Bubble, and 

other schemes, collapse. 
Widespread financial distress. 

1721 Birth of Smollet ; died 1771. 
Birth of Foote, actor; died 1777. 

1722 The Pragmatic Sanction settles the Im- 

perial Crown of Germany on Maria 
Theresa. 
Death of the Duke of Marlborough. 

1723 The Jesuits expelled from China. 
Birth of Reynolds, painter; died 1792. 
Birth of Adam Smith; died 1790. 
Birth of Blackstone, jurist ; died 1780. 

1724 Philip V., of 'Spain, abdicates, but re- 

sumes power upon the death of Louis, 

his son. 
"Wood's half -pence." 
Great excitement in Ireland. 
Modern History at Oxford University. 
Guy's Hospital founded. 

1725 Death of Peter the Great. 

Catherine I. becomes Empress of Russia. 
The New York Gazette founded. 
Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, es- 
tablished. 

1726 Prussia concludes a league with Ger- 
. many. 

Birth of Button; died 1797. 

1727 Death of George L, and accession of 

George II., in England, June 11. 
Death of Sir Isaac Newton. 

1728 Birth of Goldsmith; died 1774. 

1729 A city library founded in New York. 
Birth of Lessing; died 1781. 

1730 Peter II., the last of the Romanoffs, de- 

posed. 
Anne, Duchess of Courland and daughter 

of Ivan IV., becomes Empress of Rus- 
^ sia. 

Birth of J. Watt; died 1819. 

1731 Birth of Cavendish ; died 1810. 
Birth of Cowper; died 1800. 

1732 Birth of George Washington, Feby. 22. 

1733 Georgia settled ~by Oglethorpe. 
Birth of Wieland; died 1813. 

1734 "Lettres Philosophiques" burnt by the 

hangman. 
Birth of Priestly; died 1804. 

1735 Charles, the son of Philip V., conquers 

Naples and crowned king of the two 
Sicilies. 
Birth of John Adams; died 1826. 

1736 Marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis L, 

Duke of Lorraine. 
War between Spain and Portugal. 
Birth of Mozart, musician; died 1792. 

1737 Hungary again at war with the Turks. 
Birth of Gibbon, historian; died 1794. 

1738 Birth of Benjamin West, painter; died 

1820. 
Birth of Sir William Herschel; died 1822. 

1739 England again declares war with Spain. 
Treaty of Belgrade between Russia, Aus- 
tria and Turkey. 

Russia renounces her rights on the Black 
Sea. 

Invasion of India by Persia. 

Delhi sacked by Nadir Shah. 

Methodism begins in England. 

Prohibition of the publication of De- 
bates in England. 

1740 Death of the Emperor Charles VI., of 

Germany, last of the male line of the 
House of Hapsburg. 

Maria Theresa, his daughter, becomes 
Queen of Hungary and Empress of Ger- 
many. 

Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. 

Prussia advanced to the rank of a first- 
class power. 

Ivan VI., an infant, emperor of Russia. 

New York Society Library founded. 

Swedenborg flourishes. 

1741 Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and France 

make war upon Maria Theresa, who re- 
ceives support from Great Britain. 

Prussian victory at Molwitz. 

Breslau ceded to Prussia. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, 
imprisons Ivan VI. for life and reigns 
in his stead. 

Russia at war with Sweden. 

1742 The Elector of Bavaria elected Emperor 

of Germany as Charles VII. 

1743 The French defeated at Dettingn by the 

English. 
Birth of Thomas Jefferson; died 1826. 

1744 Hostilities renewed in America between 

France and England, known as King 
George's War. 
Friesland annexed to Prussia. 

1745 Capture of Louisburg by Massachusetts 

militia, under Pepperell. 

Francis I., Duke of Lorraine, consort of 
■ Maria Theresa, elected Emperor of Ger- 
many. 

The young pretender lands at Moidart, 
Scotland. 

Defeat of the Royalists at Preston Pans, 
Jan. 17, and invasion of England. 

Birth of Hannah More; died . 

Birth of John Jay; died 1829. 

Birth of Benjamin Rush; died 1813. 

1746 Royalists again defeated at Falkirk, Jan. 

17. 



1746 Total defeat of the Pretender, at Cullo- 

den, April 16. 

Victories of Marshal Saxe. 

Invasion of Shirley, Nova Scotia. 

French and English struggle for pos- 
session of India. 

Capture of Madras by the French. 

1747 The French invade Flanders. 
Statdholdership revived in Holland. 
Execution of Lord Lovat in England. 
Klopstock's Messiah issued. 

Birth of David, painter; died 1825. 

1748 The Peace of Aix la Chapelle. 

The House of Austria confirmed in the 

possession of Milan. 
France takes a part of Flanders. 

1749 De La Jouquille becomes governor o£ 

Canada. 
French encroach upon Nova Scotia. 
Birth of Goethe; died 1832. 
Birth of Laplace; died 1827. 
Birth of Playfair; died . 

1750 Treaty of Madrid, between England and 

Spain. 
The first theater in New York opened. 
Discovery of Pompeii. 
Paoli's Corsican revolt, 1819. 

1751 Lord Clive takes Arcot, India. 
Diderot and D'Alembert French Encyclo- 
pedic 

Birth of Sheridan; died 1817. 
Birth of James Madison; died 1836. 

1752 The Marquis Duquesne Governor of Can-. 

ada ; he prepares for war with Great 
Britain and her colonies. 

The French dispute the claim of Virginia 
to the valley of the Ohio. 

New style of year introduced into Eng- 
land ; Sept. 3 counted as Sept. 14. 

The Journals ordered to be printed by 
the British Parliament. 

1753 Hostilities begin in the American colo- 

nies; French seize Hudson Bay Com- 
pany's trading posts; George Washing- 
ton sent to St. Pierre. 
Charles III. King of Spain. 

1754 Kentucky settled by Daniel Boone. 
Peace between France and England in 

India. 
Fort Necessity built at Great Meadows; 

Washington surrenders it to De Vil- 

liere with honors of war. 
Kings, now Columbia, College, New York, 

chartered. 

1755 Braddock and his army defeated by the 

French and Indians. 
Defeat of Dieskau at Lake. George. 
French Acadians taken from their homes. 
Frontier settlements in New York and 

Pennsylvania harassed by the French 

and Indians. 
Niagara expedition fails. 
Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake. 
Birth of Dr. Hahnemann; died 1843. 
Birth of Mrs. Siddons, actress; died 1831. 

1756 War declared between France and Eng- 

land. 

Beginning of the Seven Years' War. 

Austria, Russia and France allied against 
Prussia. 

Frederick invades Saxony and captures 
Saxon army. 

Montcalm sent to Canada and seizes Os- 
wego, New York. 

The conquest of India begun by Great 
^ Britain. 

Admiral Byng executed, March 14. 

Dowlah, Viceroy of Bengal, captures Cal- 
cutta after a heroic defense by Holwell. 

The Black Hole tragedy, June 20. 

1757 Fort William Henry, on Lake George, 

captured by Montcalm. 
Lord Clive's victories in India; takes 

Calcutta, January 2; Chanderuagore, 

March 23. 
Battle of Plassey, June 23, establishes 

English power in India. 
Battle of the Prague, May 6, victory of 

Frederick. 
Frederick defeated in the battle of Ko- 
. lin, May 18. 

Defeat of Prussians at Battle of Breslau. 
Austria concludes treaty with France for 

division of Prussia. 
Victory of Frederick in the battles of 

Rosbach, Nov. 5, and Lissa, Dec. 5. 
Attempted assassination of King Louis of 

France by Damiens. 
Birth of Jonathan Trumbull; died 1804. 
Birth of Alexander Hamilton; died 1804. 
Birth of J. P. Kemble, actor; died 1823. 
Birth of Canova, sculptor; died 1822. * 
. 1758 Louisburg captured by the English, un- 
der Wolfe. 
Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward s 

Island captured. 
Abercrombie defeated by Montcalm, at 

Ticonderoga. 
Fort Frontenac capitulates to Bradstreet; 

Fort George built. 
General Forbes captures Fort Duquesne 

from the French. 
Prussians defeated at the Battle of Hocb- 

kerchau. 
The French seize Forts St. David ana 

Ascot, India. , 

1759 Fort Niagara captured by the British, 

July 23. 

The French abandon Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point. 

Battle of the Plains of Abraham. 

Death of the French and English com- 
manders, Montcalm and Wolfe, Sept. 13. 

Quebec surrenders to the English. 

Charles III., King of the two Sicilies, 
becomes King of Spain. 

The Prussians defeated in the battles of 
Minders, Cunersdorf and Maxen. 

The French driven back in India. 

England obtains much territory from 
Subadhar, of Deccan. 

Birth of Robert Burns; died 1796. 

Birth of Schiller; died 1805. 

1760 Quebec attacked by the French under 

De Levi. 

Montreal captured by the English. 

Surrender of Canada to Great Britain. 

Death of George II., of England, and suc- 
cession of George III., Oct. 25. 

Berlin captured by the Austrians and 
Russians. 

Battle of Torgan; defeat of the Austrians. 

Thurot's invasion of Ireland. 

Coote retakes Arcot, India. 

1761 George III. marries Charlotte Sophia, of 

Mecklenburg, Strelitz. 
The French surrender Pondieherry, in 
India. 

1762 Revolution at St. Petersburg. 

Peter III. murdered, and Catherine II., 
called the Great, becomes Empress of 



Spain again declares war against Eng- 
land and Portugal and invades the 
latter country. 

Battles of Freiburg and Burkersdorf ; 
Austrians defeated in Silesia, by Fred- 
erick. 

Jesuits banished from France. 

Lord Rute, Prime Minister, England. 
1763 Peace of Paris. 

Canada ceded to Great Britain. 

Pondieherry restored to France. 

Governor Murray appointed governor of 
Canada, and first introduces English 
laws. 
1763 Close of the Seven Years' War. 

Treaty of Hubertsburg ; Silesia added to 
Prussia. 

Treaty of Madrid restores peace be- 
tween Spain, Portugal and England. 

John Wilkes arrested for sedition. 

Explorations of Willis and Carteret in 
Australia. 

Great defeat of native princes, at battle 
of Buxar, India, Oct. 23. 






SUPPLEMENT XV. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1763 Pontiac's war; Indians capture English 

forts and massacre inhabitants. 
The Sandy Hook lighthouse first lighted. 
G. Granville, English Prime Minister. 
Birth of J. Paul Richter ; died 1825. 

1764 Murder of Ivan VI., by order of the Em- 

press. 
Indians sue for peace. 
End of Pontiac'fi war. 
British parliament decrees heavy duties 

on imports. 
The Pantheon, St. Gefierieve, Paris, 

founded. 



Modern History. 

From A. D. 1765 to the present time, by 
Countries. 



CHINA. 

1798 Reception of the English Embassy at 

Pekin. 
1812 Edict against Christianity because of 

Jesuits. 
1816 Failure of Lord Ambert's Embassy. 
1832 Kingdom of Korea established. 
1834 Opium trade prohibited. 

1839 Opium seized, causing trouble with 

British. 
Chinese outrages in Canton. 
Hong Kong captured. 
Naval battles. 

1840 Trade with England forbidden by the 

Emperor. 
Canton and coast blockaded. 
War ends in a truce. 

1841 War renewed owing to China's bad faith. 
Victory of the British. 

Treaty giving England Hong Kong and 
$6,000,000, repudiated by Emperor. 

1842 Treaty of peace, at Nankin, with Eng- 

land, August 29, 
Hong Kong ceded to England. 
The Chinese cities of Canton, Amoy, 

Foochoofoo, Ningpo and Shanghae 

opened to British. 
China pays $21,000,000. 

1843 Treaty ratified by Queen Victoria and the 

Emperor Taou-Kwang. 
Hong Kong charter issued, April 5. 
1850 Rebellion in Quang-Si successful. 
1853 Nankin and Shanghae taken by rebels. 

1856 Renewal of war owing to Chinese out- 

rages on Europeans. 
Commodore Elliott, U. S. N., destroys 
Chinese fleet. 

1857 Blockade of Canton. 

1858 Capture of Canton by English and 

French. 
Treaty of Lord Elgin. 
Chinese pirates destroyed. 

1859 Commercial treaty with United States. 
English Envoy attacked by Chinese. 

1869 England and France at war with China. 

European allies victorious. 

Treaty of peace signed October 24. 

Surrender of Pekin, Oct. 12. 

Ratification of treaty with Russia. 

China forced to pay indemnity, and to 
apologize. 

Former treaty ratified. 
1861 Allies restore Canton to the Chinese. 

Rebels defeated by French and English 
aid. 

1864 Suicide of Tien-wang, the rebel emperor. 

1865 Prince Kung becomes regent during 

minority of emperor. 

1868 Burlingame Embassy visit United States 

and sign treaty. 

1869 Burlingame, Chinese Embassy, received 

at Paris. 

1870 French consul and many priests mas- 

sacred at Tien-tsin. 

1871 Chinese apologize and give indemnities. 
Marriage of Emperor. 

1873 Ki-Tsiang of age; becomes Emperor as 

Tung-chi, Jan. 22. 
1875 Death of the Emperor Tung-Chi, Jan. 
22 ; accession of Tsai-Tien, born 1871, 
son of Prince Chan. 
First Chinese railway from Shanghae to 
Woosung opened. 
1877 Terrible famine throughout the Empire. 
Edict forbidding opium smoking. 

1880 Serious troubles with Russia. 

1881 Treaty of peace concluded with Russia. 

1883 Sacking of European quarter in Canton. 

1884 Treaty of peace with France, May 11. 
The Imperial Government sanctions the 

introduction of railways, June 20. 
The Chinese Government declares war 

against France, Aug. 15. 
French destroy Kinpai Forts at Foo- 

ehow, Aug. 28. 
Repulse of the French at Tamsui. 
French admiral declares all the For- 

morsan ports to be blockaded. 
Insurrection in Korea. 
Assassination of the King's son, Dec. 4. 
Bhamo, Korea, captured by the Chinese, 

Dec. 8. 

1885 Langson, in Cochin China, captured by 

the French, Feb. 12; evacuated March 

28. 
Peace concluded with France, April 6 ; 

signed at Tien-tsin, June 9. 
1885 Admiralty Board created, Dec. 15. 
1888 Marriage of the Emperor, Feb. 25. 

1890 British Consulate at Ching-Kung-Foo 

wrecked, Feb. 6. 

1891 Floods and famine in Northern Districts, 

April. 

1894-5 War with Japan and continued defeats 
of the Chinese armies and navies. 

1895 Peace concluded with Japan, China pay- 
ing a large indemnity and relinquish- 
ing her claims on Corea. 
Massacre of missionaries in the interior. 

1900 "Boxer" uprising in China. 

1901 Chinese government agrees to terms de 

manded by the powers. 

1908 Death of Kwang-Hsn, emperor, and Tsu- 

Hsi, dowager empress, Nov. 14-15, 
Edict issued appointing Prince^ Chun 
to regency and his son, Pu-Yi, heir 
presumptive. 

1909 International opium conference held at 

Shanghai, February. 

1911 Revolution, and general uprising. 
Republic of China proclaimed. 

1912 Maachu dynasty abdicates. 



INDIA. 



167@ Nabob of Oudh becomes tributary to 
British. 

East India Company made receiver of 
Bengal, Bahar and Orissa. 

1766 Treaty with Nizam of the Deccan. 

1767 Alliance of Nizam and Hyder Ali, who at- 

tack the British and are defeated at 
Vellore. 
176© Hyder Ali, a Musselman adventurer, 
marches on Madras and compels Eng- 
lish to form alliance. 

1770 Terrible famine in Bengal. 

1771 The Mahrattas enter Delhi. 



1772 Warren Hastings becomes governor of 
Bengal. 

1774 Office of Governor General created. 
Rohilla army defeated. 

1775 Benares ceded to the East Indian Com- 

pany; charges of bribery against War- 
ren Hastings. 
1778 Pondicherry captured by the British. 

1780 Arcot taken by Hyder AH. 

Hastings defeats Hyder Ali's invasioB of 
Carnatic. 

1781 Defeat of the triple alliance of the 

Nizam, the Mahrattas and Hyder Ali. 
Battle of Novo Porto, July 1. 
Treaty of Chunar, between Hastings and 

the Subadhar of Oudh. 

1782 Tippoo Saib, son of Haydes Ali, secures 

the assistance of the French against 

the English. 
Trincomlee lost by the British. 
Hyder Ali succeeded by Tippoo Saib. 

1783 French troops under Bussy arrive. 
Tippoo Saib captures Bedmore. 

1784 Treaty of peace concluded with Tippoo 

Saib. 
Pitt's India bill passes Parliament. 

1785 Return of Warren Hastings to England. 
Succeeded by Sir John Macpherson. 

1786 Lord Cornwallis appointed Governor Gen- 

eral of India. 
Reform of the Company's Civil Service. 

1788 Declaratory Act passes Parliament. 

Trial of Warren Hastings begins in West- 
minster Hall ; Burke opens, Feb. 15-19 ; 
Sheridan presents charges in relation 
to the Begums, June 3-13. 

1789 Tippoo Saib attacks Travancore, Dec. 24, 

and is defeated. 

1790 Travancore captured and plundered by 

Tippoo Saib. 
Treaty with Mahrattas concluded. 

1791 Lord Cornwallis takes Bengalore. 
Tippoo routed at the battle of Arikera, 

May 14 ; Hastings begins his admirable 
defense. 

1792 Peace concluded with Tippoo Saib. 

1793 Renewal of charter of East India Com- 

pany for twenty years. 
Pondicherry taken by the British. 
1795 Warren Hastings acquitted. 

1798 Marquis of Wellesley appointed Governor 

General. 

1799 British take Seringapatam. 
Tippoo Saib killed, May 4. 
Restoration of the Mysore to the right- 
ful Hindoo sovereign. 

Rajah of Tangore surrenders his power 
to the English. 

1800 Surrender of Surat to the British. 
Nizam cedes Mysore to the British. 

1802 Pondicherry given to France at the 
treaty of Amiens. 

The British receive further concessions. 

Treaty of Bassein, between the East In- 
dia Company and the Peishwa, breaks 
up the Mahratta confederacy. 
IS 03 The third Mahratta war; the British, 
under General Lake, defeat French and 
Mahrattas at the battle of Delhi, Sept. 11. 

Battle of Assaye; Marquis of Wellesley, 
with 4,500 men, defeats 50,000 natives, 
Sept. 23. 

General Lake takes Agra, Oct. 17. 

Treaty of Peace with Scindia, Dec. 30. 
1S04 Holkar lays siege to Delhi. 

Gen. Frazer defeats Holkar at battle of 
Deeg, No. 13. 

Treaty of peace with Holkar, who cedes 
Bundelcund and other territory. 

Mutiny among Sepoys. 

Lord Minto, Governor General. 

War with Travancore. 

Travancore subdued; mutiny at Seringa- 
patam. 

Ecclesiastical establishment formed. 

India trade thrown open to any British 
subject. 

Marquis of Hastings, Governor General. 

Mahratta confederacy dissolved. 

Ahmednuggur ceded to English. 

Defeat of Holkar at Mehudpore. 

Pindarrie war. 

End of Pindarrie war; peace with Hol- 

The Peiswa surrenders and cedes the 
Deccan. • 

Oudh becomes independent. 

Lord Amherst, Governor General. 

Burmese war begins; British take Ran- 
goon, May 5. 

British capture Assam, Feb. 1. 

Burmese defeated at the battle of Prome. 

Battle of Pagham Mew ends Burmese 
war. 

Peace declared Feb. 24; Burmah pays 
$1,000,000 and cedss large territory. 

English take Bhurtpore. 

Lord Bentinck, Governor General. 

The northwest provinces made a separate 
administration. 

Steam communication introduced into 
India. 

Slavery abolished in the East. 

Afghan war declared; Cabul captured by 
the British, Aug. 7. 

Lord Ellenborough Governor General. 

Ameers of Scind defeated by Sir Charles 
Napier, Feb. 17. 

Lord Hardinge Governor General. 

Danish possessions in India purchased by 
England. 

England at war with Sikhs; battle of 
Moodkee, Sept. 6. 

British victory over Sikhs at Sobraon, 
February. 

Treaty of Lasore. 

Lord * Dalhousie Governor General. 

Second Sikh war begun; Ramnuggur 
taken by General Gough; again de- 
feated at Vyseerabad. 

The Sikh war ended with battle of Goo- 
jerat, Feb. 21. 

Sir Charles Napier becomes Commander- 
in-chief. 

Annexation of the Rajah to British do- 
minions. 

Mutiny of native infantry in Bengal. 

Beginning of the Second Burmese war. 

Pegu annexed to British Empire. 

Close of the Second Burmese war. 

Burmah deprived of its seaboard prov- 
inces. , , , i 

First Indian railway and telegraph 
opened, Bombay to Tannah. 

Renewal, for the last time, of East India 
Company's charter. 

Bengal put under a Lieutenant-Governor. 

Indian Civil Service thrown open to com- 
petition. 

Ganges Canal opened. 

Calcutta Railway opened. 

Annexation of Oudh. 

Lord Canning appointed Governor Gen- 
eral. 

Mutiny among native regiments at Bar- 
rackpore, Burhampore and Lucknow, 
May 6. The great Sepoy rebellion com- 
menced at Meerut, May 10 ; Delhi 
seized by 40,000 rebels and the King 
proclaimed Emperor; mutinies at 
Cawnpore and Allahabad. 

Cawnpore surrenderd by the British to 
Nana Sahib, June 25. 

Siege of Lucknow begins July 1 ; Gen- 
eral Havelock enters Cawnpore, July 
17 : victory over Nana Sahib, at Bit- 
hoor, July 19. 

Capture of Delhi from the rebels, Sept. 
20 ; Lucknow relieved by Havelock, 
Sept. 25. 

Rebels routed at Battle of Cawnpore, 
Dec. 6. 
1858 Battle of Futteghur, Jan 2. Sir Colin 
Campbell captures Lucknow, March 21. 
Rebels defeated at Kotara, July 14 ; at 
other points subdues the rebels. 



1805 

1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 

1813 



1814 
1817 



1818 



1818 
1823 
1824 

1825 

1826 



1828 
1833 



1835 



1838 
1838 



1842 
1843 



1844 
1845 



1846 
1848 

1849 



1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 



1854 
1855 



1856 
1857 



1859 



1862 
1863 

1866 
1868 
1870 

1872 

1874 
1875 

1876 



1877 



1879 
1880 



1882 
1883 



1885 



1888 
1891 



1893 
1899 



1905 
1912 



An Act for the better government of 
India received royal assent, Aug. 2. 

Government takes control of India from 
the East India Company, Sept. 1. 

Lord Canning made first Viceroy of In- 
dia. 

Thanksgiving day in India for peace re- 
stored. 

The Punjaub is made a presidency. 

Pacification of Oude announced, Jan. 25. 

Lord Elgin appointed Viceroy of India. 

Death of Lord Elgin. 

Sir John Lawrence made Viceroy. 

Bengal visited by a severe famine. 

Earl of Mayo becomes Viceroy of India. 

Railway between Calcutta and Bombay 
opened. 

Assassination of Lord Mayo, Feb. 8. 

Lord Northbrook becomes Viceroy. 

Terrible famine throughout Bengal. 

Tour of the Prince of Wales through 
India ; arrives at Bombay, Nov. 8. 

Prince of Wales sails for home, March 13. 

Lord Lytton appointed Governor Gen- 
eral. 

A terrible cyclone causes loss of 220,000 
lives. 

Queen Victoria proclaimed, in London, 
Empress of India, May 1. 

Great famine in India, continuing nearly 
a year. 

Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of 
India, at Delhi, and other great cities, 
Jan. 1. 

Massacres at Cabul. 

Marquis of Ripon made Governor General 
of India. 

Riot between Hindoos and Mohammed- 
ans in the presidency of Madras. 

International exhibition at Calcutta 
opened, Dec. 4. 

Death of Maj. Gen. Francis Mardall. 

Death of Keshut Chunder Sen, head of 
the reformed theistic sect of Hindoos, 
Jan. 8. 

Formal installation of Mir Mahbub Ali, 
Nizam of Hyderabad, by Lord Ripon. 

The Calcutta exhibition closed, March 10. 

Terrible epidemic of small pox, at 
Madras, March 30. 

The Ilbert bill passes the legislative 
council, Calcutta, Jan. 25. 

Earl of Dufferin nominated to ■ the Vice- 
royalty of India, Sept. 10. 

Lord Reay appointed governor of Bom- 
bay, Dec. 13. * 

Indian Parcel Post inaugurated, July 7. 

Burmese expedition, from Calcutta, for 
Rangoon, Nov. 1. 

Hostilities against Burmese begun by 
Lieut. Gen. Prendergast, Nov. 16. 

King of Burmah unconditionally surren- 
ders, Nov. 30. 

India gives prompt aid to England dur- 
ing Afghan war. 

India tenders assistance to England dur- 
ing Russian controversy. 

Marauis of Lansdowne appointed Gov- 
ernor General, Dec. 11. 

Massacre of native troops and English 
officers at Manifur, March 27. 

Defeat of the Manifurans by the Eng- 
lish, May 5. 

Mints closed as to free silver by order of 
the Indian Council. 

Lord Curzon inaugurated Governor Gen- 
eral, Jan. 9. 

Great earthquake, April 4. 

King George visited India, and received 
royal ovation. 



RUSSIA. 



1768 
1769- 
1772 

1774 
1775 
1778 
1780 



1784 
1787 

1788 

1793 
1795 

1796 
1798 
1799 



1800 
1801 



1805 



1807 
1809 



1812 



1813 

1814 

1815 

1822 
1825 
1826 



1827 

1828 



1829 
1830 
1831 

1832 



1840 



1841 
1848 



1849 
1850 



1852 
1853 



War declared against Russia by Turkey. 
'84 Conquest of the Crimea. 

Catherine I. commences the dismember- 
ment of Poland. 

Rebellion of the Cossacks. 

Cossacks* rebellion suppressed. 

Prince Potemkin becomes prime minister. 

Army neutrality. 

Russia, Sweden and Denmark declare that 
"free ships make free goods.'* 

Acquisition of the Crimea. 

War with Turkey renewed. 

War with Sweden. 

Treaty of Warelow. 

Second partition of Poland. 

Alliance with England. 

Final partition of Poland between Rus- 
sia, Prussia and Austria. 

The partition of Poland completed. 

Death of Catherine the Great. 

War with Persia. 

Russia joins the alliance of England and 
Austria against France. 

Suwarrow assists Austrians and checks the 
French in Italy. 

Russia forms an alliance with France. 

Insanity of the Emperor Paul. 

He is assassinated. 

Alexander I. becomes emperor; he makes 
peace with England. 

Russia joins the coalition against France, 
April. 

Battle of Austerlitz ; Napoleon defeats the 
allies, Dec. 2. 

Treaty of Tilsit; peace with France. 

The Turks defeat the Russians near Silis- 
tria. 

War with France. 

Napoleon invades Russia. 

Battle of Smolensko, Aug. 17 ; Russians 
defeated. 

Battle of the Borodino, Sept. 7 ; Russians 
defeated. 

Burning of Moscow by . the Russians, 
Sept. 14. 

Retreat of the French. 

Battle of Leipzig, and defeat of Na- 
poleon. 

Downfall of Napoleon. 

The Emperor Alexander enters Paris, 
with the allies, in triumph. 

The Emperor Alexander organizes the 
"Holy Alliance," between Russia, Aus- 
tria and Prussia. 

Alexander proclaimed King of Poland. 

The Grand Duke Constantine renounces 
his right to the throne. 

Death of the Emperor Alexander. 

Insurrection of troops at Moscow. 

The Emperor Nicholas crowned at Mos- 
cow. 

War with Persia. 

The Emperor Nicholas visits England. 

Peace with Persia. 

War with Turkey, Russians generally vic- 
torious, begins April 26. 

Peace of Adrianople with Turkey. 

Polish war of independence begins. 

Warsaw taken by the Russians, and the 
insurrection crushed, Sept., Oct. 

The emperor decrees that Poland shall 
henceforth form an intergral part of the 
Russian Empire. 

Failure of the Khivan Expedition. 

Treaty of London signed by Russia. 

War with Circassians. 

Russia aids Austria in suppressing the 
Hungarian Revolution. 

Russia demands that Polish and Hun- 
garian exiles be expelled from Turkey. 

Conspiracy against the life of the em- 
peror detected. 

Harbor of Sebastopol completed. 

Exiles sent to Kouish, Asia Minor. 

Visit of the emperor to Vienna. 

Commencement of the quarrel with Tur- 
key about the "Holy Places." 



1854 



1855 



1856 



1858 

1857 
1859 



1860 
1861 



1853 Army sent to Turkish frontier. 
Conference of the great powers. 
War declared by Turkey, Oct. 5. 
English and French fleets enter the Bos- 

phorus, Nov. 2. 

1854 Allies enter the Black Sea. 

Battle of Citate, Jan. 6 ; Russians de- 
feated. 

Ultimatum of France and England un- 
answered by Russia. 

Treaty between England, France and Tur- 
key, March 12. 

Bombardment of Odessa, April 22. 

Siege of Silistria, May 17. 

Siege of Silistria raised, June 26. 

Capture of Bomarsund, Aug. 16. 

Russia evacuates the principalities. 

Battle of the Alma, Sept. 20; victory of 
the allies. 

Siege of Sebastopol begins, Oct. 17. 

Battle of Balaklava, Oct. 25. 

Battle of Inkermann, Nov. 5. 

Death of the Emperor Nicholas, March 2. 

Alexander II. Emperor. 

Sortie of Malakoff tower, March 22. 

Russians evacuate Anapa, June 5. 

Kars invested, July 15. 

Capture of Malakoff tower by the French, 
Sept. 8. 

Death of Lord Raglan. 

The Russians evacuate Sebastopol and re- 
tire to their works on the north side 
of the harbor; destruction of the Rus- 
sian fleet, Sept. 

Russian assault on Kars fails. 

Battle of the Ingour; defeat of Russians 
by Turks, Nov. 6. 

Kars surrendered to Russians, Nov. 26. 

Council of war at Paris, Jan. 11. 

Amnesty granted to Poles, May 27 ; to 
political offenders, Sept. 7. 

Suspension of hostilities in the Crimea, 
Feb. 29. 

Treaty of peace at Paris, March 30. 

Close of the war. 

Crimea evacuated, July 9. 

Alexander II. crowned at Moscow, 
Sept. 2. 

Partial emancipation of the serfs on the 
imperial domains. 

Meeting of the Emperors at Stuttgardt 
and Weimar. 

Russia censures the warlike movements 
of the Germanic Confederation during 
the Franco-Italian war. 

Treaty with Great Britain. 

Commercial treaty with China. 

Insurrection in Poland begins. 

The Emperor issues a decree providing 
for the total emancipation of the serfs 
throughout the empire in two years; 
23,000,000 serfs freed. 

Students' riots throughout the empire. 

The insurrection in Poland becomes gen- 
eral; it is quelled with great severity. 

Trial by jury granted. 

Increased privileges granted to the Jews. 

Serfdom in the errroire ended. 

War with Asiatic nations. 

The war in the Caucasus ended. 

Death of the Czarowitch Nicholas, at 
Nice, April 24. 

New province of Turkestan in Central 
Asia created. 

Attempt by Karakosoff to assassinate the 
Czar, Sept. 15. 

Diplomatic quarrel with Rome. 

Marriage of Prince Alexander. 

Russian America, Alaska, sold to the 
United States for $7,000,000. 

Attempted assassination of the Czar, in 
Paris, by a Pole. 

Amnesty granted for political offenses. 

Poland disappears from map of empire. 

Socialistic conspiracies among Prussian 
students. 

Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war de- 
clared. 

Gortschakoff repudiates treaty of 1856, as 
regards the Black Sea. 

Conference of the powers, at London, abro- 
gates the Black Sea clauses. 

Many socialists imprisoned throughout the 
empire. 

Expedition against Khiva, which surren- 
ders June 10. 

Visit of the Emperor of Germany to Rus- 
sia. 

Visit of the Shah of Persia. 

New treaty with the Khan of Bokhara. 

Marriage of the Emperor's daughter to 
the Duke of Edinburgh. 

Visit of the Emperor to Germany and 
England. 

The island of Saghalien ceded to Russia 
by Japan. 

Japan cedes the Kurile Isles to Russia. 

War with Kholand. 

Baltic provinces incorporated into the 
empire. < , 

Russia encourages the insurgents in tne 
Turkish, provinces of Servia and Bul- 
garia. 

Capture of Khokan. 

Conquest of Khiva completed. 

Russia declares war against Turkey, 
April 24. 

Melikoff enters Armenia and seizes Bay 
azid, April 30. 

Russians defeated at Batoum, May 4. 

Melikoff storms Ardaban, May 17. 

Investment of Kars, June 3. 

Passage of the Danube by the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, June 22-27. 

Capture of Tirnova, July 8. 

Plevna occupied, July 6; retaken by 
Turks, July 30; great defeat of Rus- 
sians by Mukhtar Pasha. 

The capture of Nicopolis by the Russians, 
July 15. 

The Russians occupy the Shipka Pas^ 
July 19. 

Severe fighting in the Shipka Pass, July 
19, Dec. 31. 

Russian attack on Plevna partly success- 
ful Sept. 7-11. ,*.«,. 

Great Russian victory at Aladja Dagn. 

Capture of Kars by the Russians, with 
great slaughter, Nov. 18. 

Capture of Etropol by the Russians. 

Capture of Plevna and Osman Pashas 
army, by the Russians, Dec. 10. 

Emperor returns to St. Petersburg, Dec. 
22. 

Erzeroum invested, Dec. 24. 

Gen. Gourko crosses the Balkans, Dec. 
31. 

Russians occupy Sofia, Jan. 4. 

Servians defeated, Jan. 7. 

Capture of the Shipka Pass, by the Rus- 
sians, Jan 8, 9. 

Batoum attacked without success by the 
Russians. ; 

Russians occupy Philippolis, Jan. 16. 

Russian occupation of Adrianople, Jan. 
20. 

British fleet enters the Dardanelles, Jan. 
25. 

Erzeroum evacuated by the Turks, Feb. 
21. 

Treaty of peace signed at San Stefano. 

Skobeleff and Radetzky capture Turkish 
army in Asia Minor. 

Conference of powers at Berlin, June 13. 

Treaty of Berlin signed, July 13. 

Final treaty with Turkey, signed Feb. 8. 

SoloviefF attempts to assassinate the 
Czar, April 14. 

Nihilists at Kief? and Odessa convicted. 

Attempt on the Czar's life by mining 
railway, Dec. 1. 

Discovery of plot to blow up the Winter 
Palace, Dec. 12. 



1864 
1865 



1866 

1867 

1868 
1869 

1870 

1871 
1873 



1876 



1877 



1877 



187$ 



1879 



1880 



Explosion under diningroom of Winter 
Palace. 



1880 Several soldiers killed and wounded, 

Feb. 17. 
Arrest of Hartmann, at Paris, Feb. 20. 
Gen. Melikoff made virtual dictator, Feb, 

24. 
France refuses extradition of Hartmann. 
Nihilists convicted at St. Petersburg 

and Keiff. 

1881 Assassination of Alexander II., by bombs 

thrown at his carriage, March 13 ; one 

assassin killed by explosion, another 

seized. 
Accession of Alexander III., who was not 

crowned until 1882, on account of fear 

of assassination. 
Trial of Nihilists, April 8. . 
RussakofF, Sophie Pieoffsky, Jelaboff and 

others, condemned to death. 
Treaty of peace with China. 
Resignation of Gen. Melikoff, May 13. 
Manifesto of Gen. Ignatieff, May 23. 
Counter manifesto of Nihilists. 
New Nihilist plot discovered, November. 

1882 Retirement of Prince Gortschakoff. 
Anti-Jewish riots. 

Pan-Slavist speech of Gen. Skebeleff, at 

Paris. 
Death of Gen. Skobeleff, July 6. 

1883 Accident to the Czar while hunting, . Dec. 

10. ' 

Col. Souderkin, chief of Police, assas- 
sinated by Nihilists, Dec. 28. 
Coronation of Alexander III., Czar of all 
the Russias, Aug. 27. . 

1884 Anti-Jewish riot, resulting in the death 

of many persons, June 19. 
Great fire in Moscow, Oct. 29. 
Marriage of Duke Sergius to Princess 

Elizabeth of Hesse, June 15. 

1885 Attack of the Russians, under Gen. 

Komaroff, on Afghan positions near 
Murghat. 

1893 Jews expelled from the Asiatic prov- 

inces. 
Prince Korsakoff, an eminent statesman, 
died, April 28. 

1894 Alexander III., Czar of all Russia, died 

and was succeeded by Nicholas II. 

1895 Russia assists China in procuring- money " 

to pay war indemnity to Japan and se- 
cures considerable advantages on the 
Pacific coast. 

1905 Labor riots at St. Petersburg, 1,500 killed 
Jan. 22. 
Gen. Stoessel surrendered Port Arthur to 
Gen. Nogi, Jan. 2. 

1905 Russia-Japan war begun, Feb. 7, 1904 ; 
ended Sept. 5, 1905. 

1907 — 1909 Peace Conferences held at The 
Hague. 

1910 Epidemic of cholera rages over many 

provinces ; 83,613 deaths reported. 

1911 Premier Stolypin was assassinated. 

1912 Fire holocaust near Tambov; 59 lives 

lost. 

1914 Army mobilized, July 29. 

1915 Capture of Frzemysl. 



TURKEY. 

1770 Rebellion of Ali Bey suppressed, in 

Egypt. 
1774 Abdul Hamid becomes Sultan. 
1784 Crimea ceded to Russia. 

1787 War with Russia and Austria; defeat of 

the Turks. 

1788 Selim III., Sultan of Turkey. 

1798 The French, under Napoleon, invade 

Egypt. 

1799 Battle of Aboukir; French victorious. 
1801 The English aid the Turks; Napoleon 

forced to retreat. 
1803 Insurrection of Mamelukes at Cairo. 

1806 Mehemet Ali becomes Pasha in Egypt. 

1807 War with England and Russia. 
British fleet passes the Dardanelles. 
Mustapha IV., Sultan. 

1808 Mahmoud II., Sultan. 

1811 Massacre of Mamelukes ; Mehemet be- 

comes supreme. 

1812 Treaty of Bucharest; Pruth made fron- 

tier of Turkey and Russia, 
1815 Discoveries of Belzonia, in Egypt. 
1821 Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia; 

independence of Greece secured. 
1824 Turks defeated at Mitylene. 

1827 Battle of Navarino ; Turkish fleet de- 

stroyed. 

1828 War with Russia; surrender at Anapa, 

June 23. 
Bajazet taken, Sept. 9. 
Varna occupied by Russians, Oct. 11. 

1829 Battle of Shumla. 

Russians take Erzeroum and enter Adri- 
anople ; treaty of peace, Sept. 14. 

1831 Revolt of Mehemet AH. 

Battle of Konieh; Egyptians defeat 

Turks. 
Egypt invades Syria. 

1832 Battle of Konieh; disastrous defeat of 

Turks. 

1833 Russians enter Constantinople; offensive 

and defensive treaty with Russia. 
Treaty of Kutayah. 
Rebellion in Egypt suppressed. 

1839 Abdul Medjid becomes Sultan. 
A second revolt of Mehemet Ali. 

Battle of Nezib ; Ibrahim Mehemet, Ali's 
son, defeats the Turks. 

1840 .England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia 

aid Turkey. 
Battle of Beyrout; Egyptians defeated. 

1841 Treaty with^ Egypt. 

Mehemet Ali made Viceroy, but deprived 
of Syria. 

1847 New system of education introduced. 

1849 Turkey refuses to surrender Polish ref- 
ugees' refusal sustained by England. 

1851 Rebellion of Croatia. 

1852 Treaty with France regarding the "Holy 

Places." 

1853 A large Russian army crosses the Pruth. 
Turkey declares'' war; approved by the 

great powers, England, France, Aus- 
tria and Prussia. 

1854 Crimean war; allied fleets enter the 

Black Sea, Jan. 4. 

Russia refuses intervention, March 19. 

Treaty with England and France. 

The allied powers guarantee Turkish in- 
tegrity. 

Allied fleets bombard Odessa, and block- 
ade the Danube. 

Allies overcome Russians at Giurgero. 

Turks defeated at Bayazid ; see Russia. § 

1855 Battle at Kars, Russians defeated; Turks, 

under Omar Pasha, win a great victory 
at the Ingour, Nov. 6 ; allies take Kars, 
Nov. 26. 

1856 Suspension of hostilities, awaiting nego- 

tiations for peace, Feb. 29. 
Treaty of peace signed, at Paris, April 

29. 
The Crimea evacuated, July 9. 
Independence of Turkey guaranteed. 

1858 Conflict with Montenegrins. 
Christians massacred at Jedda. 
Montenegrin boundaries determined. 
Suez Canal begun by De Lesseps. 

1859 Great fire at Constantinople. 
Conspiracy against the Sultan. 

1860 Druse and Maronite War. 
Massacre of Christians at Damascus. 
Convention of Great Powers. 

1861 Abdul-Aziz Sultan. 

Insurrection in Herzegovina and Mon- 
tenegro. 

1862 Omar Pasha invades Montenegro. 
Servians demand their independence. 

1863 Death of Said Pasha: Ismail Pasha be- 

comes Viceroy of Egypt. 

1864 Arabian rebellion suppressed by Egypt. 



SUPPLEMENT XVI. 



ANCIENT, ' MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1865 
1866 

1867 

1869 

1870 

1872 
1873 

1874 

187S 

1876 



1877 



1878 



1879 



1880 



1881 



1882 



Suez Canal opened in part. 

Revolt in Candia. 

Cretan Greeks revolt against the Turks. 

The Khedive of Egypt, Viceroy, visits 
France and England. 

Suez Canal inaugurated. 

Sir Samuel Baker sent to suppress slave 
trade. 

Baker returns, after considerable suc- 
cess. 

By the Sultan's firman the Khedive of 
Egypt becomes independent in most 
points. 

Circular letter to the Powers, protesting 
against treaties with Turkish tribu- 
taries. 

Insurrection in Herzegovina and Bosnia. 

Bosnians victorious at the battle of 
Gatschko. 

Unsuccessful Abyssinian expedition. 

British government purchases Suez 
Canal stock. 

War with Abyssinia; the Egyptian debt 
consolidated. 

Battle of Trebinge, indecisive. 

Germany, Austria and Russia demand 
reform in Turkish tributaries. 

Bulgaria revolts against Turkish rule. 

Suicide or murder of Sultan Abdul-Aziz. 

Montenegro and Servia declare war 
against Turkey. 

Murad V., Sultan, May 30th; accession 
of Abdul-Hamid II. 

Defeat of the Servians at Alexinatz. 

Conference of Great Powers about Tur- 
kish affairs. 

Treaty of peace with Abyssinia, made by 
Col. Gordon. 

Turkey rejects proposals of the Great 
Powers. 

Midhat Pasha banished. 

War with Russia declared. 

Hostilities with Montenegro. 

Russians cross the Danube, June 23 ; 
Nicopolis surrendered to Russia; slight 
Turkish success in Armenia; Plevna 
abandoned, July 6; recaptured, July 
28; terrific battles in the Shipka Pass, 
August 21-28; Russians ■ repulsed at 
Plevna, Sept. 7-11; immense losses on 
both sides; relief of Plevna, Sept. 22, 
by Chefket Pasha; retreat of Turks, 
Sept. 24; removal of Mehemet All as 
Commander-in-chief ; Suleiman Pasha 
appointed ; Mukhtar Pasha gains Turk- 
ish victories in Armenia; total defeat 
of Mukhtar Pasha at battle of Aladja- 
Dagh, Oct. 15; Russians take Kars by 
storm, Nov. 18; surrender of Plevna, 
Dec. 10. ■ , 

Erzeroum evacuated, Sept. 17; complete 
defeat of Turkey; preliminary treaty 
of peace signed, March S. 

Conference by the Powers at Berlin, to 
settle Turkish question. 

Treaty of Berlin ratified, Aug. 3. 

Great Britain, July 3, secures Cyprus. 

Final treaty with Russia signed, Feb. 8. 

Russians evacuate Turkey. 

England demands reforms in Turkey. 

Nubar Pasha resigns. 

The Khedive deposed by the Sultan, 
June 26. 

His son Tewfik succeeds him. 

The Powers protest regarding # delay in 
executing provisions of Berlin treaty. 

Great naval demonstration. 

Cession of Dulcigno, Nov. 26. 

Conference of the Powers at Constantino- 
ple. 

Midhat Pasha, and others, tried for mur- 
der of Abdul- Aziz; and condemned to 
death; their sentence commuted to 
exile. . _ , 

Decree of abolition of slavery in Egypt. 

The Porte declines to enter conference of 
Powers regarding Egypt, but subse- 
quently yields. . 

Remonstrates with England for intended 
bombardment of Alexandria. 

Dervish Pasha sent as envoy to Egypt. 

Turkey declines to send troops to Egypt, 
but, after the bombardment, consents. 

Arabi Pasha sentenced to banishment to 
Ceylon for life, Dec. 3. 

Prayers offered in Mosques of Cairo for 
the Queen of England as the "Mirror 
of Justice," Dec. 13. 

Arabi Pasha, Egyptian Minister of War, 
heads opposition to the Khedive. 

Alleged conspiracy against Arabi Pasha, 
Minister of War, leads to international 
complications. 

English and French fleets appear at 
Alexandria, May. 

©n June 11, a riot breaks out in Alex- 
andria, the natives killing 340 Eu- 
ropeans. 

The powers called upon to aid the 
Khedive. 

Arabi erects fortifications, and threatens 
to blow up the Suez Canal. 

Admiral Seymour takes command of 
English forces, and orders Arabi to 
cease fortifying; he refuses. 

Bombardment of Alexandrian forts, July 
12; they are destroyed by the English 



1883 
1884 



1885 



Arabi Pasha retreats into the country 

under cover of a flag of truce. 
The Khedive declares him a rebel. 
Gen. Sir Garnet Wolsley arrives at Alex- 
andria, Aug. 15, with English troops. 
Ramleh fortified. 
Skirmish between Egyptians and the 

English. 
The joint fleet sails to Aboukir under 

sealed orders; then proceeds to Port 

Said ; reached Ismailia. 
The English occupy the Suez Canal. 
Arabs attack the British at Kassassin, 

and are repulsed with heavy loss. 
Battle of Tel-el-Kebir in which the 

whole Egyptian army is routed, Sept. 

13. 
Zagazig occupied. 
Kafre-el-Dwar surrenders. 
Cairo opens its gates. 
Arabi Pasha and 10,000 troops surrender 

unconditionally. 
End of the war, Sept. 15. 
Total destruction of Hicks Pasha and 

his army in the Soudan, Nov. 3. 
Resignation of Egyptian ministry of 

Sherif Pasha, Jan. 7. 
Gen. C. G. Gordon leaves England for 

Egypt en route for Kartoum, Jan. 18. 
Defeat of Baker Pasha near Tokar, 

Feb. 4. 
Gen. Gordon arrives at Kartoum, Feb. 18. 
Surrender of Tokar to the rebels under. 

Osman Digna, Feb. 22. 
Defeat of the rebels at Tet, by Gen. Gra- 
ham, Feb. 29. 
Tokar relieved by Gen. Graham, March 2. 
Osman Pasha defeated by Gen. Graham 

at Tamasi, March 13. 
Egyptian troops meet with reverse at 

Kartoum, March 18. 
Third conference of the Great Powers 

upon Egyptian finances, Aug. 2. 
General Stewart's forces reach Gakdul, 

Egypt, Jan 12. 
Battle of Abu Klea, victory of British 

forces, Jan. 17. 
British victory near Metammeh. 
Gen. Stewart wounded, Jan. 19. 
Fall of Kartoum, Jan. 26. 
Death of Gen. Gordon, Jan. 26, produces 

intense excitement in London. 
The Italian flag hoisted with that of 

Egypt, at Massowah, Feb. 8. 
British victory near Dulka Island; death 

of Gen. Earl, Feb. 10. 
The muder of Dongola decorated by 

Lord Wolseley. 



1885 Terrific fighting near Suakim, March 22. 

Death of Mahdi Mohammed Achined, 
June 29. 

Revolution in Eastern Roumelia. 

Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, Governor, 
Sept. 18. 

Meeting of Ambassadors, at Constantino- 
ple, on the Eastern crisis, Oct. 4. 

1888 First through train from Paris to Con- 

stantinople, Aug. 3: 

1889 Egyptian Dervish Army routed, Aug. 3. 
Turkish forces occupy Crete, Aug. 30. 

1890 Turkish man-of-war Ertogroul founders 

at sea, 500 lives lost, Sept. 19. 

1894 Insurrection in Armenia, and great mas- 

sacre of Christians at Sassoun. 

1895 Riot in Constantinople and massacre^ of 

Armenian Christians in that city. 
Great powers of Europe demand re- 
forms from the Sultan and protection 
for his Christian subjects. 
Change in the Ministry, Nov. 7. ' 

1897 Greco-Turkish war began April 16; ended 
May 17, 1897; peace treaty signed 
Sept. 18, 1897. 

1905 The Porte refused to authorize street sales 
of Bibles, Jan. 2. 

1908 Sultan proclaimed constitution, July 15. 

1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid deposed and Meh- 

med V. proclaimed Sultan, April 27. 
1912 War with Italy. 



GREECE. 

1770 Greek insurgents assisted by Russia. 

They are defeated by the Turks. 

Rebellion of Suliot suppressed. 
1803 Turks put down second Suliot rebellion, 
which was incited by the French. 

1821 Revolt of Ipsylanti; Peloponnesus gained 

by the Greeks. 

1822 Independence of Greece. 
Terrible massacre at Scio. 

1823 National Congress at Argos. 
Death of Marco Bozzaris. 

1824 Death of <■ Lord Byron at Missolonghi. 
Ipsara destroyed by the Turks. 

1826 Siege of Missolonghi; capitulates to the 

Turks. 

1827 Turkish army takes Athens. 
Interference of foreign powers rejected 

by Turkey. 
Battle of Navarino; the allied British, 

French and Russian fleets defeat the 

Turks and Egyptians. 
Independence of Greece established. 

1828 The Turks evacuate the Morea. 

1829 Turkey surrenders Missolonghi. 
Treaty of Hadrianople. 

1831 President D'Istria assassinated. 
1833 Accession of Otho I. 

1843 Insurrection in Athens; National As- 
sembly ; new constitution adopted. 
1850 Pireus blocaded by a British fleet. ^ 

England demands indemnity for injury 
to British subjects. 
' French intervention sought. 

Greece forced to yield. 
1854 Revolt of Albanians. 

English and French occupy Greece. 

Neutrality in Russo-Turkish war de- 

1857 Greece evacuated by the French and Eng- 
lish. 

1862 Serious insurrections in Greece. 
Otho I. forced to leave Greece. 

Prince Alfred, of England, declared King. 
Austria declares for Otho I. 

1863 National Assembly declares Alfred elect- 

ed King. 
England refuses to allow his accession. 
Prince William, of Denmark, elected 
King, March 18, and becomes King 
George I., Nov. 2, 1863; new Constitu- 
tion adopted. 

1867 King George I. married to Princess Olga, 
of Russia. 

1870 Trouble with the brigands, who kill many 
English prisoners. 

1875 Neutrality observed in Herzegovinian in- 

surrection. 

1876 Declares for neutrality in Servian war. 
1878 Thessalians aided by Greeks against the 

Turks. 

1880 Berlin conference considers question of 

Greek and Turkish frontiers'. 

1881 Convention with Turkey, July 2. 
Thessaly ceded to Greece. 

1884 Serious fire at royal palace, Athens, 
Aug. 5. 

1889 Princess Sophie of Russia and the Crown 

Prince married, October 27. 

1890 Greek Ministry resigns, October 28. 

1891 Prof. Waldstein discovers rare jewels in 

the ruins of Eretria, March. 
1893 Ministry resigned May 10, and suc- 
ceeded by a new cabinet, with M. 

Tricoupis as premier, Nov. 11. 
1897 Greco-Turkish war began April 16; ended 

May 17, 1897; peace treaty signed 

Sept. 18, 1897. 
1910 King George called National Assembly 

for purpose of introducing reforms. 
1912 Revival of interest in old, Olympian 

games. 



ITALY. 

1775 Death of Pope Clement XIV. and eleva- 
tion of Pio VI. 
1796 — '97 Bonaparte's first victories in Italy. 
1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. 

France and Austria divide the Venetian 



179S 
1799 
1800 

\ 

1802 
1805 

1806 
1814 
1815 

1823 
1829 
1831 



1837 
1846 
1848 



The Cis-Alpine republic founded. 

Second invasion of the French. 

Pope Pius VI. deposed by Bonaparte. 

Defeat of the French at Trebia, by the 
Russians, under Suwarrow. 

Death of Pio VI.; Pio VII. Pope. 

Bonaparte crosses the Alps. 

Battle of Marengo, June 24; total defeat 
of Austrians. 

The Cis-Alpine republic remodeled as the 
Italian republic; Bonaparte President. 

Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26. 

Eugene Beauharnois made Viceroy of 
Italy. '. k A . 

The Treaty of Presburg deprives Austria 
of her Italian possessions. 

Downfall of Napoleon. 

Overthrow of the Kingdom of Italy. 

Establishment of the Lombardo-Vene- 
tian Kingdom for Austria. 

Genoa added to the Sardinian crown. 

Death of Pope Pio VII.; Leo XII. be- 
comes Pope. 

Death of Leo XII.; Pio VIII. becomes 
Pope. 

Death of Pope Pio VIII., and elevation of 
Gregorio XVI. 

Death of Carlo Felix, and extinguishment 
of the direct male line of the House 
of Savoy. 

The crown falls to Prince Carlo Alberto. 

The "Young State Party" formed by 
Mazzini. 

Insurrection in Central Italy. 

King Charles Albert of Sardinia promul- 
gates a new Code. 

Death of Pope Gregorio XVI.; Pius IX. 
becomes Pope. 

The King of Sardinia grants a Constitu- 
tion and openly espouses the cause of 
Italian regeneration against Austria. 



1850 



1851 



1853 
1855 



1856 
1857 



1859 



1848 Insurrection in Lombardy and Venice 

against Austrian power; revolt is sup- 
ported by the King of Sardinia. 

The Pope supports the movement for 
Italian independence, June. 

War between Sardinia and Austria. 

Lombardy annexed to Sardinia, June 29. 

Revolution at Rome; flight of the Pope to 
Gaeta. 

1849 The Sardinians, after repeated reverses, 

are totally defeated by the Austrians 
at Novara, March 23. , 

Close of the war, and recovery of Lom- 
bardy by Austria. 

Carlo Alberto abdicates in favor of his 
son, Victor Emmanuel II., March 23 ; 
dies July 28. 

The Roman republic formed. 

Rome captured by the French army, un- 
der Marshal Oudinot. 

The republic overthrown, and the Pope 
restored. 

Ecclesiastical jurisdictions abolished in 
Sardinia. 

Arrest of the Archbishop of Turin. 

Count Cavour Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs. 

Revolt in Milan subdued. 

Sardinia joins the alliance of France, 
England and Turkey against Russia, 
and takes part in the Crimean war. 

Unsuccessful revolt in Sicily. 

Diplomatic rupture between Sardinia and 
Austria. 

Quarrel between Sardinia and Austria, 
caused by former power refusing to dis- 
arm. 

France espouses the cause of Sardinia, 
and sends an army to .her assistance. 

The Austrians cross the Ticino, April 27. 

The French army reaches Genoa, May 3. 

Battles of Montebello, May 20; Palestro, 
May 30, 31 ; Magenta, June 4 ; Maleg- 
nano, June 8; Solferino, June 24. 

Total defeat of Austrians. 

Revolution in Tuscany, Parma, Modena, 
Bologna, Ferrara, etc. 

Peace of Villefranca, July 11. 

Western Lombardy annexed to Sardinia. 

Protest of Tuscany, and declaration for a 
United Kingdom. 

The people incited to arms by Garibaldi. 

The Pope appeals to Europe against the 
King of Sardinia, July 12. 

The Italian Duchies declare in favor of 
annexation to Sardinia. 

New constitution for Sardinia. 

Alliance between Tuscany, Modena, Par- 
ma and the Romagna formed, Oct. 10. 

Peace of Zurich, Nov. 10 ; part' of the 
Papal States and the Duchies of Parma 
and Modena ceded to Sardinia. 

The Emperor Napoleon advises the Pope 
to give up his revolted States, Dec. 31. 

1860 The Pope refuses the Emperor's proposal 

and denounces him, Jan. 8. 

A new ministry formed by Cavour, Jan. 
16. 

Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Ro- 
magna vote for annexation to Sardinia, 
March 9. 

Savoy and Nice ceded to France by Sar- 
dinia. 

The French troops leave Italy in May. 

Garibaldi lands in, Sicily, May 11. 

Declares himself Dictator, and drives the 
Neapolitans from Sicily in the battles 
of Calatifinni and Melazzo, July 20. 

He invades Naples with his little army, 
Sept. 7. 

Insurrection in the Papal States in Sep- 
tember. Sardinian army enters them, 
and defeats the Papal troops, Sept. 18, 
and takes Ancona, Sept. 29. 

The Sardinian army, under the King, 
enters the Neapolitan territory; de- 
feats the Neapolitans, at Iseraia, Oct. 
17. 

Garibaldi defeats the Neapolitans, at the 
Volturna, Oct. 1. 

Meets Victor Emmanuel, Oct. 26, and 
salutes him as "King of Italy." 

Sicily and Naples vote for annexation to 
Sardinia, Oct. 21. 

Victor Emmanuel enters Naples as King, 
Nov. 7. 

Garibaldi resigns the Dictatorship and re- 
tires to Caprera. 

1861 The first Italian Parliament assembles 

Feb. 18. 

Parliament decrees Victor Emmanuel 
"King of Italy," Feb. 26. 

The new kingdom recognized by Eng- 
land, March 31. 

The Pope protests against the new king- 
dom, April 15. 

Death of Cavour, June 6. 

Unsuccessful revolt in Calabria, by Jose 
Borges, in the interest of Francis II. 

1862 Ratazzi forms a new ministry. 
Naples declared in a state of siege. 
Ratazzi's ministry overthrown and a new 

one formed by Farina. 
Garibaldi endeavors to wrest Rome from 

the Pope. 
He is made prisoner at Aspromonte, by 

the Italian army. 

1863 Commercial treaties with France and 

Great Britain. 

1864 Treaty with France for the evacuation 

of Rome by the French in February, 
1867. 
Transfer of the Capital from Turin to 
Florence. 

1865 Bank of Italy established. 

New Parliament meets at Florence. 
The insurrections at Turin suppressed. 
Brigands cause much trouble. 

1866 The Austro-Italian war begins. 
Alliance with Prussia. 

Italy declares war against Austria, June 
20. 

Italians cross the Mincio, June 23. 

Battle of Custoza, June 24, and defeat of 
the Italians by the Archduke Albrecht. 

Battle of Lissa. 

Defeat of the Italian fleet, July 20. 

Peace of Prague, Aug. 23 ; Eastern Lom- 
bardy and Venetia added to the King- 
dom. 

Treaty of Nicholsburg, Aug. 26 ; close of 
the war. 

Cession of Venetia to the Italian king- 
dom. 

King Victor Emmanuel enters Venice, 
Nov. 7. 

1867 Insurrection in the Papal States. 
Garibaldi placed under arrest. 
The French enter Rome. 
Garibaldi defeated at Mentana. 

1868 Railway over Mont Cenis opened. 
Crown Prince Humbert marries Princess 

Margherita. 

1869 Ecumenical Council held at Rome. 
Severe earthquake at Florence. 

1870 Dogma of Infallibility proclaimed by the 

Council. 
Arrest of Mazzini at Palermo. 
The Papal States entered by the Italian 

army, and Rome occupied, Sept. 20. 
Papal States a part of the Kingdom of 

Italy, Oct. 9. 
Pope Pius IX. issues bull of excommuni- 
cation against the government, Nov. 1. 
Rome evacuated by the French, Aug. 11. 
Revolution in Rome imminent. 
The Pope takes refuge in the castle of 

St. Angelo. 
Rome annexed to Italy, and made the 

Capital of the kingdom by royal decree, 

Oct. 9. 
The Italian Duke of Acosta elected King 

of Spain. 

1871 The government transferred from Flor- 
^ ence to Rome, July. 



case dis- 

Jan. 9. 
King Hum- 



1871 Opening of the Mt. Cenis Tunnel. 

1872 Death of Mazzini. 

Great eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Se- 
rious inundations throughout the pe- 
ninsula. 

1873 Suppression of the convents at Rome. 
Expulsion of Jesuits from Italy. 

1874 General assembly of free Christian 

churches in Italy. 
Brigands cause great trouble. 
The government suppresses the Camor- 

ra's. 

1875 Visit of the Emperors of Austria and 

Germany to the King of Italy. 
Garibaldi takes oath of allegiance to the 

government, and becomes a member 

of the Chamber of Deputies. 
Ratification of a treaty of commerce with 

Great Britain. 
Six new cardinals appointed. 

1876 Italy and anti-Turkish in the eastern 

question. 
Attempted assassination of King Hum- 
bert, Nov. 7. 

1877 The celebrated "Antonelli* 

missed. 

1878 Death of Victor Emmanuel, 
Attempted assassination of 

bert I., Nov. 17. 
Death of Pope Pius IX., Feb. 7. 
Leo XIII. elected Pope, Feb. 20. 

1880 Elections favorable to the ministry of 

Cairoli. 
The monster ironclad Italia successfully 

launched. 
Resignation of Garibaldi as Deputy, and 

retirement to Genoa. 

1881 Cairoli ministry overthrown and a new 

one founded by Depretio. 
Reform Bill passed by the Senate, Dec. 
21. 

1882 Electoral Law passed. 
Death of Garibaldi, June 2. 

1883 Discovery of site of the celebrated An- 

trium, at Rome, Nov. 6. 

1884 The cholera rages in Naples. 

1889 Statue of Bruno unveiled at Rome, June 

9. 

1890 Statue of Victor Emmanuel unveiled, 

Sept. 20. 

1891 Crispi resigns the Premiership and Ru- 

dini appointed, Feb. 9. 
Baron Fava, Minister to the United 
States, recalled, March 30. 
1893 Pope Leo XIII. celebrates his 83d birth- 
day. 
, King Humbert and Queen Margaret cele- 
brate their silver wedding. 
1900 King Humbert assassinated, July 20. 

Coronation of King Victor Emmanuel III. 
Aug. 11. 
1902 Emmanuel III., King of Italy, crowned, 

Aug. 11. 
1904 Death of Pope Leo XIII. 
Pius X. elected Pope. 

1910 Hurricane near Mt. Vesuvius, ©ct. 23; 

nearly 200 lives lost. 

1911 War with Turkey. 

1912 Italian parliament votes annexation of 

Tripoli. 
Attempt to assassinate Victor Emmanuel 
III. 



SPAIN. 

1767 Jesuits expelled from the kingdom. 
If71 Falkland Islands ceded to England. 
1775 War with Portugal resumed. 
1777 War with England renewed. 

France and Spain besiege Gibraltar. 
1783 England cedes Balsaric Isles to Spain at 

peace of Versailles. 
1794 French invade Spain. 

1796 War again with England. 

1797 Battle of Cape St. Vincent; defeat of the 

Spanish fleet, Feb. 14. 

1800 Spain cedes Parma to France. 

1801 Treaty with Portugal at Badajos. 
Treaty of Madrid with France. 

1802 Treaty with England at Amiens. 

1804 Renewed war with England. 

1805 Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21 ; total defeat 

of French and Spanish fleets by Eng- 
lish, under Nelson. 

1807 Invasion of Spain by the French. 
Treaty of Fountainebleau. 

1808 Territory demanded by France. 
Spanish fortress seized. 

The French take Madrid. 

Charles IV. abdicates in favor of Na- 
poleon, May 1. 

Massacre of 200 French in Madrid, May 2. 

Napoleon assembles the notables at Bay- 
onne, May 25. 

Ferdinand VII. abdicates. 

Napoleon I. gives crown to his brother 
Joseph Bonaparte, who enters Madrid, 
July 12, but is driven out, July 29. 

The French defeated at Vimiera, Aug. 
21, by the English. 

Battle of Logrono; defeat of the patriots. 

Battle of Durange; the French victorious. 

The French retake Madrid, and restore 
King Joseph Bonaparte, Dec. 2. 

Napoleon enters Madrid, Dec. 4. 

1809 Battle of Corunna and death of Moore, 

Jan. 16. . 
Surrender of Saragossa. 
Spain entered by Sir Arthur Wellesley, 

who crosses the Douro. 
Defeat of the French at Tulavera, July 

28. 
Spanish defeated at Ocana, Nov. 12. 
Severe battle of Molinos del Ray, Dec. 21. 

1810 Granada, Seville and Atsorga seized by 

the French. 
Capture of Ciudad-Rodrigo by Marshal 
Ney, July 10. 

1811 Wellington defeats the French at Fuen- 

tes d'Onoro, May 6, and at Albuera, 

May 16. 
Tarragora taken by Suchet. 
King Joseph returns to Madrid. 
Spanish defeated by Soult at Lorca. 

1812 Wellington victorious at Ciudad-Rodrigo, 

Jan. 19. 
Badajoz stormed and carried, April 6. 
Defeat of the French at Salamanca, July 

22. 

1813 English, under Wellington, occupy 

Madrid. 

English successful at Castella, April 13 ; 
Vittoria, June 21, and Pyrenees, July 
28. 

The French driven out of Spain, Wel- 
lington crossing the Bidasoa and fol- 
lows them into France. 

1814 Ferdinand VII. restored. 

1817 The slave trade abolished for a compen- 
sation. 
1820 Revolution under Nunez del Riego begins 
in January. 

Ferdinand swears to the constitution! of 
the Cortes. 
1823 The Cortes remove the king to Seville, 
and thence to Cadiz, March. 

Intervention of France in behalf of the 
king. 

French army enters Spain, April 7. 

Cadiz invested, June 25. 

Battle of the Trocadero, Aug. 31. 

Rebels defeated and the revolution 
crushed. 

The king again restored. 

Execution of Riego and the patriot lead- 
ers. 

1828 The French evacuate Cadiz. 

1829 Cadiz proclaimed a free port. 

1830 The Salique law abolished. 



1833 



1834 



1836 
1837 
1839 

1840 



1841 
1842 
1843 

1845 
1846 

1847 

1848 
1850 



1851 
1852 



1853 
1854 



1855 
1856 



1857 
1859 



1860 



1861 



1863 



1864 
1864 



1865 



1866 



1867 
1868 



Death of Ferdinand VII. ; his queen as- 
sumes the government as Regent dur- 
ing the minority of her daughter, Isa- 
bella II. 

Don Carlos claims the throne. 

The Quadruple Treaty of France, Eng- 
land, Spain and Portugal guarantees 
the right of Queen Isabella to the 
throne. 

Don Carlos enters Spain and claims the 
crown. 

Beginning of the Carlist war. 

Defeat of Carlists at battle of Bilbao. 

Dissolution of monasteries. 

Success of the government forces. 

Don Carlos takes refuge in England. 

Espartero, commander of the royal 
forces, becomes the real ruler of Spain. 

The Queen Regent Christina abdicates 
and leaves Spain, 

Espartero expels the Papal Nuncio. 

Espartero declared, by the Cortes, Re- 
gent during the young Queen's minority. 

Insurrection in favor of Christina quelled. 

Insurrection at Barcelona against Es- 
partero ; he bombards the city, Dec. 3, 
and receives its surrender, Dec. 4. 

Uprising against Espartero at Barcelona, 
Corunna, Seville and other points. 

Bombardment of Seville, July 21. 

Defeat of Espartero. 

Don Carlos assigns his claims to his son. 

Isabella II., 13 years old, is declared, by 
the Cortes, to be of age. 

Narvaez, a friend of Queen Christina, is 
made commander of the army. 

Marriage of Queen Isabella to her cousin, 
Don Francisco d' Assiz, Duke of Cadiz. 

Marriage of the Infanta to the Duke de 
Montpensier, son of the King of France. 

Protest of England against these mar- 
riages. 

Attempt by .La Riva to assassinate the 
Queen. 

Espartero restored to power. 

The British Envoy ordered to quit Mad- 
rid within 48 hours. 

Birth of the Queen's first child; it dies 
immediately. 

Attempt of Lopez to wrest Cuba from 
Spain. 

Opening of the Madrid-Aranjuez railway. 

Merino, a Franciscan monk, attempts to 
kill the Queen, and slightly wounds her 
with a dagger. 

Narvaez exiled to Vienna. 

Espartero organizes a military insurrec- 
tion at Saragossa and succeeds in mak- 
ing himself prime minister. 

The queen-mother impeached, and com- 
pelled to quit Spain. 

Death of Don Carlos. 

Insurrection at Valencia. 

Espartero resigns. 

A new cabinet formed, headed by Mar- 
shal O'Donnell. 

Insurrection in Madrid quelled by the 
government. 

Disbandment of the national guard. 

Insurrection at Barcelona and Saragossa 
quelled by O'Donnell, as Dictator. 

O'Donnell forced to resign. 

Narvaez made prime minister. 

Birth of the prince royal. 

War with Morocco. 

O'Donnell commands the army in Africa. 

Moors defeated at Tetuan and Guadelras. 

Treaty of peace signed, March 26. 

Unsuccessful efforts of Ortega to over- 
throw the Queen and make the Count 
de Montemolin king, as Charles VI. 

Ortega shot, April 19. 

The Emperor Napoleon III. proposes to 
recognize Spain as a first-class power. 

The project abandoned, owing to the re- 
fusal of England. 

The annexation of St. Domingo to Spain 
ratified. 

Spain joins England and France in the 
Mexican expedition. 

Don Juan de Bourbon renounces his 
right to the throne. 

O'Donnell resigns the premiership. 

Insurrection in St. Domingo. 

Spanish quarrels with Peru. 

General Prim exiled for conspiracy. 

Narvaez again becomes prime minister. 
He advises the relinquishment of St. 
Domingo; Queen Isabella refuses. 

Christina returns to Spain. 

Peace with Peru, which is compelled to 
pay a heavy indemnity. 

Queen Isabella orders the sale of the 
crown lands, and gives three-fourths to 
the nation. 

Spain relinquishes St. Domingo. 

Quarrel with Chili, followed by war. 

Kingdom of Italy recognized by Spain; 
insurrection, headed by General Prim. 

General Prim lays down his arms, and 
insurgents enter Portugal. 

O'Donnell resigns, and Narvaez forms a 
new ministry. 

The Cortes dismissed by the Queen. 

Spain formally recognizes and forms a 
treaty with the republics of Guatemala, 
Honduras, Salvador, Costa Rica and 
Nicaragua. 

Revolt in Catalonia and Aragon sup- 



The Queen grants general amnesty. 
Death of Narvaez. 
Murrillo becomes prime minister. 
Revolution led by Prim and Serrano, 

Sept. 17 ; revolution successful, and 

ministry resigns. 
Queen Isabella takes refuge in France, 

and is deposed. 
Provisional government organized at 

Madrid, by Prim, Serrano and Olozaga, 

Oct. 8. 
Religious # freedom, liberty of the press, 

and universal suffrage granted by new 

government, Oct. 26. 
Revolts at different points suppressed. 
The_ United States government recog- 
nizes the provisional government. 
Efforts to find a king for Spain. 
Serrano elected Regent, June 15. 
Prim becomes prime minister. 
Outbreaks of the Carlists and republicans 



1869 



1870 Espartero declines the Spanish crown. 
Isabella abdicates in favor of her son Al- 
fonso ; it is offered to Prince Leopold, 
of Germany, who refuses it. 

Amadeus, son of the King of Italy, elect- 
ed king by the Cortes, Nov. 16. 
Amadeus lands at Carthagena, Dec. 30. 
Marshal Prim assassinated, Dec. 29. 

1871 Amadeus enters Madrid, Jan. 2. 
Serrano forms a new ministry, Jan. 5. 
The Cortes dissolved, Nov. 25. 
Insurrection in Cuba. 

1872 Resignation of the ministry. 
Carlist war begins. 

Serrano enters Navarre; defeats the Car- 
lists at Oroquita. 

Attempt to assassinate the King and 
Queen, July 19. 

Suppression of Carlist and republican up- 
risings. 

1873 Abdication of King Amadeus. 
Republic proclaimed. 

Defeat of the Carlists at various points. 
Don Carles enters Spain, July 13. 
Cadiz surrenders to him, July 31. 
Castelar President of the Cortes. 
The "Virginius" affair. 

1874 Coup d'Etat. 

Marshal Serrano President and Com- 
mander of the army. 

Overthrow of the republic. 

Alfonso XIII. proclaimed king by troops, 
Dec. 30. 



SUPPLEMENT XVII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1875 
1876 



1877 
1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 
1882 

1883 



King Alfonso lands at Barcelona, Jan. 9. 
Vittoria taken from Carlists, July 9. 
Surrender of Bilbao, Feb. 5. 
Defeat of Carlists at Durango, and sur- 
render at Pamplona, Feb. 26. 
Don Carlos flees to France. 
Triumphal entry of Alfonso into Madrid. 
Extradition treaty with the United 



1884 
1885 



1886 
1891 
1893 



1899 
1906 
1907 
1910 



General amnesty to Carlists. 

Queen Isabella visits Spain. 

Marriage of King Alfonso to Mercedes, 
daughter of the Due de Montpensier, 
Jan. 23. 

Death of Queen Mercedes, June 26. 

Attempted assassination of Alfonso, Get. 
25. 

Inundations in Seville, Granada and else- 
where. 

Alfonso marries the Archduchess Maria 
Christina, of Austria, Nov. 29. 

Attempted assassination of king and 
queen, Dec. 30. 

Law for gradual abolition of slavery in 
Cuba, Feb. 18. 

Execution of the assassin Otero, April 14. 

Expulsion of Don Carlos from France, 
July 17. 

Franco-Spanish, commercial treaty ap- 
proved by the Cortes, April 23. 

Introduction of a bill to abolish slavery 
in Cuba, June 10. 

Heavy snow storm at Madrid, Dec. 10. 

Marriage ol Infanta della Paz to Prince 
Louis, of Bavaria, April 2. 

King Alfonso visits Frankfort to witness 
German military maneuvers, Sept. 20. 

King Alfonso appointed commander of 
the Schleswig-Holstein Uhlan regiment 
by German Emperor, Sept. 23. 

Return of Alfonso to Madrid, Oct. 2. 

Resignation of Spanish ministry, Oct. 11. 

Hervera becomes Prime Minister. 

Severe earthquakes in Spain; over 1,000 
lives lost, Dec. 25-28. 

Resignation of the ministry, in conse- 
quence of the determination of the king 
to visit cholera-stricken districts, June 
20. 

Terrible ravages of cholera in Valencia 
and other points. 

Spain greatly excited over the occupation 
of the Caroline Islands by Germany. 

Announcement that of 223,546 persons at- 
tacked by cholera 82,619 had died, Aug, 
31. 

Alfonso XIII. King, with Maria Christina 
as Regent, May 17. 

Reciprocity between Cuba and the United 
States, May. 

Riotous demonstrations of Republicans 
suppressed by the police. 

Cargo of dynamite explodes at Santan- 
der, killing and wounding several hun- 
dreds of people. 

Cuban patriots rise again in arms tq free 
their native land. Marshal Campos 
sent with a large army to suppress the 
insurrection. 

War with United States ; Spanish fleet 
destroyed in Manila Bay, May 1, by 
Commodore Dewey's fleet. 

Cevera's Spanish fleet destroyed off San- 
tiago de Cuba, July 3. 

Peace treaty with U. S. ratified, Feb. 6. 

King Alphonso married. 

Heir to. .throne born. 

June 11 the government issued an im- 
perial decree of ecclesiastical reform 
placing all religions on practically 
equal footing. 



FRANCE. 



1769 

1770 

1774 

1776 
1777 
1781 

1783 
1785 

1787 
1788 
1789 

1789 



1790 



1792 



1793 



Beginning of the power of Madame du 
Barry. 

The Dauphine marries Marie Antoinette, 
of Austria. 

Death of Louis XV. ; accession of Louis 
XVI. 

Dismissal of Turgot from office. 

Necker becomes Minister of Finance. 

Necker resigns as Minister of Finance. 

The torture abolished in legal proceed- 
ings. ' 

Treaty of Versailles; peace with Eng- 
land and Spain. 

"Diamond necklace affair" occasions in- 
tense excitement. 

Meeting of the Assembly of Notables; 
controversy over taxes. 

The Second Assembly of Notables. 

Reappointment of Necker. 

Meeting of the States General, May 5. 

The Deputies of the Tiers Etat organize 
themselves as the National Assembly, 
June 17. 

Destruction of the Bastile, July 14. 

The beginning of the French revolution. 

The king and queen compelled by a mob 
at Versailles, to go to Paris, Oct. 6. 

The National Assembly meets at Paris, 
Oct. 9. 

The National Assembly change the royal 
title to "King of the French," Oct. 16. 

Clerical property confiscated. 

The division of France into 83 depart- 
ments, Dec. 22. 

King Louis accepts the work of the rev- 
olution, Feb. 4. 

Titles of honor and hereditary nobility 

. abolished. 

Confederation of the Champs de Mars ; 
the king takes the oath to the consti- 

■ tution, July 14. 

Flight of the king and queen from Paris, 
June 20. 

Imprisonment of the king and queen in 
the Tuileries ; they are arrested at 
Varennes, June 21. 

Louis sanctions the National constitution 

' Sept. 15. 

Dissolution of the National Assembly, 
Sept. 29. 

First coalition against France. 

Commencement of the great wars. 

"War with Austria declared April 20. 

Battle q£ Valmy ; the Prussians defeated, 
and France saved from invasion, Sept. 
20. 

Attack and capture of the Tuileries by a 
mob ; the royal family imprisoned in the 
Temple, Aug. 10. 

Massacre in the prisons of Paris, Sept. 
2-5. 

Opening of the National Convention, 
Sept. 17. 

The Convention abolishes royalty, Sept. 
21, 

Meeting of the Legislative Assembly, 
Oct. 1. 

France declared a republic, .Sept. 22. 

Trial and condemnation of' King Louis, 
Nov. 12 to Dec. 13. 

Louis XVI. beheaded, Jan. 21. 

War against England, Spain and Hol- 
land, declared Feb. 1. 

Insurrection in La Vendee begins, March. 

Proscription of the Girondists. 

Robespierre becomes Dictator March 25. 

Beginning of the Reign of Terror, May 31. 

Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat, 
July lb. 

Execution of Marie Antoinette, Oct. 16. 

Siege of Toulon ; first victory of Bona- 
parte. 

The Duke of Orleans, Phillipe Egalite, 
beheaded, Nov. 6. 

Madame Roland executed, Nov. 8. 

Vendee revolt suppressed, Dec. 12. 



1794 Danton and others guillotined, April 5. 
Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI., executed. 
Robespierre becomes president, June. 
Fall of Robespierre, July 27. 
Robespierre, St. Just and seventy others 

guillotined, July 28. 
Close of the Reign of Terror. 

1795 The Dauphin (Louis XVII) dies in prison. 
Napoleon suppresses rebellion of royalists 

Oct. 5. 
The Directory established Nov. 1. 

1796 Bonaparte wins the victories of Monte- 

notte, April 12 ; Mondivi, April 22, and 
Lodi, May 10. Attehkirchen, June 1, 
Radstadt, July 5, in Italy. 
The conspiracy of Baboeuf suppressed. 

1797 Pichegru's conspiracy fails. 
Return of Napoleon into Paris. 
Bonaparte's Egyptian expedition em- 
barks. 

Battle of the Pyramid, July 13-21. 
Destruction of the French fleet, near 
Alexandria, by Nelson, Aug. 1. 

1799 England, Germany, Russia, Turkey, Por- 

tugal and Naples coalesce against Na- 
poleon, June 22. 
Bonaparte returns from Egypt ; deposes 
w the Council of Five Hundred, Nov. 10, 
and Napoleon is declared First Consul 
Dec. 13. 

1800 Battle of Marengo, June 14. 

Great victory by Bonaparte over the Aus- 

trians. 
Attempt to kill the Council by means of 

an infernal machine, Dec. 24. 

1801 Treaty with Germany. ^ 

The Rhine made the French boundary. 
Peace with Russia, Oct. 8, and with Tur- 
key, Oct. 9. 

1802 Defeat of the French at Aboukin, March 

8. 
Peace with England, Spain and Holland 

signed at Amiens, March 27. 
Legion of Honor instituted. 
Bonaparte made "Consul for Life," 

Aug. 2. 

1803 Bank of France established. 

War with England declared, May 22. 

1804 Conspiracy of Moreau and Pichegru 

against Bonaparte fails. 

Execution of the Duke d'Enghien, March 
21. 

The empire formed and Napoleon pro- 
claimed Emperor, May 18. 

Crowned by the Pope, Dec. 30. 

1805 Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26. 
Destruction of the French fleet, Oct. 21, 

by Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar. 
Battle of Austerlitz. 
Austria totally defeated, Dec. 2. 
Treaty of Presburg, Dec. 26. 

1806 Confederation of the Rhine ratified at 

Paris, July 12. 
Fourth coalition of the Great Powers 

against France; Prussia declares war, 

Oct. 8. 
Defeat of the Prussians at Jena, Oct. 14. 
Capture of Erfurt by the French, Oct. 15. 

1807 Russians defeated at battle of Eylau, 

Feb. 8. .. 
Alexander and Napoleon meet at Tilsit, 

June 26. 
Treaty of peace signed, July 7. 
The Milan decree published, Dec. 17. 

1808 New nobility of France created. 

The beginning of the Peninsular war. 
Abdication of Charles IV. of Spain. 

1809 Napoleon defeated at Aspern and Essling. 
Victorious at Wagram. 

Entry of Napoleon into Vienna, May. 
Treaty of Vienna, Oct. 14. 
Divorce of the Empress Josephine, Dec. 
15, 

1810 Napoleon marries Marie Louise of Aus- 

tria, April 1. 
Union of Holland with France. 

1811 Birth of the King of Rome, afterward 

Napoleon II. 

1812 "War declared with Russia. 
Napoleon invades Russia. 

Great victory of the French at Borodino, 

Sept. 7. 
Disastrous retreat of the French from 

Moscow, October. 

1813 The Concordat treaty with the Pope. 
Alliance of Austria, Russia and Prussia 

against Napoleon, March 16. 

Battle of Leipzig. 

Napoleon defeated, Oct. 16-18. 

The Allies invade France from the Rhine; 
( the English from Spain, under Welling- 

ton, Oct. 7. 

1814 Surrender of Paris to the Allies, March 

30. 
Abdication of Napoleon I. in favor of his 

son, Napoleon II., April 5. 
Napoleon goes to the Island of Elba, May 

3. 
Louis XVIII. enters Paris, May 3. 
The Bourbon dynasty restored. 
The Constitutional Charter established, 

June 4-10. 

1815 Napoleon leaves Elba and lands at 

Cannes, March 1, and proceeds to Paris, 
where he is joined by all the army. 

Louis XVIII. leaves Paris; restoration 
of the empire. 

The Allies form a league for his destruc- 
tion, March 25. 

1815 Napoleon abolishes the slave trade, 

March 29. 
Leaves Paris for the army, June 12. 
He invades Belgium, June 15. 
Final overthrow of Napoleon at battle of 

Waterloo, June 18. 
Napoleon reaches Paris, June 20. 
Abdicates in favor of his son, June 22. 
He reaches Rochefort, where he intends 

to embark for America, July 3. 
Entry of Louis XVIII. into Paris, July 3. 
Napoleon goes on board the "Bellero- 

phon" and claims the "hospitality" of 

England, July 15. 
Upon reaching England he is transferred 

to the "Northumberland" and sent a 

prisoner to St. Helena, Aug. 8, where 

he arrives Oct. 15. 
Execution of Marshal Ney, Dec. 7. 

1816 The family of Napoleon forever excluded 

from the throne of France. 

1820 Assassination of the Duke de Berri, Feb. 

13. 

1821 Death of Napoleon I. at St. Helena, 

May 5. 
1824 Death of Louis XVIIL, Sept. 16. 

Charles X. becomes king. 
1827 National Guard disbanded. 

War with Algiers. 
f Serious riots in Paris. 

Seventy-six new peers created. 

1829 The Polignac administration organized. 

1830 Chamber of Deputies dissolved, May 16. 
Capture of Algiers by the French, July 5. 
Revolution and barricade of streets in 

Paris, July 27. . 
Flight and abdication of Charles X., July 

31. 
Unpopular ordinances passed regarding 

the election of deputies and the press, 

July 26. 
Duke of Orleans becomes King Louis 

Phillipe I. 
Polignac and the ministers of Charles X. 

sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. 

1831 Great riots in Paris, Feb. 14 and 15. 
The hereditary peerage abolished. 

1832 Insurrection in Paris suppressed. 

Death of Napoleon II., Duke of Reieh- 

stadt, July 22. 
Attempted assassination of the King, 

Dec. 27. 

1834 Death of Lafayette, May 20. 

1835 Fieschi attempts, with an infernal ma- 

chine, to kill the King, July 28, and is 
executed, Feb. 6, 1836. 



1838 



1839 
1840 



1842 
1843 
1846 

1847 
1848 



1S36 Louis Alibaud fires at the King, June 25 ; 

is guillotined, July 11. 
Death of Charles X., Nov. 6. 
Prince Louis Napoleon attempts an in- 
surrection at Strasbourg, Oct. 30 ; is 

banished to America, Nov. 13. 
The ministers of Charles X. set at liberty 

and sent out of France. 
Meunier attempts to kill the King. 
Death of Tallyrand, May 14. 
War with Mexico. 
Insurrections in Paris. 
M. Thiers becomes Prime Minister. 
Prince Louis Napoleon, General Monthol- 

on, and others, attempt an insurrection 

at Boulogne, Aug. 6. 
Prince Louis Napoleon sentenced to im- 
prisonment for life, and confined in the 

castle of Ham,, Oct. 6. 
Darmes attempts to shoot the king, Oct. 

15. 
Removal of the remains of the Emperor 

Napoleon I. from St. Helena to Paris, 

Dec. 15. 
The Duke of Orleans, the heir to the 

throne, dies from the effect of a fall, 

July 13. 
Queen Victoria, of England, visits the 

royal family at the Chateau d'Eu. 
Extradition treaty with England. 
Lecompte attempts to assassinate the king 

at Fontainebleau, April 16. 
Louis Napoleon escapes from Ham, May 

25. 
Joseph Henri attempts to kill the king, 

July 29. ■ 
Jerome Bonaparte returns to France after 

an exile of thirty- two years. 
Death of the ex-Empress Marie Louise. 
Surrender of Abd-el-Kader to the French. 
"Reform banquet" prohibited. 
Revolution of February 22, and barricade 

of the streets of Paris. 
Flight and abdication of the King, Feb. 21. 
The second republic proclaimed, Feb. 26. 
The provisional government succeeded by 

an executive commission, named by the 

Assembly, May 7. 
Louis Napoleon elected to the National 

Assembly from the Seine and three 

other departments, June 13. 
Outbreak of the Red Republicans in 

Paris, June 23. 

1849 Severe fighting in Paris, June 23 to 26; 

16,000 persons killed, including the 
Archbishop of Paris. 

Surrender of the insurgents,. June 26. 

Gen. Cavaignac at the head of the gov- 
ernment, June 28. 

Louis Napoleon takes his seat in the 
Assembly, Sept. 26. 

The Constitution of the republic solemn- 
ly proclaimed, Nov. 12. 

Louis Napoleon elected president of the 
French Republic, Dec. 11. 

He takes the oath of office, Dec. 20. 

1850 Death of Louis Philippe, at Claremont, in 

England, Aug. 26. 
Freedom of the press curtailed. 

1851 Electric telegraph between England and 

France opened. 

The Coup d'Etat. 

Napoleon dissolves the Assembly and pro- 
claims universal suffrage. 

Calls for an election of President for ten 
years. 

Declares Paris in a state of siege. 

Arrest of the prime minister, Thiers, and 
180 members of the Assembly. 

The President crushes the opposition, 
with great loss of life, Dec. 3, 4. 

The Coup d'Etat sustained by the people 
at the polls, and Louis Napoleon re- 
elected President for ten years, Dec. 21, 
22 ; affirmative votes, 7,473,431 ; nega- 
tive, 644,351. 

1852 President Louis Napoleon occupies the 

Tuileries, Jan. 1. 

The new constitution published, Jan. 14. 

Banishment of 83 members of the As- 
sembly, and transportation of nearly 
600 persons for resisting coup d'etat. 

The property of the Orleans family con- 
fiscated. 

The birthday of Napoleon L, Aug. 15, 
declared the only national holiday. 

Organization of the Legislative Cham- 
bers, the Senate and Corps Legislatif, 
March 29. 

The President visits Strasbourg. 

M. Thiers and the exiles permitted to 
return to France, Aug. 8. 

The Senate petitions the President for 
'/the re-establishment of the hereditary 
sovereign power in the Bonaparte fam- 
ily," Sept. 13. 

The President visits the Southern and 
Western Departments, September and 
October ; at Bordeaux utters his famous 
expression, "The Empire is Peace." 

The President releases Abd-el-Kader, 
Oct. 16. 

Measures for the re-establishment of the 
empire inaugurated, October and No- 
vember. 

The empire re-established by the popu- 
lar vote, Nov. 21 ; yeas, 7,839,552 ; 
nays, 254,501 ; the President declared 
Emperor, and assumes the title of Na- 
poleon III., Dec. 2. 

1853 Napoleon marries Eugenie de Montigo, 

Countess of Teba, Jan. 29. 

The Emperor releases 4,312 political of- 
fenders, Feb. 2. 

Bread riots in Paris, and other cities. 

1853 Death of F. Arago, the astronomer, Oct. 

2. 
Attempt to assassinate the Emperor. 

1854 Beginning of the Crimean war. 
Treaty of Constantinople, March 12. 
War declared with Russia, March 27. 

1855 Emperor and Empress visit England, 

April. 

Industrial exhibition opened at Paris, 
May 15. 

Pianori attempts to assassinate the Em- 
peror, April 28. 

Bellemarre attempts to assassinate the 
Emperor, Sept. 8. 

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visit 
France, August. 

Birth of the Prince Imperial, March 16. 

Close of the Crimean ,-waii, and the 
treaty of Paris, March 30. 

Terrible inundations in the Southern De- 
partments. 

The Archbishop of Paris (Sibour) as- 
sassinated by a priest named Merger, 
June 3. 

Conference on Neuchatel difficulty, 
March 15. 

Conspiracy to assassinate the Emperor 
detected, July 11. 

Visit of the Emperor and Empress to 
England. 

Death of Gen. Cavaignac, Oct. 28. 

The Emperor Napoleon meets the Em- 
peror of Russia, at Stuttgart, Sept. 25. 

1858 Orsini and others attempt to kill the 

Emperor by the explosion of three 
shells ; two persons killed and several 
wounded, Jan. 24. 

Passage of the Public Safety Bill. 

Trial of the Count de Montalembert. 

The Empire divided into five military de- 
partments. 

Republican outbreak at Chalons crushed. 

Orsini and Pietri executed for attempt- 
ing to assassinate the Emperor. 

Visit of the Queen of England to Cher- 
bourg. 

Conference, at Paris, respecting the con- 
dition of the Danubian principalities. 

1859 France declares war against Austria, 

and sends an army to the aid of Italy, 
May. 



1856 



1857 



1859 The Empress declared Regent. 

The Emperor takes command of the ar- 
my in Italy. Arrives at Genoa, May 12. 

Battles of Montebello, May 20; Palestro, 
May 30, 31 ; Magenta, June 4 ; Maleg- 
nano, June 8, and Solferino, June. 24 
the allies victorious • in each. 

Armistice arranged, July 6. 

Meeting of the Emperors of France and 
Austria, at Villa Franca, July 11. 
Preliminary peace effected, July 12. 

The Emperor Napoleon returns to 
France, July 17. 

Peace conference meets at Zurich, for 
arrangement of treaty between France 
and Sardinia and Austria. Peace 
signed, Nov. 12. 

1860 France adopts a free trade policy. 
Commercial treaty with England signed 

Jan. 23. 

Annexation of Savoy and Nice to France. 

Meeting of the Emperor with the Ger- 
man sovereigns at Baden, June 15-17. 

Visit of the Emperor and Empress to 
Savoy, Corsica, and Algiers. 

The public levying of Peter's pence for- 
bidden, and restrictions placed upon 
the issuing of pastoral letters. 

Napoleon makes concessions to the Cham- 
bers in favor of freedom of speech. 

The Pope advised by the Emperor to give 
up his temporal possessions. 

1861 The principality of Monaco purchased for 

4,000,000 francs by France. 

Troubles with the chui^h about the 
Roman, question. 

Sardinian Boundary treaty, March 7. 

The government issues a circular _ for- 
bidding priests to meddle in politics, 
April 11. 

Commercial treaty with Belgium ratified. 

Neutrality declared in the American con- 
flict. 

France recognizes the kingdom of Italy, 
June 24. 

Meeting of the Emperor and King of 
Prussia, at Compiegne, Oct. 6. 

Convention between France, Great 
Britain and Spain concerning interven- 
tion in Mexico. 

Embarrassment in the Government 
finances. 

Achille Fould made minister of finance. 

1862 The Mexican expedition begun. 

The French conquer the province of 
Bienhoa, in Annam. 

Six provinces in Cochin China conquered 
and ceded to France. 

The British and Spanish forces withdraw 
from the Mexican expedition. 

War declared against Mexico. 

Peace effected with Annam. 

New commercial treaty with Prussia, 
Aug. 2. 

Great distress in the manufacturing dis- 
tricts in consequence of the civil war 
in the United States. 

1863 Commercial treaty with Italy. 
Convention with Spain for the rectifica- 
tion of the frontier. 

Growing power of the opposition in the 
Chambers and throughout the country. 

The elections result in the choice of 
many opposition deputies, including 
Thiers, Favre, Ollivier and others. 

Napoleon proposes a European Confer- 
ence for the settlement of the ques- 
tions of the day, Nov. 9. 

England declines to join the proposed 
Conference, Nov. 25. The French 
army conquer Mexico and occupy the 
capital. 

1864 Treaty between France and Japan. 
Commercial treaty with Switzerland. 
Convention with Italy respecting the 

evacuation of Rome, Sent. 15. 

Establishment of the Mexican empire, 
with Maximilian, of Austria, as Em- 
peror. 

Death of Marshal Pelissier, Duke of 
Malakoff. 

1865 The clergy prohibited from reading the 

Pope's Encyclical in the churches. 

Treaty with Sweden signed. 

The plan of Minister Duruy, for compul- 
sory education, rejected by the Assem- 
bly. 

Death of the Duke de Morny. 

Visit of the Emperor to Algeria. 

The English fleet visits Cherbourg and 
Brest. 

The French fleet visits Portsmouth. 

The Queen of Spain visits the Emperor 
at Biarritz. 

Students' riot in Paris. 

Napoleon expresses his detestation of the 
treaties of 1815, May 6. 

Proposed peace conference in conjunction 
with England and Russia for the 
settlement of the troubles between 
Prussia, Italy and Austria. Austria re- 
fuses to join in it. 

France declares a "Watchful Neutrality" 
as to the German-Italian war. 

Napoleon demands of Prussia a cession 
of a part of the Rhine provinces. 

His demand is refused. 

Austria cedes Venetia to France, who 
transfers it to Italy. 

The French occupation of Rome termin- 
ated, Dec. 11. 

Congress at Paris on Roumanian affairs. 

1867 Settlement of the Luxemburg question by 

the London Conference. 
The great international exposition at Paris 

opened April 1. . Visit of many crowned 

heads. 
Attempted assassination of the Czar of 

Russia, June 6. 

1868 Riots in Bordeaux and Paris, in March 

and June. 

1868 Treaties with Italy, Prussia, and Mecklen- 

burg signed. 

1869 Serious election riots in Paris. 

Great radical successes in the elections. 
The Emperor makes new concessions in 

favor of the constitutional government. 
Celebration of the one hundredth birthday 

of Napoleon the Great. 
Death of Lamartine, Feb. 28. 
Resignation of ministry, Dec. 27. 

1870 Victor Noir shot by Prince Pierre Bona- 

parte, Jan. 10. 

Great riots in Paris, Feb. 8, 9. 

Discovery of plots against the Emperor's 
life. 

Trial and acquittal of Prince Pierre Bona- 
parte. 

The Plebiscitum on change of Constitu- 
tion; affirmative vote secured for Ple- 
biscite, May 8. 

Nomination of Prince Leopold for Spanish 
throne creates warlike feeling. 

Prince Leopold withdraws. 

Refusal of Prussia to give guarantees to 
France. 

War with Prussia deelartd, July 15. 

English mediation refused, July 20. 

Prussians blow up bridge of Kehl. 

The Emperor takes command of the army. 

Severe and undecisive engagement at Saar- 
buck, Aug. 2-4. 

Defeat of the French at Woerth and For- 
bach, Aug. 6. 

Strasburg invested, Aug. 10. 

Battle of Courcelles, Aug. 14. 

Decisive victory at Gravelotte, Aug. 18. 

Bazaine's army shut up in Metz, Aug. 24. 

Repulse of Germans at Verdun, Aug. 25. 

Great victory of Prussians at battle of 
Sedan, Sept. 1. 

The Emperor Napoleon and the French 
army made prisoners of war, Sept. 2. 

Revolution in Paris, and fall of the Em- 
pire. Flight of the Empress Eugenie, 
Sept. 7. 



1870 The Republic proclaimed in Paris, and 

the Provisional Government organized, 

Sept. 7. 
Paris invested by the Prussians, Sept. 19. 
Strasburg surrendered, Sept. 27. 
Metz and French army, under Bazaine, 

surrender, Oct. 27. 
Defeat of the French army of the North, 

Dec. 23. 

1871 Rocroy capitulates, Jan. 6. 
Alencon surrendered, Jan. 17. 
Paris bombarded by the Prussians. 

King William of Prussia proclaimed Em- 
peror of Germany, at Versailles, Jan. 
18. 

The armistice and peace signed, Feb. 27. 

France agrees to give up Alsace, a fifth 
of Lorraine, with Metz and Thionville, 
and to pay five millards of francs. 

Meeting of the Assembly at Bordeaux. 

Formation of a provisional government. 

Prussians enter France, March 1. 

Peace with Germany. 

Revolt of the Commune, March 18. 

The second siege and capture of Paris, 
March 28. 

Thiers elected President of the Third Re- 
public. 

1872 Reorganization of the government in 

France. 
A large part of the war indemnity paid. 
Death of the Duke de Persigny, Jan. 12. 
Commercial treaty with Belgium and 

England abrogated, Feb. 2. 

1873 Death of Napoleon III., at Chiselhurst, 

England, Jan. 9. 

New treaty of evacuation signed with 
Germany, March 15. 

M. Thiers resigns the presidency, May 24. 

Marshal MacMahon chosen President of the 
Republic, May 25. 

War indemnity paid in full, Sept. 5. 

Germans evacuate Verdun, Sept. 15. 

Presidential term fixed at seven years. 

Bazaine sentenced to twenty years im- 
prisonment for surrender of Metz, Dec. 
12. 
.1874 Execution of communists. 

Escape of General Bazaine, Aug. 11. 

Payment of the German debt, September. 

1875 The legislative body reorganized, and two 

Chambers created. 
Passage of a bill for the construction of 
a tunnel under the English channel. 

1876 Meeting of the new Chambers, March 7. 
Amnesty for communists. ,. 
New ministry formed by Jules Simon. ' 

1877 Death of M. Thiers, Sept. 8. 
MacMahon dissolves Chamber of Deputies, 

June 25. 
Gambetta prosecuted, Aug. 25. 

1878 International Exposition at Paris opened 

May 1. 

1879 Resignation of President MacMahon, 

Jan. 2. 
M. Jules Grevy elected President by the 

Senate, Jan. 30. 
Gambetta becomes President of the 

Chamber. 
Waddington forms a new ministry. 
Communist amnesty bill passed, Feb. 21. 
Bill to abolish Jesuit colleges introduced 

by M. Ferry. 
Prince Louis Napoleon ^killed in Zululand, 

Africa, June 1. 
M. De Freycinet forms new ministry, to 

succeed Waddington's, Dec. 21. 

1880 Rejection of educational bills of M. Ferry, 

March 9. 

Jesuit, and other orders, dissolved by na- 
tional decree. 

General amnesty bill passed, July 3. 

New ministry formed by Jules Ferry, 
Sept. 20. 

1881 Elections favorable to the government. 
$2 00, 00 0,0 00 loan taken up three times 

over. 

France invades Tunis, and treaty with 
Bey signed, May 12-, by which the re- 
public gains virtual suzerainty. 

Ratification by Senate, May 23. 

Great excitement produced in Italy. 

Gambetta enthusiastically received at Ca^ 
hors ? May 25. 

Rejection of semtin de liste, May 9. 

Gambetta premier on resignation of 
Ferry's cabinet. 

1882 Resignation of Gambetta's ministry, Jan. 

30. 

Freycinet Prime Minister; resigns, July 
29. 

Rejection of vote of credit to protect 
Suez Canal. 

Disastrous floods in France, Aug. 6. 

Duclerc succeeds in forming a new min- 
istry, Aug. 7. 

Death of Louis Blanc, aged 71, Dec. 6. 

Death of Leon Gambetta, aged 42, Dec. 
24. 

1883 Arrest of Prince Napoleon charged with 

sedition, Jan. 16; released, Feb. 9. 
Resignation of the Duclerc ministry. 
M. Faillieres Prime Minister, Jan. 29. 
Death of Gustave Dore, aged 50, Jan. 23. 
Passage of the expulsion bill, Feb. 1. 
Jules Ferry forms a new ministry, Feb. 

Commencement of hostilities with Mada- 
gascar ; bombardment of Majunga, May 
16; bombardment of Tamatave, Mada- 
gascar, June 13. 

Blockade of Tonquin by French fleet, 
September. 

Apology offered by President Grevy to 
King Alfonso, Sept. 30. 

Gen. Thibaudin resigns office of Minister 
of War, Oct. 5. 

Treaty between France and China signed, 
May 11. 

France commences hostilities by bom- 
bardment and capture of Kelung, Aug. 
6. 

Serious outbreak of cholera at Toulon. 

Langson, China, captured by the French, 
Feb. 12. T 

Peace concluded with China, April 6, and 
treaty signed of Tientsin, June 9. 

Death of Victor Hugo, aged 83, March 22. 

Burning of the Theatre Comique, 100 
lives lost, May 25. 

Fall of President Grevy, Dec. 2. 

M. Sadi Carnot elected President, Dee. 3. 

Remains of Napoleon III. and the Prince 
Imperial removed to Farmsborough. 

Centennial of French revolution cele- 
brated, May 5. 

Paris Exposition opened, May 6. 

Cabinet, with M. de Freycinet, March 16. 

Russia bestows decoration on President 
Carnot, March. 

Panama Canal frauds exposed, many 
prominent men imprisoned. 

Court of Cassation quashed the sentence 
of the Panama Canal swindlers, and all 
released from jail, except Chas. de Les- 
seps. 

France gives Siam an ultimatum, which 
was accepted, June 29. 

Marshal MacMahon, ex-president, died, 
Oct. 17. 

1894 President Sadi Carnot assassinated at 

Lyons by an anarchist. 
Casimir-Perier elected president, but re- 
signed shortly after and was succeeded 
by Felix Faure. 

1895 French army succeeds in capturing Mada- 

gascar. . 
1S99 Dreyfus case creates great excitement. 
Capt. Dreyfus pardoned, Sept. 19. 
Emile Loubet elected President, Feb. 18. 

1900 Theatre Francais, Paris, burned, March 8. 

1901 Santos-Dumont wins prize for steerable 

balloon, November. 
1906 C. A. Falliers elected President of 
France. 



1884 



1885 



1885 
1887 



1888 
1889 



1890 
1891 



1893 



SUPPLEMENT XVIII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1910 French steamer "General Chanzy" 
wrecked, 156 persons drowned. 
The Seine river flood at Paris ; damage 
estimated at over $200,000,000. 

1912 French senata adopted military aviation 
program to cost $5,000,000 a year. 

1914 War declared against Germany, 
Aug. 4. 

1914 War declared against Austria-Hun- 
gary, Aug. 12. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

1772 Austria acquires Galicia, and other prov- 
inces, from Poland. 
1785 Vassalage abolished in Hungary. 

1792 War with France begins. 

1793 The Austrians victorious at the battles 

of Neerwinden and Quesnoy. 

1795 The Austrians defeated at the battle of 

Loano. 

1796 Disastrous defeats sustained against 

Bonaparte at Montenotte, Lodi, Bad- 
stadt, Roseredo, and elsewhere. 

1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. 

The Emperor surrenders Lombardy to 
Napoleon, and obtains Venice. 

1799 Additional defeats at Zurich and Bergen. 

1800 Defeat of Austrians by the French at 

the battles of Engen, May 3 ; Monte- 
bello, June 9 ; Marengo, June 14 ; Hoch- 
stadt, June 19 ; Hohenlinden, Dec. 3 ; 
and Mincio, . 

1801 Treaty of Luneville; loss of more Aus- 

trian territory. 

1804 Francis IX. of Germany becomes Francis 

I. of Austria. 

1805 "War with France declared by Francis. 
General Ney . defeats Austrians at Elchin- 

gen and Ulm. 

Capture of Vienna by Napoleon. 

Battle of Austerlitz, 

Complete defeat of Austrians and Rus- 
sians. 
1805 Treaty of Presburg. 

Austria surrenders the Tyrol and Venice. 

The French evacuate Vienna. 

The Germanic Confederation dissolved. 

The Austrian King abdicates. 

1809 Battle of Ahensberg; defeat of Austrians. 
Second capture of Vienna, by the French; 

the city restored Oct. 24. 

1810 Marriage of the Archduchess Mafia Louise, 

daughter of Francis II., to Napoleon I., 
April 1. 

1814 Downfall of Napoleon. 

Congress of sovereigns at Vienna. 

1815 Treaty of Vienna. 

Austria regains her Italian provinces, 

with additions. 
The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom estab- 
lished. 
1825 Hungarian Diet assembles. 
1835 Death of Francis I. ; Ferdinand I. suc- 
ceeds him. 
1838 Treaty of commerce with England. 

Ferdinand I. crowned Emperor at Milan. 

1848 Insurrection at Vienna. 

Flight of Prince Metternich, March 13. 

Insurrections in Italy, which are crushed. 

Another insurrection, at Vienna. 

The Emperor flees to Inspruck, May 15- 
17. 

The Archduke John appointed Vicar-Gen- 
eral of the Empire, May 29. 

A Constitutional Assembly meets at 
Vienna, July 22. 

Third insurrection in Vienna. 

Count Latour murdered, Oct. 6. 

War with Sardinia. 

Revolution in Hungary. 

Imperial troops capture Raab and defeat 
Hungarians, at Szikiszo and Mohr. 

The Emperor Ferdinand abdicates in fa- 
vor of his nephew, Francis Joseph. 

1849 Sardinia forced to make peace. 
Constitution granted. 

Hungary declares independence, April 14. 
Kossuth proclaimed Governor. 
Total defeat of Hungarians at Szegeden. 
The revolution in Hungary suppressed, 

after a severe struggle. 
Count Bathyany executed. 

1850 Convention of Olmutz. 

1851 The Emperor revokes the Constitution of 

1849. 

1852 Trial by jury abolished in the Empire. 

1853 Libenyi attempts to assassinate the Em- 

peror. 
Commercial treaty with Prussia. 

1854 The Austrians enter the Danubian prin- 

cipalities. 

1856 Amnesty granted to the Hungarian po- 

litical offenders of 1848, '49, by the 
Emperor. 

1857 Quarrel with Sardinia, and diplomatic re- 

lations suspended. 
The Danubian provinces evacuated. 
Visit of the Emperor and Empress to 

Hungary. 

1859 War with France and Sardinia. 
Austrians cross the Ticino and enter Pied- 
mont. 

Austrians defeated at Montebello, May 
20 ; Palestro, May 30, 31. 

Napoleon III. declares war with Austria, 
May 31. ' 

Battles of Magenta, June 4 ; Melegnano, 
June 8, and Solferino, June 24, in all 
of which Austria suffers defeat. 

Death of Prince Metternich. 

Armistice between the Austrians and the 
allies agreed upon, July 6. 

Meeting of the Emperors of France and 
Austria, July 11. 

Peace of . Villa Franca, July 12. 

Austria -surrenders Lombardy to Sar- 
dinia. . , 

Further troubles in Hungary ; fears of 
a revolution. 

The Emperor grants increased privileges 
,to the Protestants. 

Treaty of Zurich, Nov. 10; permanent 
peace with France and Sardinia. 

1860 The Emperor removes the disabilities of 

the Jews. 
The meeting of the Reichsrath, the great 

imperial council or diet, May 31. 
Austria protests against the annexation 

of the Italian duchies by the King of 

Sardinia. 
The liberty of the press further retained ; 

renewed troubles in Hungary. 
The Reichsrath granted legislative powers 

the control of the finances, etc. 

1861 Amnesty granted for political offenses in 

Hungary, Croatia, etc. 

Great disaffection throughout the Empire 
caused by the reactionary policy of the 
court. 

The new Constitution for the Austrian 
monarchy published. 

Civil and political rights granted to 
Protestants throughout the Empire, ex- 
cept in Hungary and Venice. 

1861 No deputies present from Hungary, Cro- 

atia, Transylvania, Venice, or Istria, at 
meeting of the Reichsrath, April 29. 

The Hungarians demand the restoration 
of the Constitution of 1848. 

The new liberal Constitution for the em- 
pire fails to satisfy Hungary. 

Military levy taxes in Hungary. 

Entire independence refused Hungary by 
the Emperor, July 21. 

The Diet of Hungary protests, Aug. 20, 
and is dissolved, Aug. 21. 

The magistrates at Pesth resign. 

Military government established in Hun- 
gary, in December. 

1862 Amnesty granted to Hungarian revolu- 

tionists. 
Cessation of prosecutions, Nov. 19. 
Ministry of Marine created. 



1862 The principle ministerial responsibility 

adopted in the imperial government. 

Great reduction of the army. 

A personal liberty (a kind of habeas cor- 
pus) bill passed. 

Serious inudations throughout the empire. 

1863 Unsuccessful insurrection in Poland. 
Transylvania accepts the constitution and 

sends deputies to the Reichsrath. 
German sovereigns meet at Frankfort. 
Federal Constitution reformed. 

1864 Galicia and Cracow declared in a state 

of siege. 

War with Denmark, about Schleswig- 
Holstein; meeting of the Emperor with 
King of Prussia, June 22 ; peace with 
Denmark, Oct. 30. 

Austria supports the German Confedera- 
tion in the dispute respecting the 
duchies. 

1865 Great financial difficulties in the empire; 

reforms resolved upon. 

Concessions made to Hungary, and a 
more liberal manner of governing the 
empire introduced. 

Convention of Gastein with Prussia for 
the disposal of the Danish duchies. 

Austria receives the temporary govern- 
ment of Holstein, and the promise of 
2,500,000 Danish dollars from Prussia. 

Rescript of the Emperor suppressing the 
Constitution for the purpose of grant- 
ing independence to Hungary. 

The Emperor visits Pesth, Hungary. 

Dissatisfaction in the rest of the empire. 

1866 Quarrel with Prussia, Bavaria, Hesse- 

Cassel, Saxony, Hanover, Wurtemburg, 
and Hesse-Darmstadt on the Holstein 
question. 

Nassau and Frankfort allied with Aus- 
tria. 

The German-Italian war between Austria 
enters Silesia. 

The Italians defeated by the Archduke 
Albrecht, June 24, at battle of Custova. 

The Prussians occupy Saxony and . in- 
vade Bohemia. 

Defeat of the Austrians at battle of 
Nachos, June 27. 

Battle of Skalitz; decisive defeat of the 
Austrian army, under Benedek, at Sa- 
dowa, July 3. 

Venetia ceded to France, July 4, and in- 
tervention requested. 

Great victory by the Austrian fleet over 
the Italian fleet, at Lissa, July 20. 

An armistice agreed upon between Aus- 
tria and Prussia, July 22 ; peace of 
Nicholsburg, Aug. 30. 

Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau and 
Frankfort gained by Prussia. 

Austria retires from the German Con- 
federation. 

Baron Von Beust made prime minister. 

The Emperor makes great concessions to 
Galicia. 

1867 A new and very liberal Constitution for 

the empire adopted. 
Hungary constituted an independent 

kingdom. 
Andrassy elected President of Hungarian 

Diet. 
The Emperor and Empress of Austria 

crowned King and Queen of Hungary, 

at Pesth, June 8. 

1868 The clergy of the Roman Catholic church 

made amenable to the civil law. 
Civil marriage authorized. 
The State assumes the control of secular 

education. 

1869 Serious outbreaks in Dalmatia against 

conscription. 

1870 The Concordat repealed. 

Neutrality declared in the Franco-Prussian 
war. 

Bitter contest between national and fed- 
eral parties. 

1871 Further reforms in the government in- 

stituted. 

Measures adopted looking to the repre- 
sentation of all the nationalities em- 
traced in the empire. 

Austria recognizes new German Confed- 
eration. 

Old Catholic movement at Vienna. 

Rivalry between Slavonian conservatives 
and German constitutionalists; over- 
throw of Beust. 

Andrassy appointed Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. 

1872 Change in the Electoral Law. 
Meeting of the Emperors at Berlin. 

1873 Visit of the Emperor of Germany and 

King of Italy to Vienna. 
International Exhibition at Vienna, 

opened May 1. 
The federalists defeated in the elections. 

1874 Reforms in the empire. 

Visit of the Emperor to Russia. 
Ecclesiastical laws of Austria condemned 

by the Pope. 
Death of Ferdinand — , ex-Emperor. 

1875 Visit of the Emperor to Italy. 
Great financial crisis. 

Change in the bed of the Danube. 

1876 New marriage law proclaimed. 

Austria takes a leading part in the east- 
ern question. 
Neutrality declared in Servian war. 

1877 Austria remains neutral in the Turkish 

war. 

1878 Andrassy represents Austria in the Ber- 

lin Conference. 
Occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
and war with the former. 

1879 Resignation of Count Andrassy. 

1881 The Archduke Rudolph marries the Prin- 
cess Stephanie, Belgium. 

1883 Raab, Hungary, inundated by the rising 

of the Danube ; many lives lost, Jan. 9. 

1884 Burning of the Stadt Theatre, Vienna, 

May 16, 

1885 Meeting of the Emperor and the Czar of 

Russia at Kremsier, Aug. 25. 
Meeting of the Emperor, with the Em- 
peror of Germany at Gastein, Aug. 6. 

1889 Crown Prince suicides, Jan. 30. 
Emperor Francis Joseph visits Berlin, 

Aug. 12. 

1890 The Rothschilds protest against the per- 

secution of the Jews, May 11. 

1891 Austro-German new commercial treaty, 

April 2. 

1904 Members Hungarian House wrecked 
Chamber in riot, Dec. 13. 

1898 Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, assas- 
sinated, Sept. 10. 

1908 Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by 

Austria-Hungary, October. 

1909 Threatened war with Servia, averted after 

war preparations had been made. 
1914 War declared against Servia, July 
23 ; against Russia, Aug. 6 ; 
Japan, Aug. 29. 



SCANDINAVIA. 

Most of Norway was united under Har- 
old Haarfager about the end of the 
ninth century. 

1365 Albert of Mecklenburg became king of 
Sweden. 

1385 Margaret, the Semiramis of the North, 
become Queen of Denmark. This great 
princess died in 1412. 

1387 Norway and Denmark became confederate 
kingdoms, under one ruler, and re- 
mained so until 1814. 

1407 By the Treaty of Calmar, Sweden joined 
the confederacy or Scandinavian kingdom. 

1448 Christian I. of Oldenburg became king 
and added Schleswig and Holstein to 
the kingdom. 



1520 

1523 
1537 
1611 

1664 

1792 

1S09 
1810 



1818 
1863 

3872 
1893 

1906 
1911 
1912 



Sweden revolted from the foreign yoke 
and under Gustavus Vasa, her future 
king, became independent in 1523. 
Gustavus Vasa died in 1560. 

Lutheran religion established in Den- 
mark. 

Catholocism suppressed and church lands 
annexed to the crown. 

Gustavus Adolphus, the Lion King of the 
North and Bulwark of Protestantism 
in Germany, became king of Sweden. 
He was an important factor in the 
Thirty Years' War and was killed at 
the battle of Lutzen in 1632. 

Charles XII. became king of Sweden. 
After engaging in successful war with 
Russia he was defeated by Peter the 
Great at Pultowa in 1709 and became 
a fugitive. 

Gustavus III. assassinated and succeeded 
by Gustavus IV. The latter being in- 
sane, was dethroned. 

Charles XIII. succeeded to the throne of 
Sweden. 

For want of a legitimate heir, Berna- 
dotte, prince of Ponte Corvo, one of 
Napoleon's marshals, was elected crown 
prince of Sweden. 

Norway taken from Denmark and given 
to Sweden as indemnity for her losses 
in Finland by the allies, and Lauren- 
berg was given to Denmark in ex- 
change. 

Bernadotte ascended the throne of Sweden 
and Norway, where his descendants are 
still seated. 

Insurrection in Schleswig-Holstein and 
Laurenberg, assisted by Prussia and 
Austria, resulted in the loss of these 
provinces to Denmark. 

Christian IX. crowned king of Denmark. 

Oscar II. ascended the throne of Sweden 
and Norway. 

Viking ship built at Christiana, Sweden, 
and sailed for the World's Fair at 
Chicago, April 9. Dr. Nansen, the Arc- 
tic explorer, sailed from Christiana, 
June 24. 

Frederick VIII succeeded to the throne of 
Denmark, Jan. 29. 

Discovery of South Pole by Capt. Roald 
Amundsen. 

Frederick VIII. died; and Christian X. 
proclaimed king of Denmark, May 15, 
at Copenhagen. 



GERMANY. 



1765 
1766 
1769 
1772 

1788 
1790 
1791 

1792 
1793 



1795 

1797 
1801 

1804 
1805 
1806 



1807 



1808 
1810 
1812 



Joseph II. becomes Emperor. 

Lorraine ceded to France. 

Convention between Prussia and Austria. 

Germany shares in the partition of Po- 
land. 

War with Turkey. 

Leopold II. becomes Emperor. 

Conference between the Emperdr and 
Frederick of Prussia. 

Accession of Francis II. of Austria. 

Revolt in the Rhenish provinces. 

Prussians seize Dantzic and acquire 
Posen. 

Warsaw ceded to Prussia in the division 
of Poland. 

War with France. 

Accession of Frederick William III., of 
Prussia. 

Prussians seize Hanover. 

Treaty of Luneville ; Germany loses the 
Netherlands, the Italian states and ter- 
ritories west of the Rhine. 

Francis II. renounces the title of .Em- 
peror of Germany, and assumes that of 
Emperor of Austria. 

Treaty of Vienna. 

Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of 
Wurtemburg and Bavaria. 

Dissolution of the German Empire. 

Formation of the Confederation of the 
Rhine. 

Prussians seize Hanover. 

War declared against Napoleon, Sept. 24. 

Battles of Auerstadt and Jena ; French 
enter Berlin, Oct. 21. 

The kingdom of Westphalia established 
by Napoleon. 

Treaty of Tilsit between France and 
Prussia. . 

Serfdom abolished in Prussia. 

North Germany annexed to France. 

An alliance concluded with Austria and 



1814 
1815 



1817 
1818 

1819 
1832 
1833 

1834 

1840 
1844 
1848 



1851 



1853 
1857 



1859 
1860 



1861 



The War of Liberation, against Napoleon, 
begins. 

The French evacuate Berlin, March 4. 

War declared against France, March 16. 

Silesia invaded by Napoleon, May 31. 

Ney defeated by Blucher at Katzbach, 
Aug. 16. 

Allies completely defeat Napoleon at 
Leipsic, Oct. 16. 

France invaded by the allies. 

Battles of Brienne, Creon, and Laon. 

Congress of Vienna. 

Final overthrow of Napoleon. 

Formation of the Germanic Confedera- 
tion. 

Insurrection in Breslau put down. 

The Zollverein (commercial union) 
formed. 

Anti-revolutionary Congress of Carlsbad. 

Death of Goethe, German poet. 

Other German states join the Zollverein. 

Thuringia and Saxony join the Zoll- 
verein. 

Accession of Frederick William IV., of 
Prussia. 

Attempted assassination of the Prussian 
King. 

Insurrection in Berlin, and revolutionary 

. movements throughout Germany. 

German National Assembly meets in 
Frankfort. 

The German National Assembly elects the 
King of Prussia Emperor of Germany, 
March 28. 

He declines the honor, and recalls the 
Prussian members of the Assembly. 

Frankfort Assembly removes to Stuttgart. 

Austria protests against alliance of Prus- 
sia and smaller German States, 1850. 

Treaty between Bavaria, Saxony and 
Wurtemburg, Feb. 27. 

Parliament meets at Erfurt. 

The German Confederation meets at 
Frankfort, Sept. 2. 

Hesse-Cassel invaded by the forces of 
Austria, Bavaria, and Prussia, Nov. 12. 

Reassembly of Diet of German Confed- 
eration at Frankfort. 

Insurrectionary plot in Berlin discovered. 

Revision of the German Confederation. 

Meeting of an assembly of the German 
Confederation at Frankfort, at the call 
of Austria. 

Troubles in Hesse-Cassel. 

The elector restored by the Confederation. 

Bavaria, and other German states, mani- 
fest a willingness to , assist Austria 
against the French in Italy. 

Quarrel with Denmark about the Danish 
duchies begins. 

Federal Diet maintains Hesse-Cassel Con- 
stitution against Prussia. 

Holstein-Scbleswig dispute with Denmark. 

Death of Frederick William IV. ; acces- 
sion of William I. 

National Assembly meets at Heidelberg. 

Attempted assassination of the King. 

The National Assembly, at Berlin, de- 
clares in favor of unification. 

Bismarck becomes Prime Minister. 



1863 



1864 



1866 



1867 

1868 
1870 



1871 



1872 



1873 



1874 



1875 



1876 



1877 

1878 



The Lower House closed, for the second 

time, by William I. 
German states, except Prussia, meet at 
Frankfort, and approve a plan of fed- 
eral reform. 
The quarrel with Denmark results in war 

with that kingdom. 
The Danes are defeated and forced to sur- 
render the duchies. 
Peace restored, Oct. 30. 
The Gastein convention. 
It gives great offence to the German 

Diet. 
Prussia and Austria called upon to give 

up Holstein, which they refuse. 
War between Prussia and Austria, and 

their respective allies. 
Austria defeated. 

Saxony and Holstein invaded by Prus- 
sia. 
Prussia makes peace with the several 

German states. 
North German Confederation formed, 

Aug. 18. 
Formation of the new Zollverein includes 
Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Baden, Hesse, 
Darmstadt, and Prussia. 
South German military commission ap- 
pointed. 
France declares war against Germany. 
Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, de- 
clare for union with North Germany. 
Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Hesse, Darmstadt 

and Baden support Prussia. 
Invasion of France by the Germans. Un- 
paralleled success of the German 
troops. 
The Emperor Napoleon III. and two 
French armies made prisoners by the 
Germans. 
North German Parliament opens at Ber- 
lin, Nov. 24. 
The German empire formed. 
The Imperial Crown offered to the King 

of Prussia, Dec. 10. 
King William I., of Prussia, proclaimed 

Emperor of Germany at Versailles. 
Prince Bismarck becomes Chancellor. 
Successful close of the French war. 
The Germans occupy Paris, and deprive 

France of Alsace and Lorraine. 
Treaty of peace with France ratified, 

May 16. 
Triumphal entry of the victorious German 

army into Berlin, June 16. 
German Parliament opened by the Em- 
peror, Oct. 16. 
The Jesuits expelled from the empire, 

July 5. 
Meeting of the Emperors of Germany, 
Russia, and Austria, at Berlin, Sept. 6. 
Bismarck resigns the premiership of 

Prussia. 
National Liberals succeed in the elections. 
Troubles with the Roman Catholic 

church. 
Monetary reform law passed, June 23. 
Germany receives the last payment of the 

French indemnity, Sept. 5. 
Civil marriage bill passed. 
New military and press laws. 
Attempt to assassinate Prince Von Bis- 
marck, July 13. 
Bismarck resigns chancellorship, Dec. 16. 
Resignation withdrawn upon receiving 
a vote of confidence. 
The Imperial Bank bill adopted. 
Visit of the Emperor to Italy, Aug. 17. 
Government aid withdrawn from Catholic 

clergy. 
Germany takes part in the Eastern ques- 
tion. 
Visit of Queen Victoria to Berlin. 
Trouble with Roman Catholic Church. 
Inundations in Prussia. 
The Czar of Russia visits Germany. 
Code of laws enacted March 21. 
Second resignation of Bismarck ; resigna- 
tion again withdrawn. 
Attempt to assassinate the Emperor Wil- 
liam by Hodel, a socialist, May 11. A 
second attempt to assassinate the Em- 
peror, who is wounded. 
The Crown Prince takes charge of the 

empire. 
Death of King George of Hanover, June 
12. 

Conference of the Great 



of many newspapers and 



1879 



1881 
1882 



1883 



1887 
1888 



1889 
1890 



1891 



The Berlin 
Powers. 

Suppression 
clubs. 

Regency of the Crown Prince. 

The Emperor resumes the government. 

Protectionists' bill adopted, May 9. 

Meeting of Bismarck and Andrassy, at 
Vienna, September. 

Code of laws passed in 1877 goes into 
operation. 

Small states outvote Prussia, Saxony and 
Bavaria on stamp duties. Bismarck 
resigns a third time, and the states 
yield. 

"New Liberal" party formed, August. 

German Reichstag opened, Feb. 16. 

The Liberals successful in the October 
elections. 

Imperial rescript of Jan. 4 asserts ex- 
treme rights of the Emperor, and slight 
constitutional restraints; rescript modi- 
fied by explanation. 

Disastrous floods in Germany, Dec. 6. 

Grand celebration in Berlin upon the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the mar- 
riage of the Crown Prince and 
Princess. 

The Emperor appoints the King of Spain 
to the command of the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein Uhlan regiment, Sept. 27. 

Death of William R. Wagner, German 
composer, aged 69, Feb. 13. 

Conference of the Great Powers upon 
Egyptian finances, Aug. 2. 

Germany occupies the Caroline Islands, 
Aug. 20. 

Death of Prince Frederick Charies of 
Prussia, aged 57, June 15. 

Convention between Prussia and Austria. 

Septennate army bill passed, March 11. 

Ecclesiastical bill passed, April 27. 

Death of Emperor William, March 9. 

Frederick III. becomes Emperor, March 

11. 

Wilhelm II., Emperor, June 18. 

Samoan Agreement signed, June 14. 

Von Caprivi succeeds Bismarck as chan- 
cellor, March 19. 

Heligoland transferred to Germany by 
England, Aug. 9. 

The Empress Friedrich visits Paris, Feb. 



Rigid passport regulations enforced in 

Alsace Lorraine. 
Death of Gen. Von Moltke, April 24. 

1893 Princess Margaret, sister of the Emperor, 

weds Prince Charles Frederick of 
Hesse, Jan. 25. 
Unveiling of the statue of William I. at 
Bremen. 

1894 Caprivi resigns the chancellorship of the 

Empire and is succeeded by Prince von 
Hohenlohe. 

1895 Grand celebration by German veterans of 

the twenty-fifth anniversaries of Grav- 
elotte, Sedan, etc. 
Celebration and naval demonstration at 
Kiel on account ■ of the opening of the 
great canal connecting the Baltic with 
the North Sea. 
1898 Prince Bismarck died, July 30. 
1905 Great coal strike, January. 
1910 Great flood in Ahr valley, June 12; 200 

lives lost. 
1912 German fleet made friendly visit to United 
States. 
Greater Berlin's first mayor elected. 
Great coal strike. 



1914 
1914 



War declared against Russia, Aug, 

1. 
War declared against France, Aug. 

3. 



PRUSSIA. 



1780 Death of Frederick the Great, Aug. 17. 

1792 War with France in consequence of the 

French revolution. 
Battle of Valmy, Sept. 20. 
Decisive defeat of the Prussian army of 

invasion. 

1793 Prussia seizes Dantzic and acquires Po- 

sen. 

1795 Warsaw ceded to Prussia in the partition 
of Poland. 

1797 Frederick William III., of Prussia, be- 
comes Emperor of Germany. 

1801 Prussians seize Hanover. 

1805 Treaty of Vienna. 

Downfall of the German Empire. 

1806 Prussia seizes Hanover, Posen. 

Prussia joins the alliance against France. 
Battles of Jena and Auerstadt. 
Prussia succumbs to Napoleon. 
Napoleon issues the Berlin decree. 

1807 Peace of Tilsit. 

Napoleon restores one-half of hig do- 
minions to the King of Prussia. 

1808 Convention of Berlin. 
Serfdom abolished in Prussia. 

1812 Prussia concludes an alliance with Rus- 

sia and Austria. 

1813 The French evacuate Berlin, March 4. 
The War of Liberation begun. 
Uprising of the people. 

The "Landwehr" formed. 
Battle of Leipsic, Oct. 16. 

1814 The allies invade France. 
Complete defeat of Napoleon. 

The Prussians occupy the French capital. 
Treaty of Paris. 

1815 Congress of Vienna ; Germanic Confedera- 

tion formed. 
Prussia enters the Holy Alliance. 

1817 Establishment of the Ministry of Educa- 

tion. 

1818 Formation of the Prussian Zollverein. 

1819 Congress of Carlsbad. Death of Marshal 

Blucher, Sept. 12. 
1840 Accession of Frederick William IV., of 

Prussia. 
1844 Attempt to assassinate the King of Prus- 

1848 Revolution of 1848. 

Berlin declared in a stage of siege, Nov. 

12. 
The Constituent Assembly meets in Bran- 

denburgh Castle, Nov. 29. The King 

dissolves the Assembly, and issues a 

new Constitution, Dec. 5. 

1849 The German National Assembly offer the 

Imperial Crown of Germany to the 
King of Prussia, March 28. He de- 
clines it, April 29. 

Martial law declared throughout the 
kingdom, May 10. 

Occupation of Carlsruhe by the Prussians, 
June 23. 

The revolution in Baden completely 
crushed. 

1850 The King takes the oath to the new Con- 

stitution, Feb. 6. 

Attempt to assassinate the King, May 22. 

Treaty of peace with Denmark. 

Prussia refuses to join the restricted Diet 
of Frankfort. 

Prussia warns Austria of her intention 
to uphold the Constitution in Hesse- 
Cassel, Sept. 21. 

The Prussian army occupies Hesse, Nov. 
12. 

The Prussian troops withdraw from Ba- 
den, Nov. 14. 

The Convention of Olmutz removes the 
cause of the trouble, and restores peace 
to Germany, Nov. 29. 

1851 Visit of the King to Russia. 

1852 The King re-establishes the Council of 

the state as it existed prior to 1848. 

1853 Plot against the government discovered 

in Berlin. 

1854 Wavering policy of the government re- 

specting the Eastern question. 
Prussia remains neutral in the Crimean 

war. 
Prussia enters into treaty with Austria. 

1855 Prussia not allowed to take part in the 

Conference at Vienna. 

1856 Takes part in the Conference at Paris. 
Crown Prince becomes Regent in Prus- 
sia. 

Quarrel with Switzerland about Neufcha- 
tel. 

Prussia relinquishes her claim for a pe- 
cuniary compensation. 

1857 Serious illness of the King. 

The Prince of Prussia, Emperor William 
L, made Regent. 

1858 Prince Frederick William, son of the 

Crown Prince, married to the Princess 
Royal of England.- 

1859 Franco-Italian war. 

Prussia remains neutral, but threatening. 

1860 Federal Diet maintains Hesse-Cassel Con- 

stitution against Prussia. 

1861 William I. becomes King upon the death 

of his brother, Frederick William' IV., 
Jan. 2. 
National Association meets at Heidelberg. 
„< Becher, a Leipzig student, attempts 'a 
... assassinate, the King... 
The King and Queen crowned, at Konigs- 
berg. I-.'.'.,' 

1862 The National Asembly at Berlin declares 

in favor of unification. 

The government defeated in the elections. 

Count Bismarck Schonhausen made Pre- 
mier. The Chamber informed by him 
that the Budget is deferred until 1863; 
protest of the deputies against this as 
unconstitutional, . Sept. 30. 

The Budget passed by the Chamber : of 
Peers without the amendment of the 
Chamber 

The Chamber declares the act of tb/" 
Peers unconstitutional, Oct. '. 11. 

Close of the session of the Chambers by 
the King, Oct. 13. 

1863 Continuation of the quarrel between the 

Government and the Chamber. 
The King closes the session a second 
time, and resolves to govern without 
a Parliament, May 27. 

1863 Severe restrictions imposed upon the 

press, June 1. 
The Crown Prince disavows participa- 
tion in the recent action of the min- 
istry, June 5 ; decree recalled . 

1864 War with Denmark about the Danish 

duchies. 
Holstein invaded by Prussia. 
Denmark ports blockaded. 
Denmark forced to give up the duchies, 

and make peace. 
Treaty signed, Oct. 30. 

1865 Quarrel between the government and the 

Chamber of Deputies over the army 
budget. 

The budget being rejected the king pro- 
rogues the parliament, and declares 
he will rule without it 

The King arbitrarily seizes and disposes 
of the revenue, July 5. 

Convention of Gastein. 

Bismarck visits Napoleon III., at Paris. 
186(! The Diet demands the surrender of 
Holstein by Prussia and Austria, which 
they refuse. 

Prussian treaty with Belgium. 

Attempt on Bismarck's life, May 7. 

War with Austria and her allies. 

Battle of Sadowa, total defeat of Aus- 
trians. 



SUPPLEMENT XIX. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1866 



186V 



1868 
1870 



Treaty of peace with several German 
states and Austria. 

Formation of the North German Confed- 
eration, under the leadership of Prus- 

Hanover annexed to Prussia. 

Extraordinary session of the Prussian 
Diet. „ .. 

First meeting of the new German Parlia- 
ment. . . 

Prussia passes the Rhine navigation 
treaty. . 

France declares war against Prussia. 

Prussia receives the support of German 



1871 

1872 

1873 
1874 



1875 



1876 



1811 Birth of William M. Thackeray; died 

1863. 

1812 English storm Ciudad, Redirgo and 



France invaded by the German army un- 
der command of King William, of Prus- 

(See Germany and France.) 

The King of Prussia elected Emperor of 
Germany. . 

King William proclaimed Emperor of 
Germany and crowned at Versailles, 
Jan. 18. . , 

Trouble with the Roman Catholic clergy. 

Creation of the new peers by the govern- 
ment to cany its measures in parlia- 
ment. 

Troubles with the Roman Catholic bisn- 
ops. The stamp tax. 

Troubles with the Roman Catholic bish- 
ops. , 

The Old Catholic bishops given salaries 
by the government. 

Attempt to assassinate Bismarck, July 
13 

Conference of the Roman Catholic bish- 
ops at Fulda. 

Religious agitation in Prussia-. 

Government aid withdrawn from Cath- 
olic clergy. 

New Constitution adopted by the Pro- 
testant State Church. 

The German made the official language 
in Prussian Poland. 

Deposition of Catholic bishops in Mun- 
ster and Cologne. 

Great inundations in Prussia. 
(See Germany.) 



GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND 

1765 American Stamp Act passed, March 22. 
Death of the Pretender, at Rome. 
Percy's Reliques published. 

1766 Birth of Isaac Disraeli; died 1848. 

1768 Bruce's travels. 
Academy of arts founded. 

1769 Letters of Junius. 
Watt's engine. 
Arkwright's Jenny. 

Birth of the painter, Lawrence ; died 1830. 

1770 Lord North's ministry. 

Cook's voyages in the South Sea. 

1771 English debates reported. 

Birth of Sir Walter Scott; died 1832. 

1772 Warren Hastings in India. 

1774 Suicide of Lord Clive. 

1775 Commencement of the American Revolu- 

tion (see United States). 
Birth of Charles Lamb; died 1835. 

1776 "Wealth of Nations" decline and fall. 

1777 Royal Marriage Act. 

Birth of T. Campbell; died 1844. 

1778 Death of the Earl of Chatham. 
Relief bill for Irish Catholics passed. 
Birth of H. Hallam; died 1859. 

1779 Rodney's victories. 

Eliot at Gibraltar. , 

1780 Lord George Gordon's "No Popery" riots, 

in London. 
Birth of Channing; died 1842. 

1781 Trial and acquittal of Gordon. 

1782 England acknowledges the independence 

of the United States, Nov.^ 30. 
Lord Rockingham's second ministry. 
Grattan's Irish Constitution. 

1783 Coalition ministry. 

England wars with Tippoo-Saib. 

1784 Settlement of Upper Canada. 

Birth of Sheridan Knowles ; died 1862. 

1785 Birth of De Quincy; died I860. 

1786 Attempted assassination of the King by 

Margaret Nicholson (insane). 
Birth of Dr. Chalmers; died 1842. 
1788 Trial of Warren Hastings. 

Birth of Lord Byron; died 1824. 

London Times founded. 

Birth of^Sir H. Davy; died 1829. 

1790 Boswell's Johnson published. 

1791 Birmingham riots. 

Paine and "People's Friend." 

1792 First coalition against France. 

1793 England begins war with France. 

1794 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. 
English expedition to Dunkirk; Lord 

Howe's victory over the French fleet. 

1795 Acquittal of Warren Hastings, April 22, 
Birth of Carlisle; died 1881. 

Cape of Good Hope doubled. 

Prince of Wales marries Caroline ot 

Brunswick, 
Orange clubs formed in London. 

1796 England takes the Spice Islands. 
Birth of Princess Charlotte. 

1797 Cash payments suspended, Feb. 27.' 
Death of Edmund Burke, July 29. 
"The Anti- Jacobin." # 

1798 Battle of the Nile; great victory of 

Lord Nelson over the French fleet. 
Habeas Corpus Act again suspended. 
Sidney Smith at Acre. 
Great Irish rebellion; defeat of the 

Irish. 
Battle of Kilcullen, May 23. 
Battle of Antrim; victory of the English. 

1799 Irish rebellion completely suppressed. 

1800 Hatfield attempts to assassinate the 

King. 
Malta taken. 
Birtb of Lord Macaulay; died 1859. 

1801 Union of Great Britain- and Ireland. 
Nelson's victory at Copenhagen. 

Habeas Corpus again suspended, April 19. 
Peace of Amiens, Oct. 1. 

1802 Birth of Landseer, painter; died 1873. 

1803 War declared against France. 
Mahratta India War. 

Emmet's insurrection in Ireland. 
Execution of Emmet, Sept. 20.^ 

1805 Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21; victory and 

death of Nelson. 
Birth of Lord Beaconsfield. 

1806 Birth of William E. Gladstone. 

Deaths of William Pitt and Charles 
James Fox. 

1807 Orders in Council against the Berlin 

Decree, Jan. 7. 

The African slave trade abolisned, 
March 25. „,.*•' 

Death of Cardinal .Henry Stuart, claim- 
ant of the English Crown. 

1809 Wellesley passes the Duro. 
Battle of Corunna, Jan. 16. 
"Quarterly Review" founded. 
Impeachment of the Duke of York. 
Walcheren expedition, August. 
Death of Sir John Moore. 
Investigation into conduct of Princess 

Caroline. 
Birth of C. Darwin; died 1882. 
Birth of Alfred Tennyson. 

1810 The King declared insane, Nov. 3. 
Great financial crisis. 

Irish agitation for repeal of the union. 

1811 The Prince of Wales declared Regent, 

Feb. 5. 
Suddite riots, Nov. 
The Roman Catholic Board formed by 

Daniel O'Connell, Dec. 26. 



Feb. 



Lord Liverpool Premier. 

Assassination of Mr. Percival, the Prime 

Minister, by Bellingham, in the House. 
Beginning of the second war with the 

United States, June 18. 
Birth of Charles Dickens; died 1870. 
Birth of Robert Browning. 

1814 Peace with France. 
Peace with the United States. 
Birth of Charles Reade. 
Treaty of Ghent, Dec. 14. 

1815 France renews war with the allies. 
Battle of Waterloo, and final overthrow 

of Napoleon I., June 18. 

Peace with France. 

Insurrection in Tipperary, Ireland. 

Princess Charlotte marries Prince Leo- 
pold of Saxe-Coburg. 

1816 Agricultural and Weaver riots. 

1817 Specie payments resumed. 
Habeas Corpus act again suspended. 
Death of Princess Charlotte, Nov. 6. 
Trial of Lord Howe and acquittal. 

1818 Birth of J. Anthony Froude. 

1819 Queen Victoria born, May 24. 
Peel's Currency Act. 
Birth of Ruskin. 

1820 Death of George III., Jan. 29. 
Cato Street conspiracy discovered; 

20. 

Trial of Queen Caroline. 
Birth of Herbert Spencer. - 
Birth of George McDonald. 
Death of Queen Caroline, Aug. 7. 
Great outrages in Ireland. 

1821 George IV. crowned, July 19. 

1822 King George IV. visits Scotland.. 
"Whiteboy" outrages in Ireland. 
Suicide of Castlereagh. 

1823 First Mechanics' Institute held. 
Agitation about tests and corporation 

acts. 

1824 English-Burmese war. 

Death of Lord Byron in Greece. 

1825 The great commercial crisis. 
First railroad in England. 
Thames tunnel commenced. 
Birth of Wilkie Collins. 

1827 Lord Canning Prime Minister. 
Lord Palmerston Foreign Secretary. 

1828 Battle of Navarino. 

The allies defeat the Turkish and Egyp- 
tian fleets. 

1829 Roman Catholic Relief Bill passed, April 

13. 
Great riots in London. 

1830 Death of George IV. 

William IV. mounts the throne, June 26. 
Ministry of the Duke of Wellington. 
Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester 
railway. 

1831 The new London bridge opened. 

The reform bill rejected by the Lords, 

Oct. 7. 
Riots in Bristol, Oct. 29. 
Earl Grey's ministry. 

1832 Passage of the English Reform Bill, 

June 1. 
Death of Sir Walter Scott, Sept. 2. 
Passage of the Irish Reform Bill, Aug. 7. 

1834 Slavery ceases in the colonies. 
Trades union and repeal riots. 
Lord Melbourne's ministry. 

1835 Corporation Reform Act passed, Sept. 9. 
Sir Walter Peel Prime Minister. 

1837 Death of William IV. 

Victoria succeeds to the throne, June 20. 
Hanover separated from Great Britain. 

1838 Queen Victoria crowned, June 28. 
Irish Poor Law bill passed, July 31. 
Viscount Melbourne's ministry. 

1839 England at war with China. 
Assassination of Lord Northbury in Ire- 
land. 

1840 Penny postage inaugurated. 

The Queen marries Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Coburg, Feb. 10. 
Oxford's assault on the Queen, June 10. 

1841 Birth of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 

Nov. 10. 
Ministry of Sir Robert Peel. 

1842 John Francis attempts to kill the Queen, 

May 20 ; a second attempt by Bean, 

June 3. 
Income tax established, August. 
Peace with China, December. 

1843 Queen Victoria visits France. 

1844 The Emperor of Russia and King of the 

French visit England. 
Trial of O'Donnell, at Dublin, for sedi- 
tion ; his conviction, fine and imprison- 
ment, and subsequent release from 
prison, September. 

1845 Sir Robert Peel's new tariff. 
Great famine in Ireland. 
Puseyite or Tractarian controversy. 
Anti-corn law agitation. 

Great railroad speculations. 

1846 Repeal of the corn laws, June 26. 
Great commercial panic. 

Food riots in Tipperary. 
Russell forms new ministry. 

1847 Death of O'Connell, May 15. 
$50,000,000 expended by the government 

for relief of Irish sufferers. 

1848 Chartist demonstrations in London. 

Irish rebellion, headed by Smith, O'Brien, 
Meagher, and others, suppressed, and 
the leaders condemned to death, Oct. 9. 

Cholera in Ireland. 

1849 Sentence of Irish insurgents commuted 

to transportation. 
Irish Encumbered Estates Act passed. 
Cholera reappears in England. 
The Queen visits Ireland. 

1850 Death of. Sir Robert Peel, and the Duke 

of Cambridge. 
Pate assaults the Queen. 

1851 The first "Great Exhibition" opened, 

May 1. 
First gold arrives from Australia. 

1852 Death of Wellington, Sept. 14. 
Great riots in Belfast. 
Aberdeen becomes Prime Minister. 

1853 English and French fleets enter the Bos- 

phorus, Oct. 22. 
Protocol between England, Austria, France 
and Prussia signed, Dec. 5. 

1854 Alliance between England, France, and 

Turkey, March 12. 
War declared against Russia, March 28. 
Crystal Palace opened by the Queen, 

June 10. 
Treaty with the United States, regarding 

fishery claims. 

1855 Resignation of the Aberdeen ministry, 
Jan. 2. . 

Lord Palmerston appointed Prime Minis- 
Visit' of the Emperor and Empress of 

France to England. 
The Queen and Prince Albert visit 

France. . , . . a -i in 

1856 Peace with Russia proclaimed, April 19. 
War with China (q. v.) 
England at war with Persia. 
Herat taken by Persians, Oct. 25. 
English take Bushire, Dec. 10. 

1857 Beginning of the Indian mutiny (see In- 
Great commercial panic; it is relieved by 

the suspension of the Bank Charter Act 

of 1844. 
Persian war closed by treaty of Teheran. 
Herat restored. . 

1858 Marriage of the Princess Royal to Prince 
Frederick William of Prussia, Jan. 25. 

Derby-Disraeli ministry formed, Feb. 26. 
Jewish disabilities removed, July 23, 
The Conspiracy and Volunteer bills 



The India Bill passed, Aug. 2. 



1858 The government of the East India Com- 

pany ceases, Sept. 1. 

1859 England declares her neutrality an the 

Austro-Italian war. 
Derby ministry defeated on the reform 

bill- 
Organization of volunteer forces. 
Palmerston-Russell ministry formed June 

18 - •, . 

Lord Palmerston Tesigns and returns. 
Lord Stanley Secretary for India. 

1860 Commercial treaty with France. 
Peace effected with China, Oct. 24. 

The Prince of Wales visits the United 
States and Canada. n A 

1861 Death of the Duchess of Kent, the Queens 

mother. . , «, ^ 

Complications with the United States over 
the seizure of Messrs. Mason and Shdell, 
from a British mail steamer, by the 
U. S. steamer "San Jacinto," Nov. 8. 
They are released by the U. S. govern- 
ment, Dec. 28. 
Death of Albert, the Prince Consort, Dec. 

14. 
The Queen proclaims neutrality in Amer- 
ican war. 

1862 Great distress in the cotton manufactur- 

ing districts in consequence of the civil 
war in America. 
Confederate "Alabama" sails from Eng- 

l and - -, .1 ... ,r 1 

Second international exhibition, May^ 1. 
Marriage of Princess Alice to Louis ot 

Hesse, July 1. 
Prince Alfred declines the throne ot 

Greece, Oct. 23. 
Serious riots in Ireland. > 

1863 Continued distress in cotton districts. ^ 
Marriage of the Prince of Wales to Prin- 
cess Alexandra, of Denmark, March 10. 

1864 Birth of a son to the Prince of Wales. 
Visit of Garibaldi. 

The Ionian Islands ceded to Greece. 
Powers as to Confederate privateers dis- 

Europeari Conference, at London, on the 
Schleswig-Holstein question. 

1865 Cattle plague in England and Ireland. 
Fenian troubles in Ireland ; arrest of 

James Stephens, "Head Center,' Nov. 
11 ; escape of "Stephens, Nov. 24. 

Russell- Gladstone ministry. 

Death of Richard Cobden, April 2. 

Death of Lord Palmerston, Oct. 18. 

Important commercial treaty with Aus- 
tria, Dec. 16. 

1866 Defeat of Lord Russell's reform bill, June 

18 
Resignation of Russell ministry, June 26. 
Derby forms his third cabinet, July 6. 
Cattle plague continues, causing great 

loss. . „. . ... 

Princess Helena marries Prince Christian 

of Schleswig-Holstein, July 5. 
Atlantic cable pronounced a success. 
Habeas corpus suspended in Ireland. 
Fenian invasion of Canada. 

1867 New reform act passed. . 
War with Abyssinia begins, caused by im- 
prisonment of British subjects. # m 

Sir Robert Napier commands expedition. 
Fenian outbreaks in Ireland. 
Disraeli's reform bill. 
The Dominion of Canada formed. 

1868 Derby ministry resigns, Feb. 25. 
Disraeli forms new ministry, Feb. 25. 
Gladstone's bill for disestablishment of 

Irish Church passes the House, April 
30. 

Scotch and Irish reform acts passed, 
July 13. 

Dissolution of Parliament, Dec. 10. 

Resignation of Disraeli ministry. 

Gladstone forms new ministry, Dec. 9. ^ 

Successful termination of the Abyssinian 
war. # 

The suicide of Theodore, King of Abys- 
sinia, April 13. , 

1869 Convention on "Alabama Claims" signed; 

it is rejected by the United States. 

Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland. 

Irish Church bill receives the royal as- 
sent, July 26. 

Death of the Earl of Derby, Oct. 23. 

1870 Measures - adopted for the spread of pri- 

mary education. 

Land bill of Ireland receives royal as- 
sent, July 8. 
-Education bill. 

Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war pro- 
claimed, July 19. 

Neutrality of Belgium guaranteed, Aug. 

Resignation of John Bright, Dec. 20. 
Death of the Earl of Clarendon, June 26. 

1871 Princess Louise marries the Marquis of 

Lome, March 20. 

Black Sea Conference, March 13. 

Treaty with the United States regarding 
Alabama claims, May 8. 

The Irish Church Disestablishment bill 
goes into effect. 

Meeting of the Alabama Claims Commis- 
sion at Geneva. 

University tests abolished; army purchase 
abolished. 

The Ballot Act passed. 

Serious illness of the Prince of Wales. 

Scott centenary at Edinburgh. 

Great riots in Dublin. 

1872 Supplemental treaty with the United 

States concerning Alabama claims, 

Feb. 3. 
A national -thanksgiving for recovery of 

the Prince of Wales, Feb. 27. 
O'Connor threatens the Queen, Feb. 29. 
Settlement of the Alabama claims, Sept. 

14. 
Scotch educational bill. 
Commercial treaty witn France, Nov. 5. 
Serious riots in Belfast. 

1873 Abolition of tests in the Irish Universities. 
Payment of the Geneva award. 

Death of Lord Lytton, Jan. 18. 
Defeat of the Dublin University bill. 
Resignation of the Gladstone ministry, 

March 13 ; ministry resumes office, 

March 17. 
The Shah of Persia visits England. 
Passage of the Judicature bill, Aug. 5. 
War with the Ashantees ; Sir Garnet 

Wolseley placed in command. 

1874 Irish educational bill fails. 

Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh to 
Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, Jan. 23. 

Celebrated Tichborne trial, Feb. 28. 

Defeat of Ashantees, Jan. 31, and treaty 
of peace signed, Feb. 13. 

Disraeli becomes Prime Minister. 

1875 Reopening of the Eastern question. 
The Prince of Wales visits India. 
France passes the English Channel Tunnel 

bill. , n 1 

1876 Great revival under Moody and Sankey. 
England purchases the Suez canal. 
O'Connell centenary in Ireland. 

Queen of England proclaimed Empress of 
India, March 1. 

Bulgarian atrocities produce intense ex- 
citement in England. 

Defeat of "Home Rule" for Ireland. 

Disraeli raised to the peerage as the Earl 
of Beaconsfield. 

England takes part in the Eastern ques- 
tion. - . 

1877 Great Britain expresses her disapproval of 
the Russo-Turkish war, but decides to 
remain neutral. 

Duke of Marlborough made Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. 

Rejection of Gladstone's resolutions in re- 
gard to Turkey. 

1878 Russian advance on Constantinople pro- 
duces great excitement in England. 



1878 Several changes in the ministry. 1900 
Earl of Leitrim shot in Ireland. 
Beaconsfield and Salisbury represent Eng- 1901 

land in the Berlin Conference. 
Great commercial depression in England. 1902 

British Afghanistan war. 1905 

General Roberts' victory at Piewas Pass, 

Dec. 2. 
Jellalabad occupied by the British, Dec. 20. 1908 

1879 Yakoob Khan recognized as Ameer of 1910 

Afghan, May 9; retirement of British 

troops; treaty of peace signed, May 3Q; 

British residents at Cabul massacred, 1912 

Sept. 3 ; Gen. Roberts reaches Cabul, 

Sept. 28 ; abdication of Yakoob Khan, 

Oct. 19 ; British defeat Afghans at 

Sherrjur, Dec. 23. 

Zulu, South Africa, war; British troops 
enter Zululand, Jan. 12 ; massacre of 
Isandula, Jan. 22. 

Victory at Kambula, March 29 ; Prince 1914 
Louis Napoleon, son of Emperor Napol- 
eon III., -killed by Zulus, June 1; Sir 
Garnet Wolseley takes command, June 
23 ; battle of Ulundi, total defeat of the 
Zulu king, Cetewayo, July 4 ; capture 
of Cetewayo, Aug. 28. 

Great distress and famine in Ireland. 

Parnell visits the United States in behalf 
of the Land League.. 

Anti-rent agitation in Ireland. 

1880 Continued fighting in Afghan; Shere Ali 

made Governor of Candahar ; Yakoob 
Khan attacks Candahar and repulses 
Gen. Burrows, July 27 ; sortie from 
Candahar fails, Aug. 16; Gen. Roberts 
relieves Candahar, Aug. 31; defeats 
Yakoob Khan, Sept. 1. 

Resignation of the Beaconsfield Ministry, 
April 22; Gladstone forms a new min- 
istry, April 29. 

Compensation for Disturbance Bill re- 
jected. 

Lord Montmorris shot, Sept. 25. 

"Boycotting" practiced. 

Arrest of Parnell, Healy and others on 
charge of conspiracy to prevent pay- 
ment of rent. 

1881 Duke of Argyle resigns from cabinet, 

April 8. 

Death' of Lord Beaconsfield. 

Lord Salisbury the Conservative Leader. 

Bradlaugh excluded from House of Com- 
mons. 

Coercion Act for Ireland passed, March 
21. 

Irish Land Bill passed, Aug. 16. 

Yakoob Khan routes the Ameer and en- 
ters Candahar. 

Parnell arrested under Coercion Act. 
Oct. 13. 

Land League declared illegal, Oct. 20. 

Yakoob Khan defeated by the Ameer, 
Sept. 22. 

Agrarian outrages in Ireland. 

1882 Attempt on the Queen's life by McLean, 

March 2. 

State trial of McLean, who is adjudged 
insane. 

Prince Leopold married to Princess Hel- 
ena of Waldeck, April 27. 

Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland. 

Lord Frederick Cavendish appointed Chief 
Secretary of Ireland. 

Lord Cavendish and Mr. Burke, Under Sec- 
retary, assassinated, in Dublin, May 6. 

Otto Trevelyan succeeds Lord Cavendish. 

The Repression of Crime bill passed, 
July 11. 

John Bright resigns, July 15, as a mem- 
ber of Gladstone's Cabinet, owing to 
Egyptian policy. 

The "Cloture" bill passed, permitting 
closing of debate by majority vote. 

Fiftieth anniversary of Gladstone's entry 
into public life, Dec. 13. 

Prayers offered in the Mosques of Cairo for 
4he Q.ueen, Dec. 13. 

Fire in Hampton Court Palace, Dec. 14. 

Arrears of Rent bill passed. 

Married woman's property assessed. 

Anglo-Turkish Military Convention in- 
formally signed, Sept. 6. 

War in Egypt (q. v.). 

1883 The assassins of Mr. Burke and Lord 

Cavendish identified, Feb. 10. 
Opening of the Royal College of Music, 

May 1. ' . 

The Marquis of Lansdowne appointed 

Governor-General of Canada. 
New Parcel Post first in operation, Aug. 

Annexation of territory on African west 
coast proclaimed, Aug. 23. 

Surrender of Cetewayo to the British resi- 
dents, Oct. 6. 

Sir J. H. Glover appointed Governor of 
Newfoundland, Dec. 19. 

1884 New Patents Act goes into operation, 

Jan. 1. 

Departure of Gen. Gordon for Egypt, 
Jan. 18. 

The Queen visits Darmstadt, April 16. 

Death of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, 
March 28, aged 29. s 

Monster reform demonstration m London, 
July 21. 

Jubilee of the abolition of Slavery cele- 
brated in London, Aug. 1. 

Serious anti-Salvation riots, at Worthing, 
Aug. 17. 

Earl of Dufferin appointed to the Vice- 
Royalty of India, Sept. 10. 

Greenwich adopted as the universal prime 
meridian, Oct. 13. t 

Portuguese fire upon the British ship 
Tyburnia, at Madeira, Dec. 3. 

Anti-Mormon riot in Sheffield, Dec. 7. 

Attempt to blow up London Bridge, Dec. 
13 

LordRea appointed Governor of Bombay, 
Dec. 13. e „ 

1885 Attempt to blow up the House of Com- 
mons, Westminster Hall and Tower of 
London, Jan. 24. 

The fall of Khartoum, and death of Gor- 
don, Jan. 26. 

Opening of the Mersey tunnel, Feb. 13. 

The reserve forces and militia forces called 
out, March 26. 

The revised Bible published, May 18. 

Princess Beatrice marries Prince Henry, 
of Battenburg, July 23. 

Death of Sir Moses Montefiore, aged 101, 
July 28. m l . A 

1885 Grant memorial services at Westminster, 

Aug. 4. 

1886 Parnell's land bill defeated, Sept. 21. 

1887 Queen's Jubilee inaugurated, June 21. 
Irish Crime Bill passed, July 8. 
Irish National League proclaimed, Aug. 

19. 

1888 First White Chapel murder, April 2. 
U. S. Fishery Commission treaty signed. 

1889 Marriage of Princess Louise of Wales, 
July 27. 

1890 Rejection of overtures from the Pope, 
• Aug. 11. ■ „ . 

Split in the Irish Parliamentary Party, 
Dec. 6. 

1891 Newfoundland fishery dispute, March-May. 
U. S. World's Fair invitation accepted, 

May. 
1893 Battleship "Victoria" sunk by the "Cam- 
perdown," off the Syrian coast, 400 men 
perished. 
The Duke of York married Princess Mary 

of Teck, July 6. 
Manchester Ship Canal opened, Dec. 7. 
1895 Defeat of the Liberal party and fall of 
the Rosebery Cabinet ; is succeeded by 
the Earl of Salisbury and a new Radical 
Cabinet. 
1899 Beginning of the Boer War in So. Africa, 
Oct. 11. 



Transvaal republic annexed to Great 

Britain, Sept. 1. 
Queen Victoria died, Jan. 22. 
King Edward VII. ascends throne. 
Boer War, in South Africa, ended in May. 
Post Office began to receive messages for 

wireless transmission to ships at sea, 

Jan. 1. 
Old age pension act passed Aug. 1. 
Death of King Edward, May 6. 
Accession of King George IV. to the 

throne, May 7. 
Great coal strike on; woman suffrage 

agitation. 
Asquith introduces Home Rule bill. 
White Star Line steamer "Titanic" sank 

after collision with iceberg; 1,635 

people drowned; 705 were saved and 

carried to New York on Cunarder "Car- 

pathia," April. 
War declared, against Germany, 

Aug. 4 ; Austria-Hungary, Aug. 
12. 



AUSTRALIA. 



1770 Captain Cook, Sir Joseph Banks and 
others land at Botany Bay and name 
the country New South Wales, April 28. 

1773 Explorations of Furneaux. 

1774 Capt. Cook explores Australia and New 
Zealand. 

1777 Capt. Cook makes a third voyage of ex- 
ploration. 

1788 First landing of English convicts at Port 
Jackson. 
Phillips, first Governor, founds Sydney, 
with 1,039 persons, Jan. 26, 

1789-'92 Voyage of Bligh. 

1790 Distress, owing to the loss of the store- 
ship "Guardian." 

1793 First house for public worship erected. 

1795 First publication of Government Gazette. 

1798 Bass' Straits discovered, by Bass and 
Flinders. 

18 00-' 05 Explorations and surveys of the coast 
of Australia, by Grant and Flinders. 

1802 First brick church built. 

1803 Van Dieman's Land, now Tasmania, estab- 
lished ; first settlement made at Port 
Philip. 

1804 Insurrection of Irish convicts repressed. 
1808 Gov. Bligh deposed for tyranny and sent 

home; succeeded by MacQuarrie. 

1817-'23 Explorations into the interior ol Aus- 
tralia, by Wentworth, Lawson, Bloxand, 
Oxley and others. 

1826 Settlement of King George's Sound 
formed. 

1828 South Australia explored by Stuart. 

1829 West Australia made a province; a Legis- 
lative Council established and Capt. 
Sterling appointed Lieutenant-Governor. 

.1830 Stuart further explores South Australia. 

Fifty ships, with 2,000 emigrants, arrive < 
in Western Australia. 

1831 East Australia explored by Sir T. Mitchell. 

,1834 Boundaries of the province of South Aus- 
tralia fixed. 

1835 First Roman Catholic bishop arrives. 
Port Philip, now Victoria, colonized. 

1836 South Australia a province. 
Arrival of first Church of England Bishop. 
Adelaide founded. 
Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide 

to King George's Sound. 
Melbourne founded. 

1838 Explorations of Capt. Gray in northwest 

1839 New South Wales and Tasmania explored 
by Count stizelecki. 

Alleged discovery of gold in Bathurst kept 

secret by Gov. Gipps. _ 
Suspension of transportation. 

1840 Eyre explores West Australia. 
Stizelecki explores the Australian Alps. 

1841 Census, 87,200 males; 43,700 females. 

1842 Incorporation of the City of Sydney. 
Discovery of the Burra-Burra copper 

mines, in South Australia. 
1844-'48 Explorations of Leichhardt, Stuart, 
Mitchell, Gregory and Kennedy. 

1846 Fitzroy made Governor-General. 
Census, 114,700 males; 74,800 females. 

1847 Bishopric of Adelaide founded. 

1848 Leichhardt starts on second^ exploration; 
party never heard of again. 

Kennedy killed by natives. 
Gregory explores the interior. 

1849 Great agitation against transportation. 

1850 Port" Philip erected into the province of 
Victoria. 

1851 Gold discovered, near Bathurst, by Ed- 
ward Hargreaves ; intense excitement in 
the provinces ; great rush to the gold 
regions. 

1854 Sir William Dennison appointed Gover- 
nor-General. 

1855 Gregory's expedition into the interior. 
1858-'62 J. McDonald Stuart's expeditions. 

Death of Archdeacon Cowper, after near- 
ly fifty years' residence, aged 80. 

1859 Province of Queensland established, Dec. 4. 

1860 Burke and Willis and two others cross 
the continent, starting from Melbourne 
Aug. 20 ; all perish on the return, next 
year, except John King. 

Sir John Young, Governor of New South 
Wales. 

1861 Stuart and M'Kinlay cross from sea to 



1863 
1864 
1865 



1866 
1867 

1871 

1872 

1876 
1879 
1880 



1882 
1883 



1885 
1890 



Recovery of the remains of Burke and 

Willis. 
General resistance throughout the prov- 
inces against transportation. 

Death of Morgan, a desperate bush- 
ranger and murderer. 

Cessation of transportation to Australia 
in three years announced. 

Settlement of boundary between New 
South Wales and Victoria, April 19. 

Population of Australia, natives exclud- 
ed, 1,298,667. 

Capt. Cadell explores South Australia; 
discovers mouth of river Roper. 

Meeting of Convention from Colonies at 
Melbourne, to arrange postal communi- 
cation with Europe. 

Delegates from the Colonies meet to pro- 
test against imperial interference with 
their mutual fiscal arrangements, Sept. 
27. 

Telegraphic communication with Eng- 
land. 

Synod of the Church of Australia and 
Tasmania held at Sydney, Oct. 25. 

Willshire explores Daly and Victoria riv- 
ers. 

International Exhibition at Sydney 
opened Sept. 17. 

Melbourne Exhibition opened Oct. 1. 

Tahiti annexed to France. 

The Queensland government authorizes 
the construction of the trans-conti- 
nental railway, to bring the colonies 
within thirty days of England. 

Railroad completed from Sydney to Mur- 
ray River, connecting with Melbourne. 

Inter-colonial conference at Sydney to 
consider federal action. 

Majority vote in favor of a tariff com- 
mission and the establishment of an 
Australian Court of Appeal. 

Terrible mining accident at Creswick 
Talbot, Victoria, Dec. 14. 

Confederation of the colonies and an- 
nexation of Papua, New Guinea. 

Opening of the New University of South 
Wales and Monmouthshire, Oct. 24. 

New South Wales contingent leaves Syd- 
ney for the Soudan, March 3. 
Fire "in Sydney causing a loss of $7,500,- 
000, Oct. 2. ( 



SUPPLEMENT XX. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1891 Federation Convention draft a Constitu- 
tion for the Commonwealth of Aus- 
tralia, April 3. 

1893 Serious floods in Queensland, property 
and life lost. 

1895 Great panic in the money market; many 
"iftni ^anks and business houses fail. 

1901 New Commonwealth, of Australia pro- 

-.™„ ^ claimed at Sydney. 

1903 Bombala N. S- W. chosen as capital. 

1910 Bill passed providing for a Federal note 

issue of $85,000,000. 

1911 Commonwealth of Australia celebrated its 

tenth anniversary by approval of site 
for federal capital in district of Yass- 
canberra. 



CANADA. 



1767 
1768 

'l774 

1775 



1776 



1784 
1791 



1792 
1794 



1803 
1812 



1812 
1813 



1814 



1816 

1817 

1818 

1822 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1828 
1829 

1830 

1832 

1835 

1836 

1837 



1838 



1839 
1840 



1843 

1844 



1845 
1847 



1848 
1849 



1850 
1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 



1855 
1856 



1857 



English Stamp Act accepted by Canadian 

provinces. 
Sir Guy Carleton Governor. 
Great fire in Montreal. 
Roman Catholic citizens of Canada con- 
firmed in their political rights and 
property. 
Legislative council of 23 members ap- 
pointed. 
Commencement of the American War of 

Independence. 
Invasion of Canada by the Americans, 

under Montgomery and B. Arnold. 
Fort St. John taken by Montgomery, 

Nov. 3. 
Montreal captured, Nov. 12. 
Arnold's attack on Quebec repulsed, 

Nov. 14. 
Arnold and Montgomery attack Quebec, 

December 31. 
Failure of attack and death of Mont- 
gomery. 
The Americans retreat from Canada, 

June 18. 
Settlement of Upper Canada. 
Canada is given a constitution, and is 
divided into upper and lower prov- 
inces. 
First House of Assembly opened. 
Toronto made the capital of Upper Can- 
ada. 
Slavery abolished in Canada. 
Second war between the United States 

and Great Britain. 
Capture of Detroit by the British, Aug. 

15. 
Surrender of General Wordsworth, Oct. 

14. 
Van Itensseiear capitulates, Nov. 27. 
Americans carry Queenstown Heights. 
Death of General Brock. 
Americans defeated at Frenchtown. 
Capture of Toronto, April 27, and Fort 

George, May 27, by the Americans. 
Defeat of the British at Sacketts Harbor, 

May 29. 
Victory of Americans at Stony Creek, 

June 6. ' 
Indecisive battle of Williamsburg, Nov. 7. 
Commodore Perry's victory on Lake Erie. 
Capture of English squadron. 
Defeat of Proctor at the Thames, and 

death of Tecumseh. 
United States troops successful at battle 

of Longwood, March 4. 
Defeat of the British at Chippewa, July 

25. 
Battle of Lundy's Lane. 
Naval battle on Lake Champlain. 
Treaty of Ghent closes the war. 
Sir George Sherbroke becomes Governor 

of ^ Lower Canada. 
Political agitation in Upper Canada. 
Career of Robert Gourlay. 
Duke of Richmond appointed Governor 

of Lower Canada. 
Antagonism between the French and 
English inhao.tants of Lower Canada. 
Welland Canal incorporated. 
First agitation against the Orangemen. 
Agitation in Upper Canada on the alien 

bill. 
Mackenzie's printing office destroyed by 

a mob. 
Petition against misuse of revenues. 
First agitation for responsible govern- 
ment in Upper Canada. 
Lord Aylmer becomes Governor of Low- 
er Canada. 
Imperial duties surrendered to the Cana- 
dian Assembly. 
The Pupinean party aim at a total sepa- 
ration from Great Britain. 
First Canadian railway opened. 
House of Assembly refuse supplies. 
Coercive measure of the British Parlia- 
ment. 
House of Assembly of Lower Canada re- 
fuses to transact business. 
"Sons of Liberty" rise in Montreal. 
Commercial crisis in Canada and the 

United States. 
Troops withdrawn from Upper Canada. 
Rebellion in Upper Canada begins. 
Attempt the capture of Toronto, Dec. 4. 
Totally defeated by St. Eustace, Dec. 14. 
Rebels receive aid from sympathizers in 

the United States. 
Affair of the "Caroline." 
Sir John Colborne appointed Governor 

Jan. 16. 
Affair of the "Anne" and the "Sir Rob- 
ert Peel." 
End of the rebellion in Upper Canada. 
Resignation of Sir Francis Head, who is 

succeeded by Lord Durham. 
Union of Upper and Lower Canada. 
Lord Sydenham appointed Governor. 
Settlement of the clergy reserves ques- 
tion. 
Responsible government established. 
Death of Lord Sydenham. 
Charles P. Thompson Governor. 
Sir Charles Metcalf appointed Governor. 
Government removed from Kingston to 

Montreal. 
Great fire in Quebec. 
Earl Cathcart Governor. 
Lord Elgin Governor- General, October. 
Agitation over .the Rebellion Losses bill 
Continued agitation over the Rebellion 

Losses bill. 
Annexation to the United States advo- 
cated by the opposition. 
Great riots in Montreal. 
Destruction of Parliament House, Anril 

26. ■ F 

Attack on Lord Elgin. 
Subsidence of the agitation. 
Reciprocity with United States urged. 
Construction of new railways. 
Cheaper postage rates introduced. 
Great fire at Montreal. 
Government removed to Quebec. 
Clergy reserves abolished by English 

Parliament, May 9. 
Close of Lord Elgin's administration. 
Prosperous condition of Canada. 
Treaty with the United States, June 7. 
Sir Edmund W. Head Governor-General. 
Sir John A. Macdonald, the Attorney- 
General, becomes leader of the Con- 
servatives. 
Opening of railway from Quebec to To- 
ronto, Nov. 12. 
The first railway accident in Canada. 
Quebec made the seat of government. 
Stringency in the money market caused 
by the mutiny in India. 



1858 Ottawa, formerly Bytown, made the seat 
of the provincial government by Queen 
Victoria ; the opposition defeat this 
scheme. 

1860 Visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada. 

1861 Great fire in Quebec, June 7. 
Commencement of the civil war in the 

United States; fears of hostilities witn 

that nation. 
Lord Monck made Governor- General, 

Nov. 28. 
British troops sent to Canada on account 

of "Trent" affair. 
Resignation of ministry; Macdonald 

forms a new cabinet. 

1862 Death of Sir Allan M'Nab. 

1864 Delegates assemble at Quebec to discuss 

confederation of American colonies, 
Oct. 10. 
Confederate refugees make a raid from 
Canada on St. Albans, Vt., Oct. 19 ; 
Canadians arrest them upon their re- 
turn, followed by their discharge, Dec. 
14 ; General Dix proclaims reprisals ; 
order rescinded by President Lincoln. 

1865 Parliament agrees to a confederation. 
Great fire at Quebec. 

Canada Parliament vote £50,000 for de- 
fense of the Dominion, March 23. 

Canada consents to union of the prov- 
inces, April 1. 

1866 First Parliament of the Dominion meets 

at Ottawa, June 7. 

Discovery of gold in Hastings County, 
November. 

Termination of the Reciprocity Treaty 
with the United States. 

Fenian invasion threatened. 

Fenians, under O'Neill, cross into Can- 
ada ; Canadian volunteers drive them 
back and disperse them. 

Habeas Corpus suspended. 

Mr. Gait's new tariff. 

1867 Formation of the Dominion of Canada 

by the confederation of Canada, New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, March 29. 

Lord Monck appointed Viceroy, July 2. 

Canadian Railway Loan act passed, April 
12. 

1868 Sir John Young becomes Governor-Gen- 

eral, Nov. 27. 

1869 Hudson Bay territories purchased for 

£300,000. 

1870 Second Fenian raid repelled by militia ; 

the leader, O'Neill, captured by United. 
States troops. 

Manitoba, formerly Rupert's Land, 
formed and becomes a part of the Do- 
minion of Canada. 

Prince Alfred visits Canada. 

1871 British Columbia joins the Dominion of 

Canada. 
Discussion of the Fisheries question. 

1872 Prince Edward's Island becomes a part 

of the Dominion of Canada. 
Earl of Dufferin becomes Governor-Gen- 
eral. 

1873 Macdonald's ministry charged with cor- 

ruption, and forced to resign; new 
ministry formed by Mackenzie. 

1875 Rejection of Reciprocity Treaty by United 

States. 

1876 Destruction of St. Hyacinthe by fire, 

Sept. 3. 

1877 United States and Canada Fishery Com- 

mission, at Halifax, award Canada $5,- 
500,000. 

1878 The Marquis of Lome, son-in-law of 

Queen Victoria, appointed Viceroy, 
Oct. 14. 

Fortune Bay outrages. 

United States pay Fishery award, Nov. 
21. 

Arrival of Marquis of Lome and Prin- 
cess Louise, Nov. 25. 

1879 Industrial Exposition at Ottawa. 

1880 Earl of Salisbury refuses compensation 

for Fortune Bay affair; Lord Granville 
grants it. 

1881 $75,000 award for Fortune Bay outrages. 
Bill to construct railroad from Halifax 

to Buzzard Inlet passed, June 31. 
Patents issued to Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Company, Feb. 16. 

1883 The Marquis of Lansdowne appointed 

Governor- General, May 21. 
Sir John Hawley Glover appointed Gov- 
ernor of Newfoundland. 

1884 Meeting of the British Association, at 

Montreal, Aug. 27. 

Dynamite explosions at Quebec, Oct. 11. 
1S85 Opening conflict at Fish Creek with the 
half-breed and Indian rebels, under 
Louis Riel, April 24. 

Capture, near Batoche, of Louis Riel. 
1886 Opening of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. 

Resolution against the Coercion Bill 
passed April 26. 

1888 Newfoundland refuses to join Canada, 

April. 
Lord Stanley made Governor, June 11. 

1889 Weldon Extradition Bill passed, April 

26. 

1890 Toronto University burned, Feb. 14. 

1891 Government party sustained at general 

election, March 6. 
General census taken April 5. 

1893 Earl of Aberdeen appointed Governor- 
General, May 11. 

1895 School war in Manitoba. 

1910 Silver agitation and mining development 

in Porcupine district. 

1911 Duke of Connaught appointed Governor- 

General. 

1912 Great land boom and influx of settlers 

in Northwest provinces. 
1914 Empress of Ireland sunk, May 29. 



UNITED STATES. 

1765 First Medical College established in Phil- 

adelphia. 

The Stamp Act passed, in England, 
March 22. 

Virginia resolutions against right of tax- 
ation, May 29. 

A congress of the colonies proposed by 
Massachusetts, June 26. 

Congress of 27 delegates meet at New 
York and publish a declaration of the 
rights and rules against the Stamp 
Act, Oct. 7.- 

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware 
and Maryland unite in resisting Stamp 
Act, November. 

1766 Dr. Franklin visits England, and is ex- 

amined before the House of Commons, 
in February. 

Stamp Act repealed, March 18. 

Stage route between Providence and Bos- 
ton established. 

Philip Embury and Captain Webb first 
introduce Methodism in America. 

1767 An obnoxious tax imposed on paper, 

glass, tea and painters' colors imported 
by the colonies. 

Colonies adopt a non-importation agree- 
ment. 

Mason and Dixon, sent out by the heirs 
of Wm. Penn and Lord Baltimore, run 
a line to define the boundaries of their 
possessions. It afterwards became the 
acknowledged line between the free 
and slave states. 

1768 Meeting of a convention of delegates 

called by Massachusetts, at Fanuel 
Hall, Boston. 
A military force stationed in Boston by 
the British government under General 
Gates. 



1769 The Governor of Virginia dissolves the 

House of Burgess. 

The assembly of North Carolina dis- 
solved by the Governor. 

Goods sent to Boston from Great Britain 
refused and sent back. 

First paper mill erected at Milton. 

1770 Boston massacre, March 5 ; British sol- 

diers kill three and wound four citi- 
zens. 
Repeal of the duties on tea. 

1771 Insurrection in North Carolina against 

the government officers by regulators; 
rebellion suppressed, May 16, by Gov- 
ernor Tryon and six regulators hanged. 

1772 The British man-of-war Gaspee burned 

in Narragansett Bay by Americans 
from Providence. 

1773 First American Methodist Conference, 

consisting of ten ministers, all of for- 
eign birth. 

Blind Asylum established at Williams- 
burg, Va., the' first in America. 

The cargoes of the tea-ships in Boston 
thrown into the harbor by masked men, 
Dec. 16. 

1774 Boston Port Bill deprives Boston of its 

port rights, March 25. 

Meeting of the First Continental or Sec- 
ond Colonial Congress, at Philadelphia, 
Sept. 5. 

Congress issues a Declaration of Rights, 
Nov. 4. 

1775 Commencement of the Revolutionary 

War. 

Battle of Lexington, April 19 ; British 
retreat. 

Perpetual Union of the Colonies formed, 
May 20. 

General Washington Commander-in- 

Chief of the Continental forces, June 
15. 

Americans under Ethan Allen take Ti- 
conderoga, May 10. 

Generals Howe, Clinton and Burgoyne 
arrive from England. 

Defeat of the Americans at Bunker Hill 
after stubborn resistance, June 17. 

Washington assumes command at Cam- 
bridge, July 3. 

Continental Fast Day, July 20. 

Falmouth burned by the British, Oct. 17. 

Generals Montgomery and Arnold invade 
Canada ; capture of St. John, Nov. 3 ; 
of Montreal, Nov. 12. Repulse of Ar- 
nold at Quebec, Nov. 14 ; second and 
joint assault defeated and Montgom- 
ery killed, Dec. 31. 
1776 Destruction of Norfolk by the British, 
Jan. 1. 

Boston, evacuated by the British in con- 
sequence of the Americans having tak- 
en possession of Dorchester Heights, 
which commanded the harbor, March 
17. 

Washington arrives at New York, April 
14. 

Declaration of Independence, July 4. 

Commissioners sent by Congress to solicit 
a treaty with the French. 

Battle of Flatbush, or Brooklyn, on 
Long Island ; Howe (loss 400) defeats 
the American generals, Putnam and 
Sullivan (loss 2,000), Aug. 27. 

New York evacuated by the Americans 
and occupied by the British, Sept. 15. 

Battle of White Plains; Howe (loss 300 
or 400) defeats Washington (loss 300 
or 400), Oct. 28. 

Battle of Lake Champlain ; capture of 
the American fleet, Oct. 11-13. 

Fort Washington capitulates, Nov. 16. 

English occupy Rhode Island. 

Washington retreats beyond the Dela- 
ware, Nov. 28. 

Congress adjourns to Baltimore, Dec. 12. 

1776 Battle of Trenton; Washington (loss 9) 

defeats Rahl and his Hessians (loss 
1,000), Dec. 26. 

1777 Battle of Princeton; Washington (loss 

100) defeats Mawhood (loss 400). 
Battle of Bennington, Vt. ; Stark (loss 

100) defeats Baum and Bremen (loss 

600). 
Battle of Brandywine; Howe (loss 500) 

defeats Washington (loss 1,000), Sept. 

11. 
Arrival of Lafayette, who is made a 

Major-General in Continental Army. 
Philadelphia occupied by the British, 

Sept. 27. 
Battle of Germantown ; Howe (loss 600) 

defeats Washington (loss 1,200), Oct. 

3-4. 
Second battle, near Stillwater; Gen. 

Gates (loss 350) defeats Burgoyne (loss 

600), Oct. 7. 
Surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, with 

5,752 men, to Gates, Oct. 17. 
Articles of Confederation adopted by Con- 
gress, Nov. 15. 
American independence recognized by 

France, Dee. 16. 

1778 Treaty with France concluded, Feb. 6. 
Philadelphia evacuated by the British, 

June IS. 
Battle of Monmouth ; Washington (loss 

230) defeats Clinton (loss 400), June 26. 
Massacre of Wyoming Valley, July 3. 
Count d'Estaing, with twelve ships of 

the line, six frigates, and French 

troops, arrives. 
Battle on Rhode Island ; Sullivan (loss 

211) defeats Pigot (loss 260), Aug. 29. 
Americans retreat from Rhode Island, 

Aug. 30. 
Savannah seized by the British, Dec. 29. 
Repulse of Americans at Briar Creek, 

March 3. 

1779 New Haven plundered by the British, 

July 5. 
Fairfield and Green Farms, in Connecti- 
cut, taken by the British, July 7. 
Stony Point taken by the Americans, 

July 16. 
Charleston, S. C, surrendered to 'the 

British, May 12. 
Battle of Camden, S, C. ; Cornwallis (loss 

325) defeats General Gates (loss 730), 

Aug. 16. 
Benedict Arnold betrays and deserts his 

country. 
Major Andre captured, Sept'. 23, and 

hung, as a spy, Oct. 2. 

1781 Battle of Cowpens ; American General 

Morgan (loss 72) defeats Tarleton (loss 
800), Jan. 17. 

Assembling of Congress, March 2, Arti- 
cles of Confederation having been rati- 
fied by all the States. 

Defeat of General -Greene by Cornwallis, 
at Guilford. , 

Battle of Eutaw Springs ; General Greene 
(loss 555) defeats Stewart (loss 1,100), 
Sept. 8. 

The traitor, Arnold, burns New London, 
Sept. 6. 

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at York- 
town, with 7,073 men, to Washington, 
Oct. -19. 

1782 Independence of the United States 

acknowledged by Holland, April 19. 

1783 Independence acknowledged by Sweden, 

Denmark, Spain and Prussia. 
Armistice with Great Britain, Jan. 20. 
Peace with Great Britain, at Treaty of 

Paris, Sept. 23. 
New York evacuated, Nov. 25. 
Resignation of General Washington, Dec. 

23. 
17S4 Treaty of peace ratified by Congress, 

Jan. 4. 

1785 John Adams sent to England as first 

Ambassador from the United States. 

1786 Cotton introduced into Georgia. 
Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts. 



1786 
1787 

1788 

1789 

1790 
1791 



1793 



1794 



1795 
1796 



1797 



1798 
1799 



1801 

1S02 

1803 
1804 

1805 



1806 
1807 



1S07 



Delegates assemble at Annapolis, and 
recommend a Convention to revise ar- 
ticles of Confederation. 
Meeting of Convention at Philadelphia, 

George Washington presiding. 
Constitution of the United States adopted 

Sept. 17. 
Constitution ratified by all the States 
except Rhode Island and North Caro- 
lina. 
Emancipation of slaves by the Quakers 

of Philadelphia. 
First Congress meets at New York. 
George Washington elected first Presi- 
dent of the United States. 
North Carolina ratifies the Constitution. 
Death of Benjamin Franklin, April 17. 
Rhode Island ratifies the Constitution. 
Hamilton's financial schemes proposed. 
Bank of the United States established, 

at Philadelphia. 
Vermont admitted as the fourteenth 

State. 
Indians defeat St. Clair. 
Kentucky admitted as the fifteenth 

State. " 
The Columbia river discovered by Cap- 
tain Grey. 
Washington City chosen as the capital of 

the republic. 
Invention of the cotton gin by Whitney, 
resulting in the revolutionizing of the 
culture of cotton. 
Trouble with the French Ambassador, 

Genet. 
Washington's second term as President 

begins. 
Whisky rebellion in Pennsylvania. 
France recalls Genet. 
Jay's treaty with Great Britain. 
Congress ratifies Jay's treaty. 
Tennessee admitted as the sixteenth 

State. 
Resignation of George Washington. 
John Adams inaugurated as President. 
Treaty with France annulled. 
War with France threatened. 
Death of Washington, at Mt. Vernon, 

Dec. 14. 
The Government removed from Phila- 
delphia to Washington. 
Treaty signed with France. 
General Bankruptcy Law passed. 
Inauguration of Thomas Jefferson as 

President. 
New York Evening Post established. 
War with Tripoli commenced, June 10. 
Death of Benedict Arnold, June 14. 
Ohio admitted as the seventeenth State. 
Port of New Orleans closed by Spain, 
and American vessels forbidden to 
pass down Mississippi river. 
Louisiana purchased from the French ; 

$15,000,000 paid. 
Pianos first manufactured at Boston. 
Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in 

a duel, July 11. 
Frigate "President" destroyed at Tripoli 

by Decatur, Feb. 4. 
Fort Dearborn, present site of Chicago, 

built. 
Lewis & Clark's expedition starts across 

the plains. 
Treaty of peace with Tripoli, Jan. 4. 
Ice first becomes an article of commerce. 
Seizure of armed American vessels by 

England. 
Lewis and Clark arrive at mouth of the 

Columbia river. 
American commerce affected by blockade 

of French and English coasts. 
British vessels ordered' to leave United 

States waters. 
Trouble with England respecting the 

rights of neutrals. 
Attack on the American ship "Chesa- 
peake," by the British ship, "Leo- 
pard," June 22. 
Embargo on American ships declared, 

Dec. 22. 
Acquittal of Aaron Burr on charge of 

conspiracy. 
The first coast survey ordered by Con- 



Importation of slaves forbidden by Con- 
gress. 

Eli Terry manufactures first wooden 
clocks. 

Fulton's first successful steamboat. 

808 Abolition of the slave trade, Jan. 1. 
France orders the seizure and confisca- 
tion of American vessels. 

First printing office west of the Miss- 
issippi, established at St. Louis. 

First Bible Society founded, in Philadel- 
phia. 

809 First woolen mills started, in New York. 
Embargo repealed, March 1. 
James Madison President. 
Intercourse between ■' France and Eng- 
land forbidden. 

310 132 confiscated American vessels sold by 
Napoleon. 

First manufacture of steel pens begun. 

First agricultural fair, held at George- 
town. 

Porcelain clay discovered in Vermont. 

Hartford Fire Insurance Company incor- 
porated. 

1811 Engagement between U. S. frigate 

"President," and British sloop, "Little 
Belt." 

Depredations on American vessels by 
France and England. 

Stevens devises plan for plating vessels. 

First manufacture of screws by ma- 
chinery. 

Battle of Tippecanoe; Gen. Harrison de- 
feats Tecumseh, Nov. 7. 

Reparation made by the British for the 
attack on the "Chesapeake." 

Great earthquake at New Madrid, Mo. 

Astor's fur company establishes post of 
Astoria. 

Breech loading rifles invented. 

1812 Embargo laid for ninety days. 
Louisiana admitted into' the Union. 
Congress levies a tax of $3,000,000. 
Additional force of 35,000 men authorized. 
Detachment of militia, not exceeding 

100,000 men, authorized. 

War declared against Great Britain, 
June 12. 

British orders in council revoked, June 
23. 

Van Home defeated, Aug. 5. 

Defeat of Miller, Aug. 8. 

Gen. Hull invades Canada, July 12 ; sur- 
renders Mackinaw, July 17. 

Hull surrenders Detroit with 2,500 men, 
Aug. 16. 

The "Alert," a British ship of war, 
captured by the "Essex," Aug. 13.' 

The "Guerriere," a British frigate, 
captured by the "Constitution" ("Old 
Ironsides"), Capt. Hull, Aug. 19. 

Gen. Harrison takes command of the 
Northwestern army. 

Queenstown attacked, . unsuccessfully, by 
the Americans, Oct. 13. 

The "Frolic," a British ship, captured 
by the U. S- sloop of war "Wasp." 
Both vessels afterwards taken by the 
"Poictiers," a British 74. 

The "Macedonian," a British frigate, 
captured by the "United States," Com^ 
modore Decatur, Oct. 25. 

The "Java," a British frigate, captured 
by the "Constitution," Capt. Bain- 
bridge, Dec. 29. 
1813 At the River Raisin, the British and 
Indians surprise and defeat Winches- 
ter. Most of the Americans were mas- 
sacred by the Indians, who were left 
unprotected by Gen. Proctor, July 13. 



1813 The "Peacock," a British ship, captured 
by the "Hornet," Feb. 23. 
The inauguration of James Madison as 

President, March 4. 
The Creek Indians subdued by Gen. 

Jackson. 
The American coast blockaded by the 

British. 
Duel between Gen. Jackson and Col. 

Benton. 
York (now Toronto) in Upper Canada, 
taken by the Americans, under Gen. 
Pike, who was killed, April 27. 
The "Chesapeake" frigate taken by the 

British frigate "Shannon," June 1. 
First rolling mill at Pittsburgh. 
Stereotyping first introduced into Amer- 
ica. 
Death of Capt. Lawrence, of the "Chesa- 
peake." 
Battle of Fort George, May 27. 
British attack on Sackett's Harbor re- 
pulsed, May 28. 
Forts Meigs and Stephenson attacked 

by the British and Indians. 
The U. S. brig "Argus" taken by the 

British, sloop "Pelican," Aug. 14. 
The British brig "Boxer" captured by 

the U. S. brig "Enterprise," Sept. 4. 
The British fleet, 63 guns, on Lake Erie, 
captured by the American fleet, 56 
guns, under Commodore Perry, Sept. 
10. 
Massacre of Fort Mimms, Ala., by the 

Indians, Aug. 30. 
Battle of Williamsburg, Nov. 11. 
Burning of Newark, Canada, Nov. 12. 
Buffalo burned by the British, Dec. 13. 
The British, capture Fort Niagara, Dee. 

29. 
Niagara frontier ravaged by the British, 

Dec. 30. 
Gen. Harrison, after having crossed into 
Canada, defeats and disperses the 
British army under Gen. Proctor, near 
the River Thames; death of Tecumseh, 
Oct. 5. 
1814 The frigate "Essex" captured, at Val- 
paraiso, by two British vessels. 
Battle of Horse Shoe Bend, March 20. 
The "Epervier," a British vessel, cap- 
tured by the "Peacock," April 29. 
Oswego bombarded and taken by the 

British, May 6. 
The "Reindeer," , a British vessel, cap- 
tured, by the "Wasp," June 25. 
Fort Erie captured by the Americans 

under Gen. Brown, July 3. 
Battle of Chippewa. 
Brown defeats Drurrimond, July 5. 
Battle of Bridgewater, Lundy's Lane. 
Brown and Scott defeat Drummond and 

Rial, July 25. 
The British bombard Stonington, Conn., 

Aug. 9. 
Battle of Fort Erie, Aug. 15. 
Battle of Bladensburg. 
British General, Ross, defeats Winder, 

Aug. 24. 
British enter Washington, and burn the 

public buildings. 
Alexandria taken by the British, Aug. 29. 
The "Avon," a British vessel, captured 

by the "Wasp," Sept. 1. 
Attack on Fort Bower (now Morgan) 

Ala., Sept. 5. 
The British fleet on Lake Champlain, 95 
guns, Commodore Downie, captured 
by the American fleet, of S6 guns, Com- 
modore MacDonough, and their army 
defeated at Plattsburg, by Gen. Ma- 
comb, Sept. 11. 
British expelled from Pensacola, by Jack- 
son, Nov. 7. 
Battle on Lake Borgue, La., Dec. 14. 
Battle below New Orleans, Dec. 22. 
Jethro Wood patents his own plow. 
Perkins makes first steeL plates for en- 
graving. 
Massacre at Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) by 

Indians. 
Attack on Baltimore. 
Bombardment of Fort McHenry. 
British defeated, and Gen. Ross killed, 

Sept. 14. 
Treaty of peace with Great Britain 
signed, at Ghent, Dec. 24. 
1815 Battle of New Orleans. 

Defeat of the British, with the loss of 
their leader, Gen. Packenham, by Gen. 
Jackson, Jan. 8. 
Capture of the frigate "President" by 

the British squadron, Jan. 15. 
Treaty of Ghent ratified by the Senate, 

Feb. 17. 
"Constitution" captures the "Cyane" 

and "Levant," Feb. 20. 
War declared with Algiers. 
The "Penguin" captured by the "Hornet/* 

March 23. 
Commodore Decatur sent against Algiers. 
Decatur captures Algerine frigate, June 

17. 
Hunt first manufactures axes. 
Terrific gale and flood in New England, 
Sept. 23. 

1816 Indiana admitted as a State. 
Second United States bank chartered. 
Steam first applied to paper making. 
Election of James Monroe, President. 
Mrs. Emma Willard opens her girls' 

school at Troy. 
This was known as the year without a 
summer. 

1817 Illinois admitted into the Union. 
Pensions granted revolutionary soldiers. - 
Jackson subdues Indians in Georgia and 

Alabama. 
Erie Canal commenced. 
Mississippi admitted into the Union. 
Harper Bros, publishing house founded. 
Clymer invents Columbian printing 

press. 
New England Deaf and Dumb Asylum 

founded. 

1818 Foundation of the new Capitol laid, at 

Washington, Aug. 24. 
Pensacola, Fla., captured from the 
Spanish, by Jackson. 

1819 The "Savannah," the first steam packet 

that crosses the Atlantic, makes a voy- 
age to Liverpool. 

The first permanent Lodge of Odd Fel- 
lows founded, in Baltimore, April 26, 

Alabama admitted into the Union, Dec. 
14. 

1820 Passage of the Missouri Compromise.' 
Florida ceded to the United States by 

Spain for $5,000,000. 

Maine admitted into the Union, March 15. 

Heated discussion in Congress on the 
slavery question. 

Percussion caps for guns first intro- 
duced. 

Re-election of James Monroe as Presi- 
dent. 

Petroleum first discovered in Ohio. 

Macadamized roads first introduced. 

Death of Daniel Boone. 

1821 Missouri admitted into the Union, Aug. 10. 
Jackson takes possession of Florida, July 

21. 
Burnett first introduces lithography. 
Straw hats first made from American 

straw. 

1822 The United States acknowledge the inde- 

pendence of the South American Re- 
publics. 

First English firm in California opens 
house at Montrey. 

Death of Maj.-Gen. Stark. 

First cotton mill built in Lowell. 

Elliott makes first platform scales. 

War with the Cuban pirates. 

Gas first successfully introduced in Bos- 
ton. 



IJ 



SUPPLEMENT SXI. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



1823 The Monroe doctrine, June 18. 

First gas company in New York. 

First teachers' seminary opened in Con- 
cord, Vt. 
3824 The principles of Robert Owen preached. 

Pins first made by machinery. 

First reformatory school founded in New 
York. 

Act passed to protect and encourage cot- 
ton manufacturers. 

Convention with Great Britain to sup- 
press slave trade, March IS. 

Convention with Russia in relation to 
northwest boundary, April 5. 

Arrival of Lafayette on a visit to the 
U. S. 

Election of John Quincy Adams as Presi- 
dent. 
1825 The Capitol at Washington completed. 

First edge tool manufactory established. 

Smith, a trapper, performs the first over- 
land journey to California, and found 
Folsom. 

Departure of Lafayette for France, 
Sept. 7. 
1S26 Deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John 
Adams. 

Convention with Great Britain concern- 
ing indemnities. 

Fiftieth anniversary of American Inde- 
pendence, July 4. 

Great anti-mason excitement. 

Abduction of William Morgan. 

Baron Von Humboldt visits the United 
States. 

Opening of the Erie Canal, Oct. 26. 

Duel between Henry Clay and John 
Randolph. 

Delano's first fire-proof safes. 

1827 Treaty with Creek Indians concluded. 
Treaty with the Kansas Indians, and the 

great and little Osages. 

Treaty with the Republic of Colombia. 

Continued intense excitement over the 
"Morgan affair." 

First railroad built at Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts, and operated by horse power. 

1828 Passage of the Protective Tariff Bill. 
Sandpaper and emery first made. 

First locomotive introduced from Eng- 
land, by the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal Company. 

Baltimore and Ohio railroad commenced. 

Congress makes provision for officers of 
the revolutionary war. 

Democrat and Republican first chosen 
by their respective political parties. 

General Jackson elected President. 

Treaty of Peace with Brazil and" Buenos 
Ay res. 

Planing mill first patented. 

1829 Andrew Jackson, President, opposes the 

project to recharter the Bank of the 

United States. 
Independence of Mexico recognized. 
Webster's great speech in Congress, Jan. 

26. 
Virginia passes resolution against Tariff 

bill. 
First Asylum for the Blind established. 
First Horticultural Society formed. 
Removal of 700 officeholders by Jackson. 

1830 Commercial treaty with Turkey. 
South Carolina asserts "States Rights." 
The Mormon church founded by Joseph 

Smith, April 6. 

Building of the South Carolina railroad. 

American Institute of Learning founded. 

Great debate between Webster and 
Hayne. 
1S31 Intense Tariff and Free Trade excitement. 

Garrison starts the "Liberator" anti-slav- 
ery paper. 

Death of James Monroe, July 4. 

Manning mowing machines patented. 

Guthrie discovers chloroform. 

Howe invents first practical pin machine. 

Buttons first made by machinery. 

Western College of Teachers established. 
1832 President Jackson vetoes the Bank Bill. 

New protective tariff measure passed. 

South Carolina nullification movement. 

U. S. frigate "Potomac," attacks Qualla 
Batoo, Feb. 6. 

First case of Asiatic cholera in U. S. 
June 21. 

Black Hawk war, and his capture, Aug. 
27. 

University of New York organized, Sept. 
26. 
- Re-election of Andrew Jackson as Presi- 
dent. 

Death of Charles Carroll, last surviving 
signer of Declaration of Independence. 

1832 Morse invents electric magnet telegraph. 
Cholera in New York, 3,400 deaths. 
Fairbank's Scale first patented. 

1833 The President removes the public de- 

posits from the Bank of the United 
States. 

President Jackson begins his second 
term, March 4. 

The Southern States hold a states-right 
Convention. 

Clay's Compromise Tariff law passed. 

Gayler invents first practical safe. 

Death of John Randolph, May 24. 

Removal of several Indian tribes weat 
of the Mississippi. 

Hoe's double-cylinder printing-press con- 
structed. 

First successful reaper patented. 

Ericsson invents the caloric engine. 

1834 Congress passes a vote of censure against 

the President for removing bank de- 
posits ; subsequently expunged. 

Lucifer matches first made. 

Walter Hunt invents first sewing ma- 
chine, but fails to perfect and patent. 

Dr. Howe invents raised alphabet for 
use of the blind. 

1835 Great fire in New York. 

Congress establishes branch mint's in 
Georgia, North Carolina, and Louisi- 
ana. 

Government purchase Cherokee bonds 
for $5,200,000. 

New York Herald established by Ben- 
nett. 

Death of Chief Justice Marshall, July 6. 

Roger Brooks Taney, appointed Chief 
Justice. 

Seminole Indian war renewed. 

Gas first introduced into Philadelphia. 

Brown makes first gold pens with dia- 
mond points. 

Guano becomes an article of commerce 
in the U. S. 

Massacre of Maj. Dade and his command 
in Florida. 

1836 The national debt virtually paid. 
Arkansas admitted into the Union. 
Battle of San Jacinto, Texas; Santa 

Anna defeated and a prisoner, April 21. 

Bequest of James Smithson to the U. S. 
of $515,169. 

Smithsonian Institute at Washington 
founded. 

Death of James Madison, June 28. 

Governor Call, of Georgia, invades Sem- 
inole country. 

Sam Houston elected President of Texas, 
Oct. 22. 

Martin Van Buren elected President. 

Burning of the Patent and General Post- 
office at Washington. 

Texas declared independent. 

Sam Colt invents the revolver. 

First National Temperance Convention 
held at Saratoga. 

Adams' great debate for the right of 
petition. 

Death of Aaron Burr. 

Sioux and Winnebago Indians removed 
beyond the 1 Mississippi. 

Scott subdues the Creek Indians. 



1837 



1838 



1841 



1843 



1845 



Great financial crash and panic through- 
out the country. 

Harnden originates the express business. 

Michigan admitted into the Union. 

First zinc produced in the country. 

Wilkes' exploring expedition to the South 
Pole. 

United States Bank suspends specie pay- 
ment, Oct. 5. 

Mormon war in Missouri. 
1840 Intense political excitement. 

The Log Cabin campaign. 

Election of William Henry Harrison as 
President. 

Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber. 

The first steam fire engine constructed 
by Ericsson. 

Sub-Treasury bill becomes a law, June 
30. 

First Washingtonian Society founded. 

Adams' Express Company organized. 

Wilkes discovers Antarctic continent. 

William H. Harrison inaugurated, March 
4, dies April 4 ; John Tyler, Vice-Presi- 
dent, inaugurated President, April 6. 

McLeod difficulty. 

Webster's (Noah) Dictionary first pub- 
lished. 

Sub-Treasury bill repealed, Aug. 9. 

Bankruptcy Act becomes a law, Aug. 18. 

Imprisonment for debts due the govern- 
ment abolished. 

Greeley establishes the New York Tri- 
bune. 

Kingford produces the first sample of 
pure corn starch. 

Mutiny on United States brig of war 
"Somers" instigated by Midshipman 
Spencer. 

The Fourier community, excitement. 

Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

Ashburton or first Washington Treaty 
signed, with England, Aug. 9. 

Bunker Hill monument completed. 

Termination of war with Seminoles. 

Lucifer matches first made by machinery. 

President vetoes bill for National Bank. 

Dorr rebellion in Rhode Island. 

Bankrupt Act repealed, March 3. 

Death of Dr. Channing, Oct. 2. 

William Miller and the "Millerites." 

$30,000 voted by Congress to aid Morse to 
establish telegraph lines. 

Fremont explores Columbia River, Wil- 
lamet Valley, and Klamath Lake. 

Great comet visible during the day. 

Death of Noah Webster. 

Wilder's patent for fire-proof safe. 

Explosion of the gun, the "peace-maK- 
er," killing the Secretaries of Navy 
and State. 

Commercial treaty with China. 

First telegraph line from Washington 
to Baltimore. 

First anti-slavery candidate nominated 
for the presidency. 

The "Midas," first American steamboat, 
rounds Cape of Good Hope. 

James K. Polk elected President. 

Mormon war in Illinois, murder of 
Joseph Smith ; Brigham Young se- 
lected as his successor. 

Copper discovered in Michigan. 

Texas asks for annexation. 

First telegraph line. 

Texas annexed by ' Act of Congress, Mex- 
ico takes offense. 

Florida and Iowa admitted into the 
Union. 

War declared by Mexico, June 4. 

Naval school at Annapolis opened. 

Eli as Howe produces his first sewing ma- 
chine. 

Great fire in Pittsburg. 

Serious fire in New York, 300 buildings 
burned. 

Death of Justice Joseph Story. 

First manufacture of files. 

Zachary Taylor, with 4,000 troops, ad- 
vanced to Corpus Christi, Texas. 

Negotiations toward purchase of San 
Domingo. 

Death of Andrew Jackson, June 8. 

Free Soil party originated. 

Northwestern boundary fixed at 498. 

Hostilities begin in Mexico. 

Battles of Palo Alto, May 8, and Resaca 
de la Palma, May 9 ; victory of Gen. 
Taylor. 

Matamoras taken, May 18. 

New Tariff bill passed, July 28. 

President vetoes River Harbor bill, 
Aug. 3. 

"Wilson Proviso" against extension of 
slavery passes the House. 

Gun-cotton invented. 

Great fire in Louisville. 

Ether first used as an anesthetic by Dr. 
Jackson. 

Gen. Kearney takes possession of New 
Mexico, Aug. 18. 

Commodore Stockton blockades Mexican 
ports on Pacific coast. 

Monterey taken by Gen. Taylor, Sept. 24. 

Eight days' armistice granted. 

California expedition, under Stephenson, 
sails from New York, Sept. 26. 

Tobasco, Mexico, bombarded by Perry, 
Oct. 25. 

Tampico taken by Gen. Connor, Nov. 14. 

Kearney defeats Mexicans at San Pas- 
qual, Dec. 6. 

Col. Doniphan defeats Mexicans at Bra- 
zito, Dec. 25. 

Gen. Taylor relieved by Gen. Scott. 

The Mormons driven from Nauvoo, 111. 

Iowa admitted as a State. 

Kearney victorious at San Gabriel and 
Mesa, Cal., Jan. 8, 9. 

Mexican Congress resolves to raise loan 
of $15,000,000 on property of the clergy, 
Jan. °, 

Revolt of Mexicans in New Mexico 
against United States, Jan. 14. 

Defeat of insurgents at Canada, New 
Mexico, Jan. 24. 

Battle of Buena Vista, Feb. 23 ; Taylor 
defeats Santa Anna. 

Battle of Sacramento ; defeat of Mex- 
icans, Feb. 28. 

Gen. Kearney declares California a part 
of the United States, March 1. 

Vera Cruz taken by army and navy, 
March 28. 

Alvarado capitulates, April 2. 

Battle of Cerro Gordo, April 8 ; Scott 
defeats Mexicans; also at Contreras, 
Aug. 20. 

Molino del Rey taken, Sept. 8. 

Gen. Scott enters the city of Mexico, 
Sept. 15. 

Death of John Quincy Adams, Feb. 21. 

Gold discovered in California, , March. 

Oneida Community, New York, estab- 
lished. 

Wisconsin admitted into the Union, May 
29. 

Missouri Compromise repealed. 

Election of Zachary Taylor as President. 

Corner stone of Washington Monument 
laid. 

Oregon Territorial bill passed, Aug. 13. 

First receipt of California gold at United 
States mint, Dec. 8. 

Treaty signed with Mexico, Feb. 2. 

Upper California ceded to United States. 

Mexicans unsuccessfully besiege Pueblo, 
held by Americans, Sept. 13 to Oct. 12. 

Huamantia taken by Americans, Oct. 9. 

Guyannes captured, Oct. 20. 

Great excitement at Rochester, N. Y., 
caused by "Spirit rappings." 

Food sent to starving Ireland. 

Los Angeles, Cal., taken by Kearney, 
and a system of government organized. 



1846 



1846 



1847 



1848 Great fire in St. Louis. 

Prof. Webster murders Dr. Parkman, 
Nov. 23. 

United States gold dollar first coined. 

California adopts a constitution prohib- 
iting slavery. 

Death of James K. Polk, June 15. 

1849 Filibustering expeditions against Cuba 

forbidden by the President. 

Visit of Father Mathew, the temperance 
advocate. 

Capt. Minie invents the Minie conical 
bullet. 

Mason and Dixon's line surveyed. 

Cholera visits the United States, severe 
at Cincinnati and St. Louis. 

California Constitution formed at Mon- 
terey. 

Great riot at Astor Place Opera House, 
New York. 

1850 Treaty with England for a transit way 

across Panama. 

French Ambassador dismissed from Wash- 
ington. 

Death of John C. Calhoun, March 31. 

Congress passes the Oregon Donation 
Law. 

Uncle Tom's Cabin first published. 

Watches first made by machinery. 

Fugitive Slave Law passed. 

Death of Zachary Taylor, July 9. 

Grinnell Arctic Expedition sails. 

California admitted as a Free State, 
Sept. 9. 

New Mexico and Utah organized as ter- 
ritories, Sept. 9. 

Visit of Jenny Lind to America, Sept. 12. 

Dahlgren invents the cast-iron gun. 

1851 Appearance of the great sea serpent. 
Completion of Erie railroad. 
Corner-stone of Capitol extension laid, 

July 4. 
First Asylum for Idiots established in 

New York. 
California Vigilance Committee formed. 
American yacht victorious at regatta in 

London, Eng. 
Frightful catastrophe at public school 

building, New York. 
Congressional Library destroyed by fire, 

Dec. 24. 

1852 Dispute with England about the fish- 

eries. 

Expedition to Japan, under Com. Perry. 

First street-railway in New York. 

Deaths of Henry Clay, June 26, and 
Daniel Webster, Oct. 24. 

Treaty of Commerce with Chili. 

Branch mint established in San Fran- 
cisco. 

Franklin Pierce elected President. 
1S53 Crystal Palace, New York, opened. 

Treaty with Mexico, for purchase of 
Arizona. 

Treaty with Russia. 

Explorations for a transcontinental rail- 
way. 

Yellow fever in New York. 

Children's Aid Society, New* York, 
founded. 

Walker's filibustering expedition to So- 
nora, Mexico. 

1854 Commercial Treaty with Japan signed, 

March 31. 

American, ; or Know-Nothing Society 
formed. 

Loss of the steamship Arctic. 

Cubans seize American mail-steamer 
Black Warrior, Feb. 28. 

First railway from Lake Michigan to the 
Mississippi, the Rock Island. 

American ship "Cayne" bombards Grey- 
town, Central America, on refusal to 
pay for property destroyed, June 12. 

Invention of the Iron Tower for iron- 
clad vessels, by Ericsson ; 

Reciprocity Treaty with England; settle- 
ment of the Fishery question, Aug. 2. 

Bill passed organizing Kansas and 
Nebraska as Territories, repealing the 
Compromise of 1S20, which excluded 
slavery from the entire Louisiana pur- 
chase, May 24. 

Massachusetts Aid Society send out set- 
tlers to Kansas. 

A. H. Reader, of Pennsylvania, ap- 
pointed Governor of Kansas. 

1855 . Territorial Legislature of Kansas meets 

at Shawnee, July ; great emigration 

to Kansas. 
Free State men meet in convention at 

Topeka and form a Free State constitu- 
tion. Oct. 23. 
Hostilities between the Free and Slave 

State settlers begin. 
Sioux Indians defeated by Gen. Harney. 
Paraguayans attack United States 

steamer, "Water- Witch." 
Completion of Niagara Suspension 

Bridge. 
Court claims established. 
William Walker unsuccessfully invades 

Nicaragua. 
Dispute with Great Britain concerning 

recruiting for the Crimea army. 

1855 British discovery ship "Resolute" aban- 

doned in Arctic sea ; brought to New 
London. 

1856 Hoosac Tunnel begun. 

Victory of John Brown at Ossawatomie, 
Kan. 

Republican party formed. 

Alden invents type-setting machine. 

Rock Island bridge, across the Mississippi, 
opened, April 11. 

Affray at Panama between passengers and 
natives, April 15. 

Page makes first wood type by ma- 
chinery. 

President declares creation of free state 
government in Kansas an act of re- 
bellion. 

Brooks' assault upon Charles Sumner. 

Dismissal of British envoy at Washington, 
May 28. 

Introduction of sorghum, or Chinese sugar- 
cane. 

Dudley observatory, Albany, inaugurated, 
Aug. 28. 

The government, pur chases the "Resolute;" 
refitted and presented to British Govern- 
ment. 

Loom for weaving Axminster carpets first 
patented. 

Election of James Buchanan as President. 

1857 Organization of the Fenian Brotherhood. 
Settlement of the Central American ques- 
tion. 

Death of Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic ex- 
plorer, Feb. 16. 
Robert J. Walker appointed Territorial 

Governor of Kansas. 
Taney renders Dred Scott decision, 

March 6. 
First attempt to lay Atlantic cable. 
Alden secures patent for condensed milk. 
Great financial crash. 
New York, Boston and Philadelphia banks 

suspended, Oct. 14, 15. 
Banks resume specie payments, Dec. 12, 

14. 
Murder of Dr. Burdell ; arrest and trial 

of Mrs. Cunningham, his mistress. 
Foundering of the "Central America" off 

Cape Hatteras; over 400 lives and ' $2,- 

000,000 lost. 
Great religious revival throughout the 

country. 
Troubles with the Mormons in Utah ; Col. 

Johnson, with a military force, sent 

out; Brigham Young forbids any armed 

force entering Salt Lake City ; Mormon 

troops ordered to hold themselves in 

readiness ; martial law declared, Sept. 

IS. 



1858 Dispute with England respecting the right 

of search. 

Completion of the first Atlantic telegraph, 
August. 

Death of Thomas H. Benton, April 15. 

Congress passes bill admitting Kansas un- 
der pro-slavery constitution, Aug. 30. 

Exciting campaign of Lincoln and Douglas 
in Illinois. 

Minnesota admitted as a state, May 18. 

Seward announces his "irrepressible con- 
flict" doctrine. 

Kansas rejects the pro-slavery constitution 
by overwhelming majority, Aug. 3. 

First message across the Atlantic cable, 
from Victoria to the President, Aug. 16. 

Peruvians capture two American vessels. 

Burning of steamship "Austria," Ham- 
burg to New York; nearly 500 lives 
lost. 

1859 The Island of San Juan, near Vancouver's 

Island, occupied by United States 

troops. 
The Fenian organization perfected. 
Treaty with Paraguay signed, Feb. 10. 
Oregon admitted as a State, Feb. 14. 
Drake bores first oil well at Titusviile, 

Pa. 
Great storm in the Northern and South- 
ern States. 
Daniel E. Sickles shoots Philip Barton 

Key, Feb. 27. 
Kansas Free State party frames a State 

constitution at Wyandotte. 
Vicksburg Convention declares in favor of 

reopening slave trade, May 11. 
Publication of Worcester's Unabridged 

Dictionary. 
San Juan Island occupied by General Har- 
ney, July 9. 
Appearance of the potato bug. 
Election of Republican officers in Kansas, 

Dec. 6. 
Comstock Great Bonanza Mine purchased 

for an Indian pony and a quantity of 

whisky. 
Treaty with Mexico signed. 
Grand Embassy from Japan, with treaty 

of peace, etc. 
Tour of the Prince of Wales. 
Hall's expedition to the Polar Sea. 
Arrival at New York of the Great Eastern, 

June 28. 

1860 Election of Mr. Pennington as Speaker of 

the House. 

Abraham Lincoln elected President, Nov. 
6. South Carolina passes the "Ordi- 
nance of Secession," being the first 
State of the Union to secede, Dec. 20. 

Meeting of Senatorial Committee of Thir- 
teen, Dec. 21. 

Major Anderson transfers his command 
from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. 

The Parrott gun invented by Robert R. 
Parrott. 

1861 Mississippi secedes, Jan. 9. 
Florida secedes, Jan. 10. 
Alabama secedes, Jan. 11. 

South Carolina troops fire upon the "Star 
of the West." 

Georgia secedes, Jan. 18. 

Louisiana secedes, Jan. 26. 

Texas secedes, Feb. 1. 

Peace Convention assembled at Washing- 
ton, Feb. 4. 

Provisional Government of Confederate 
States meets at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 
4. 

Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, President, 
Feb. 8, 

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President of 
the United States, March 4. 

Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, bom- 
barded — being commencement of hostili- 
ties in the Civil War, April 12. 

Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers, April 
15. 

Proclamation announcing blockade of 
Southern ports, April 17. 

Federal troops attacked in Baltimore, 
April 19. 

Destruction of stores at Norfolk Navy 
Yard by Union commander, April 20. 

Maryland refuses to secede, April 27. 

Ellsworth shot at Alexandria by Jackson, 
May. 

Missouri turns over to Confederates entire 
control of financial and military re- 
sources of the State, May 2. 

Government call for 42,000 three years' 
volunteers, May 3. 

Arkansas secedes from the Union, May 6. 

Capt. Lyon receives surrender of Fort 
Jackson, May 10. 

Baltimore occupied by General Butler, 
May 13. 

North Carolina secedes from the Union, 
May 20. 

Butler in command at Fortress Monroe, 
May 22. ... 

Advance of Union forces into Virginia, 
May 24. 

Death of Stephen A. Douglas, June 3. 

Tennessee secedes from the Union, June 8, 
East Tennessee opposing it. 

Battle of Big Bethel, Va., June 10. 

Congress meets in extraordinary session, 
July 4. 

Battle near Carthage, Mo., July 5. 
1861 Privateer "Sumter" escapes to sea, from 
New Orleans, July 7. 

Battle of Carrick's Ford, W. Va. ; Con- 
federate General Garnett killed. 

Battle of Romney, Va., June 11. 

West Virginia admitted as a State, June 
11. 

Battle at Rich Mountain ; Confederates, 
under Pegram, defeated by Rosecrans, 
July 11. 

Battle near Centreville, Va., July 18. 

Destruction of the Confederate "Petrel" 
by frigate "St. Lawrence." 

Maryland invaded by Stonewall Jackson, 
July. 

Battle of Bull Run; Union forces, under 
McDowell, defeated; Union killed and 
wounded, 1,490; Confederates, 1,593 
killed and wounded, July 21. 

Gen. McClellan assumes command of army 
in Virginia and on the Potomac. 

Battle of Laurel Hill, July 22. 

Battle of Drug Spring, Mo., under Gen- 
eral Lyon ; Southern forces defeated. 

Battle of Athens, Mo., under Gen. Lyon; 
Confederates defeated, Aug. 5. 

Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo. ; 5,200 
men, under Gens. Lyon and Sigel, at- 
tack 24,000, under Gens. McCulloch, 
Price, etc. ; Lyon killed ; defeat of Sigel, 
Aug. 10. 

President Lincoln's non-intercourse proc- 
lamation, Aug. 16. 

Gen. Butler and Commodore Stringham 
take Forts Hatteras and Clark on 
North Carolina coast, Aug. 28. 

Fort Morgan abandoned by Confederates,. 
Aug. 30. 

Fremont issues proclamation freeing 
slaves in Missouri, Aug. 31. 

Battle of Carnifex Ferry, Gens. Rosecrans 
and Floyd, Sept. 10. 

Destruction of privateer "Judah," Sept. 
13. 

Repulse of Confederates at Cheat Moun- 
tain, W. Va. 

Battle of Lexington, Mo. ; Col. Mulligan 
defends for four days against 26,000 
Confederates, but is forced to surrender ; 
loss, 2,500 prisoners, and a large 
amount of gold. 

Battle at Greenbrier, Va. ; success of 
Union forces, Oct, 3. 

Confederate "Savannah" captured by U. S. 
brig "Perry." 

Wilson Zonaves repulsed at Santa Rosa 
Island. Oct. 9. 



1861 Confederate privateer "Nashville" escapes 

from Charleston, S. C, Oct. 11. 

Repulse of Confederate ram and five ships 
at South West Pass., Oct. 12. 

Escape of Mason and Slidell from Charles- 
ton. 

Battle of Fredericktown, Mo. ; flight of 
Jeff Thompson, Oct. 21. 

Recapture of Lexington, Mo., by Union 
troops. 

Gen. Sherman appointed to the command 
of Kentucky forces. 

Battle of Ball's Bluff; Col. Baker killed, 
Oct. 21. 

Zagonyi defeats Confederates at Spring- 
field, Mo., Oct. 29. 

Gen. Scott resigns command of trie army. 
Gen. McClellan succeeds him. 

Soldiers' Aid Society formed at Detroit, 
Nov. 1. 

Commodore Wilkes, of "San Jacinto," 
takes Southern Commissioners, Mason 
and Slidell, from British steamer 
"Trent," in West Indian waters. 

Port Royal bombarded, Nov. 7. 

Battle of Belmont ; Grant's first fight. 

Capture of Tybee Island, commanding 
Savannah, taken Dec. 20. 

Charleston Harbor shut by sinking stone 
fleet, Dec. 21. 

Gatling gun invented by J. Gatling. 

Death of Sam Houston, Oct. 8. 

Kentucky admitted into Confederate 
States, Dec. 9. 

Battle of Martinsburg, Va. ; Gen. Pope, 
Union, captures 1,300 prisoners, Dec. 
18. 

1862 Indian massacre in Minnesota. 
Battle of Blue Gap, Va., Jan. 8. 
Death of John Tyler, Jan. 8. 
"Ericsson" Monitor launched at Green- 
point, Jan. 30. 

Edwin M. Stanton, of Pennsylvania, be- 
comes Secretary of War, Simon Cam- 
eron, of Pennsylvania, retiring Jan. 13. 

Battle of Mill Springs, Ky. ; Zollicoffer 
defeated by Union troops, under Gen. 
George H. Thomas, Jan. 19. 

Fort Henry, on Tennessee River, captured 
by naval forces, under Commodore A. 
H. Foote, Feb. 6. 

Roanoke Island, N. C, captured by Gen. 
Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough, 
Feb. 8. 

Fort Donelson, Tenn., surrendered to Gen. 
Grant, Feb. 16. 

Confederate Congress meets at Richmond, 
Va., Feb. 18. 

Jefferson Davis inaugurated President of 
Southern Confederacy, for six years, 
Feb. 22. 4 

Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark.; Gen. Mc- 
Culloch killed, March 8. 

Confederate ram "Merrimac" sinks "Cum- 
berland" and "Congress," U. S. naval 
vessels, in Hampton Roads, Va., 
March 8. 

"Monitor," U. S. iron-clad, attacks and 
drives "Merrimac" back, March 9. 

Manassas Junction evacuated and occupied 
by Union forces, March 10. 

Battle of Winchester, Va. ; Union loss, 
115 killed, 450, wounded ; Confederate 
loss, 869 killed, wounded and missing, 
March 13. 

Battle of Newbern, N. C, March 14. 

Battle of Pittsburg Landing; Grant, 
Union commander ; Gen. A. Sidney 
Johnston killed ; Union loss, April 6 
and 7, 13,573 ; Confederate loss, 10,699. 

Capture of Island No. 10, by Union 
forces, April 8. 

Raid of Gen. Mitchell; capture of Hunts- 
ville, Ala., and Russell ville, Tenn. 

Fort Pulaski, Ga., surrendered after 
three days' bombardment, to Union 
forces, under Gen. Gilmore, April 11. 

Slavery abolished in District of Columbia, 
April 16. 

Bombardment of Fort Pillow, by Com- 
modore Foote, April 17. 

Union fleet, under Farragut, passes up the 
Mississippi river and takes New Orleans, . 
passing Forts Jackson and Philip, f 
April 24. 

Gen. Butler in command at New Orleans, 
May 1. 

Yorktown evacuated, May 4. 

Surrender of New Orleans to Commodore 
Farragut. 

Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5. 

Battle of West Point, May 7. 

Norfolk surrendered to Gen. Wool, May 10. 

Destruction of the "Merrimac," by the 
Confederates, May 11. 

Natchez, Miss., surrenders to Commodore 
Farragut, May 13. 

Gen. Banks defeated at Winchester, May 
25. 

Battle of Seven Pines, Va., May 29. 

Corinth evacuated, May 30. 

Little Rock captured, May 31. 

Battle of Fair Oaks; Union loss, heavy; 
renewal of battle of Fair Oaks; success 
of Unionists. 

Unionists lose Brashear City, June 13. 

Slavery abolished by all the Territories, 
June 19. 

Forts Pillow and Randolph evacuated, 
June 4. 

Surrender of Memphis, June 6. 

Repulse of Confederates, at Springfield, 
Mo., June 8. 

Seven days' fight before Richmond, un- 
der McClellan, June 26 ; Mechanics ville, 
June 26 ; Gaines' Mills, June 27 ; Sav- 
age Station and Peach Orchard, June 
28 ; White Oak Swamp, June 30 ; Mal- 
vern Hill, July 1; change of base to 
James river. 

President Lincoln calls for 300,000 vol- 
unteers, July 1. 

Murfreesborough captured by Forrest, 
July 5. 

Raid of Morgan in Kentucky, July 7. 

Surrender of Port Hudson, July 8. 

Death of Martin Van Buren, July 24. 

Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9 ; 
Union forces under Banks, lose 1,500 
killed, wounded, and missing; Confed- 
erates, under "Stonewall" Jackson. 

Raid of Phillips into Mississippi, Aug. 16. 

Battle of Sulphur Springs, Va., Aug. 24. 

Fighting on Rappahannock under Pope ; 
Confederates under Ewell and Jackson, 
Aug. 27. 

Gen. Bragg invades Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky. 

Battle of Kettle Run, Va., Aug. 27. 

Battle of Groveton, Va., Aug. 29. 

Defeat of Union forces at Richmond, Ky., 
Aug. 29. 

Surrender of Memphis, Aug. 29. 

Second battle of Bull Run; defeat of 
Federals, Aug. 30. 

Battle of Chantilly, Va. ; Union Generals 
Kearney and Stevens killed, Sept. 1. 

Confederates cross Potomao into Mary- 
land, at Poolsville, "Md., Sept. 1. 

Battle of South Mountain, Md. ; Union 
victory; Gen. Jesse L. Reno killed. 

Harper's Ferry surrendered, after three 
days' fighting, by General Miles, Sept. 
15. 

Battle of Antietam, between Gen. Mc- 
Clellan and Gen. Lee. Retreat of the 
Confederates, Sept. 17. 

Battle of Iuka, Miss., between Gen. Rose- 
crans and Gen. Price, Sept. 19. 

Reoccupation of Harper's Ferry by Fed- 
erals, Sept. 22. 

President Lincoln ' issues preliminary 
Proclamation of Emancipation, Sept. 22. 

Battle of Corinth, Miss., between Gens. 
Rosecrans and Price; defeat of the lat- 
ter, Oct. 3, 4. 



SUPPLEMENT XXII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND* MODERN HISTORY. 



1862 Battle of Perryville, Ky., between Gens. 

Buell and Bragg; charge of Phil. Sheri- 
dan wins the day, Oct. 8. . 

Raid of Confederates under Stuart into 
Pennsylvania; Chambersburg seized and 
looted, Oct. 10-12: '" 

Union Gen. O. M. Mitchel, astronomer, 
died at Beaufort, S. 0., Oct. 30. 

La Grange, Term., occupied by Gen. Grant 
with Union forces. . 

Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. U ^ 10 P 
forces under Gen. Burnside defeated. 
Union losses, 13,771. , , 

Battle of Kingston, N. C. Confederates 
defeated, Dec. 14. 

Mnrphy surrenders Holly Springs to Gen. 
Van Dorn, Dec. 20. . 

Jefferson Davis issues a proclamation out- 
lawing Ben. Butler, Dec. 23. 

Porter's fleet open fire upon Vicksburg, 
Dec. 26. 

Sherman's unsuccessful attack upon 
Vicksburg, Dec. 27, 28. ~ 

Iron-clad "Monitor" founders at sea, on 
rjorjfl TT£rfct£ra_s 

West Virginia admitted as a State of the 
Union, Dec. 31. , 

1863 Battle of Murfreesboro ; Rosecrans de- 

feats Bragg, Jan. 1. 

Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln goes into effect, liberating all 
slaves tn Southern States. 

Death of Lyman Beecher, D. D., aged 87, 
Jan. 10. „ ,, 

U. S. steamer "Hatteras" sunk by South- 
ern privateer "Alabama," off Texas, 
Jan. 11. _ _- 

Capture of Arkansas Post by Gen. Mc- 
Clernand, Jan. 11. „ 

Confederate ram "Atlanta" captured off 
Savannah, Ga., hy Union monitor Wee- 
hawken," Jan. 17. . 

First U. S. colored regiment enrolled m 
South Carolina, Jan. 25. 

Act to provide a national currency be- 
comes a law, Feb. 25. 

Farragut runs batteries at Grand Gull, 
April *• -u * 

Com. Porter successfully runs the bat- 
teries at Vicksburg, April 16. m 

Port Gibson and Grand Gulf, on Missis- 
sippi river, taken by U. S- Grant, 
May 1. ,,,.-•* 

Col. Grierson's raid through Mississippi 
arrives at Baton Rouge, May 2. 

Arrest of C. L. Valandigham. 

Severe fighting between Union forces, un- 
der Hooker, and Confederates, under 
Lee, about Chancellorsville, Va. ; Con- 
federate Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson 
killed; Hooker defeated, May 2, 3, 4. 

Battle of Jackson, Miss.; captured by 
Gen. Grant, May 14. 

Battle of Baker's. Creek; Pemberton 
routed by Grant, May 16. 

Battle of Black River Bridge; retreat of 
Pemberton to Vicksburg, May 17. 

Vicksburg besieged by Grant, May 21. 

Colored troops first brought into action 
at Port Hudson, May 27. 

Battle at Milliken's Bend, June 6, 7. 

Retreat of Milroy from Winchester, June 
14. 

Invasion of Pennsylvania by Lee's entire 
army, June 15-25. 

Battle of Gettysburg, Pa.; Gen. Lee de- 
feated by Union forces, under Gen. 
Meade, July 2, 3. 

Morgan begins his raid through Indiana 
and Ohio, July 3. 

Vicksburg surrendered by Gen. Pember- 
ton to Union forces, under Grant, 
u July 4. 

Port Hudson surrendered to Gen. Banks, 
and Natchez occupied by Gen. Grant — 
Mississippi river being thus opened to 
navigation, July 8. 

Anti-draft riots in New York; 2,000 riot- 
ers killed, July 13, 14, 15. 

Riot in Boston, July 15. 

Gen. Burnside occupies Knoxville, Tenn., 
Sept. 3. 

Confederates evacuate Fort Wagner, 
Sept. 6. 

Burnside captures Cumberland Gap, 
Sept. 9. 

Battle of Chickamauga; Union forces, un- 
der Rosecrans, fall back to Chatta- 
nooga, Sept. 19. 

Quantrell raids Lawrence, Kan., Aug. 21. 

Gen. Wheeler starts on his raid into 
Tennessee, destroying much Government 
property, Oct. 2. 

Hooker takes Lookout Mountain, Oct. 28. 
* First Fenian Congress held in the United 
States. 

Gen. Meade crosses the Rappahannock, Lee 
retiring, Nov. 7. 

Longstreet begins the siege of Knoxville, 
Nov. 17. 

Battle of Missionary Ridge; success of 
Federals, Nov. 24. 

Repulse of Longstreet at Knoxville, Nov. 
28, 29. 

Banks starts on his expedition into Texas, 
Nov. 29. 

Longstreet raises the siege of Knoxville, 
Dec. 5. 

President Lincoln issues Proclamation of 
Amnesty, Dec. 8. 

1864 Draft of 500,000 men ordered by Presi- 

dent Lincoln, Feb. 1. 

Colt's armory, at Hartford, destroyed by 
fire, Feb. 8. 

Disaster to Union forces in Florida, un- 
der Gen. Seymour, Feb. 20. 

Kilpatrick's raid into Virginia. Gen. 
Dahlgren killed, Feb. 28. 
1864 General Grant made Lieutenant-General, 
March 2. 

A Free State government inaugurated in 
Louisiana, March. 

Admiral Porter's Red River expedition, 
March 4. 

Gen.,. U. S. Grant appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of army of United States, 
March 12; assumes command, March 17 

A call for 200,000 more men, March 15. 

Arkansas votes to become a Free State, 

. March 16. 

Battle of Jenkins Ferry, Ark.; defeat of 
Kirby Smith, April 4. 

New York Sanitary Commission Fair re- 
ceipts over one million dollars 

Union . expedition to Mansfield, La., foiled, 
April 8; Union forces, reinforced, re- 
pulse Confederates at Pleasant Hill 
-^■---^-r-Fort Pillow massacre, April 12. 

C: Vessels surrenders Plymouth, N. C to 
Confederates, April 20. "' 

Severe fighting between Confederates, un- 
der Lee, and Union forces, under Grant, 
m Virginia, in advance on Richmond, 
May 3-11. 

Battle of the Wilderness, May 5 

Occupation of City Point by General But- 
ler, May . 4. 

Sherman begins his march toward At- 
lanta, May 7. 

Battle of Resaca, Ga., between Generals 
Sherman and Johnston, May 15 

F h£J, May^ . t0 ° apture JW* 
Death of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Mav 19 

Fi |? t! Il g ? etwee ^ Lee and Gr *nt at the 
- Norti? Anna, May 21-24. 

Battle of Dalton, Ga., May 28; Union 

victory. 
Sheridan captures Cold Harbor, Mav 31 
Evacuation or Alltoona Pass, June 1 
Battle of Cold Harbor, June 2 3 
Battle of Piedmont, Va., June's" 
Hunter attacks Lynchburg; retreats into 

West Virginia, June 8. 

Ar o?L 5 T he R) *!? n,ac ttowes to south 
side of James River, June 12-15 



1864 Assaults on Petersburg; Union forces los- 
ing 10,000 men in four days, June 16- 
18. 

Confederate privateer "Alabama" sunk by 
the United States steamer "Kearsarge," 
off Cherbourg, France, June 19. 

Hood attacks Hooker at Kenesaw, and 
fails, June 22. 

Emancipation Amendment submitted to 
the States by Congress, June 2-2. 

Butler occupies Deep Bottom, ten miles 
below Richmond, June 22. 

Maryland abolishes slavery, June 24. 

Repulse of Thomas and McPherson at 
Kenesaw, June 27. 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 repealed by 
Congress, June 28. 

Early begins his raid into Maryland, 
July 2. 

Wallace defeated by Early at Frederick, 
Md., July 9. 

Rosseau's raid into Alabama, July 10. 

Early's entire army within six miles of 
Washington, July 12. 

Gold reaches highest premium, viz., 284 
per cent, July 16. 

Greeley's negotiations with. Confederates, 
at Niagara, July 18. 

Battle around Atlanta between forces un- 
der Hood, Confederate, and under Sher- 
man, Union, July 22. 

Chambersburg, Pa., burned by General 
Stuart, July 30. ^ 

Explosion of a mine under Confederate 
works, Petersburg, July 30. 

Farragut captures Mobile, Aug. 3. 

Great naval victory, under Farragut, at 
Mobile, Ala., Aug. 5. 

Atlanta evacuated and occupied by Sher- 
man, Aug. 31. 

Battle of Winchester, Va. ; Sheridan cap- 
tures 5,000 prisoners, 5 guns, -and all 
the wounded, Sept. 19. 

Defeats of Early, by Sheridan, in Shenan- 
doah, Sept. 19-22. 

Thirteenth Amendment passed, forever 
abolishing slavery. 

Pilot Knob evacuated by Unionists, 
Sept. 27. 

Death of Chief-Justice Roger Brooks 
Taney, Oct. 12. 

Overwhelming defeat of Early at Cedar 
Creek, Oct. 19. 

Raid of Confederates on St. Albans, Vt., 
Oct. 19. 

Destruction of ram "Albemarle" by a 
torpedo affixed to her by Lieut. Cush- 
ing, Oct. 27. 

President Lincoln re-elected ; Andrew 
Johnson Vice-President, Nov. 8. 

Sherman commences his "March to the 
Sea," from Atlanta, Nov. 16. 

Incendiarism by Confederates in New 
York, Nov. 25. 

Battle of Franklin, Tenn., between Hood 
and Thomas, Nov. 30. 

Battle of Nashville, under Gen. Thomas. 
Great victory. Confederates under 
Hood retreat; Dec. 15, 16. 

Savannah, Ga., occupied by Gen. Sher- 
man, completing the "March to the 
Sea," Dec. 21. 

President orders a draft for 300,000 more 
men, Dec. 19. 

Butler and Porter attack Fort Fisher, 
N. C, and fail, Dec. 24, 25. 
1865 Establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau. 

Fort Fisher, N. C, captured by Gen. 
Terry and Commodore Porter, Jan. 15. 

Sherman leaves Savannah, and starts 
northward, Feb. 1. 

President's Conference with Confederate 
Commission, Feb. 3. 

Evacuation of Charleston, S. C, by Con- 
federates, Feb. 17. 

Its occupation by Union forces, Feb. 18. 

Re-inauguration of President Lincoln, 
March 4. 

Confederate Congress adjourns for the last 
time, March 18. 

Desperate fighting commences before Rich- 
mond. Battle of Five Forks, April 1. 

Gen. Grant advances upon Petersburg, 
April 2. 

Richmond and Petersburg evacuated dur- 
ing night of April 2. 

Flight of Davis from Richmond, April 2. 

Richmond and Petersburg occupied by 
Union forces, April 3. 

Selma, Ala., captured with large stores, 
April 5. 

Battle of Sailors' Creek; defeat of Ewell 
and Custis Lee, April 6. 

Grant demands the surrender of the 
Southern army, April 7. 

Lee surrenders to U. S. Grant at Ap- 
pomattox Court House, Va., April 9. 

Mobile evacuated by the Confederates, 
April 10. 

Montgomery, Ala., surrenders to Wilson, 
April 11. 

President issues orders to stop drafting 
and further purchase of war material, 
April 13. 

President Lincoln assassinated, in Wash- 
ington, by Wilkes Booth, April 14. 

Attempted assassination of Seward, April 
14. 

President Lincoln dies, April 15. 

Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, Vice- 
President, takes oath of office as Presi- 
dent. 

Macon, Ga., occupied by Union forces ; 
great amount of army stores taken, 
April 20. 

Capture and death of Wilkes Booth, 
April 25. 

Gen. Johnston's army surrenders to Gen. 
Sherman, April 26. 

1865 Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, 

Ga., with part of his cabinet, May 10. 

Engagement at Boco Chico, between 500 
Confederates and 400 Union troops, be- 
ing the last in the "War of the Re- 
bellion," May 12. 

Grand review of the army, at Washing- 
ton, May 23, 24. 

Gen. Kirby Smith surrenders all his com- 
mand, Trans-Mississippi Army, May 26. 

Amnesty Proclamation of President John- 
son, with fourteen different exceptions, 
May 29. 

Georgia declares slavery abolished, etc., 
Dec. 4. 

Secretary Seward officially declared slav- 
ery abolished throughout the United 
States, Dec. 18. 

Mississippi nullified secession ordinance, 
August. 

Alabama declared ordinance of secession 
null and void, Sept. 12. 

South Carolina repealed the secession or- 
dinance, Sept. 15. 

Florida annulled secession ordinance, Oct. 
25. 

Proclamation opening all ports in South- 
ern States, and ending blockade, June 
23. 

Execution of assassination conspirators, 
Harold, Payne, Atzeroth, and Mrs. Sur- 
ratt, July 7. 

Rebel Indian chiefs sign treaty of loyalty, 
Sept. 14. 

Execution of Capt. Wirz, the Anderson- 
ville prison commandant, Nov. 10. 

1866 Death of Rufus Choate. Jan. 15. 
Passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, 

over the President's veto, Feb. 20. 

President's proclamation declaring the in- 
surrection ended. 

Death of Gen. Winfield Scott, May 29. 

Fenians invade Canada, June 1. 

Fourteenth Amendment passed the Sen- 
ate, June 8. .,,..«,-. 

Successful laving of the Atlantic Cable, 
July 27. 



1866 Massacre in New Orleans, July 30. 

1867 Nebraska admitted as the thirty-seventh 

State. 

Tenure of Office bill passed, June 4. 

Confiscation and Amnesty bill passed, 
Jan. 4. 

Purchase of Alaska, for $7,200,000, March 
3. 

Jefferson Davis admitted to bail, in the 
sum of $100,000, May 13. 

Southern States organized as military dis- 
tricts, January. 

1868 Impeachment, trial, and acquittal of Presi- 

dent Johnson. 

Death of Kit (Christopher) Carson, trap- 
per and guide, May 23. 

Death of James Buchanan, June 1. 

Death of Matthew Vassar, June 23 ; he 
donates $800,000 for endowment, etc., 
of Vassar College. 

Wyoming Territory organized, July 23. 

Death of Thaddeus Stevens, Aug. 11. 

Cornell University, at Ithaca, opened, 
September. 

Election of Gen. Grant as President, 
Nov. 3. 

1569 Pacific Railway completed, May 10. 
Death of Franklin Pierce, January. 
Nolle prosequi ends prosecution of Jeffer- 
son Davis, Feb. 6. 

Fifteenth Amendment passed, Feb. 25. 
Supreme Court pronounces Confederate 

currency to be worthless. 
Great peace jubilee at Boston, June 15-20. 
French frontier cabie laid, July 27. 
Great Wall street panic, "Black Friday," 

Sept. 24. 
Death of George Peabody, Nov. 4. 
Death of Edwin M. Stanton, Dec. 14. 

15 70 Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment 

by the States. 

Death of Admiral David G. Farragut, 
Aug. 14. 

Death of Gen. R. E. Lee, Oct. 12. 

The Nathan murder, New York, July 28. 

Proclamation of neutrality in Franco-Ger- 
man war. 

First narrow-gauge railway built, Denver 
& Rio Grande. 

Ku-Klux bill passes Congress. 
1871 Treaty of Washington, with Great Britain. 

Great fire at Chicago; 17,450 buildings 
destroyed; loss about $196,000,000, 
Oct. 8. 

The Yellowstone National Park bill 



Visit of the Grand Duke Alexis to the 

United States. 
The Credit Mobilier scandal. 

1872 Settlement of the Alabama Claims. 
Congress removes .the political disability 

of the Southern people. 
Re-election of President Grant. 
Great fire at Boston; loss about $78,000,- 

000, Nov. 9. 
Death of Horace Greeley, Nov. 29. 
Death of Samuel F. Morse, inventor of the 

electric telegraph. 
Northwestern boundary question settled by 

the Emperor of Germany. 
Death of James Gordon Bennett, June 1. 
Epizootic throughout the United States. 
National Granges organized. 
Death of William H. Seward. 

1873 Wreck of the Atlantic, 535 lives lost, 

April 1. 

Modoc massacre, death of General Canby, 
April 11. 

Colfax massacre, La., by White League, 
April. 

Death of Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice, 
May 7. 

Beecher and Tilton scandal, Brooklyn, 
July. 

The Salary Grab bill. 

Failure of Jay Cooke & Co..; great finan- 
cial panic, Sept. 19. 

Trial and conviction of William M. 
Tweed, Nov. 22. 

Seizure of the "Virginius," and execu- 
tion of a number of her passengers 
by the Spanish authorities in Cuba. 

Surrender of the "Virginius" to the 
United States by Spain, Dec. 12. 

Death of Louis Agassiz, Dec. 14. 

1874 Woman's Temperance Crusade. 
Visit of Kalakaua, King of Hawaii. 
Compromise Currency Bill signed by the 

President. 

Death of Charles Sumner, March 11. 

Grasshopper raid in the Northwest. 

Abduction of Charley Ross, July 1. 

A second large fire in Chicago, July 14. 

Presidential election; result disputed, No- 
vember 7. 

1875 Passage of the Act for the Resumption 

of Specie Payments in 1879. 

Colorado admitted into the Union, 
March 4. 

Centennial celebration at Lexington, Con- 
cord and Bunker Hill. 

Death of Andrew Johnson, July 31. 

Trial of Henry Ward Beecher for adultery. 

Trial of Prof. Swing for heresy, May 5. 

Death of John C. Breckinridge, May 17. 

Military rule discontinued in the Southern 
States. 

Suspension of the California Bank, and 
suicide of President Ralston. 

Death of Henry Wilson, Nov. 22. 

Great' fire in Virginia City, Nev., Oct. 25. 

Foundering of steamship "Pacific" be- 
tween San Francisco and Portland, 
Nov. 4. 

Death of William B. Astor, Nov. 24. 

Escape of Tweed from the custody of the 
sheriff, Dec. 4. 

Great revivals, under Moody and Sankey. 

Great inundation in Texas. 

1876 Opening of the Centennial Exhibition at 

Philadelphia, May 10; it closes, Nov. 

10. 
Serious difficulties between Americans and 

Chinese in California. 
Burst of reservoir at Worcester, Mass., 

destroying millions of dollars worth of 

property, March 3. 
Death of Alexander T, Stewart, April 10. 
War with Sitting Bull and the Sioux. 
Massacre at Hamburg, S. C, June. 
Massacre of Gen. Custer and his com- 
mand, by the Sioux Indians, July 2. 
Completion of the First One Hundred 

Years of American Independence ; great 

rejoicing throughout the United States, 

July 4. 
Castle Garden, N. Y., destroyed by fire, 

July 9. 
Younger Brothers and Northfield Bank 

robbery, Sept. 7. 
Arrest of W. M. Tweed, at Vigo, Spain, 

Sept. S. 
Yellow fever in Georgia, September. 
Trial of Molly Maguires, October. 
Dastardly attempt to rob the grave of 

President Lincoln, Nov. 7. 
Burning of the Brooklyn Theater, 276 

lives lost, Dec. 5. 
First furnace for cremation built, at 

Washington, Pa., Dec. 6. 
• The Ashtabula railroad horror, Dec. 29. 

1877 Close of the Indian War. 

The Electoral Commission Bill passed by 

Congress, Jan. 25, 26. 
Rutherford B. Hayes declared President, 

March 2. 
Blue Glass mania. 

Death of Cornelius Vanderbilt, June 4. 
Great railroad riots, East and West, July 

and August. 

1878 Yellow fever epidemie along the Lower 

Mississippi. 

Meeting of the Alabama Claims Commis- 
sion, Feb. 27. 

Fenians attempt a second invasion ®f 
Canada, May 29. 



1878 Death of Robert Dale Owen, June 24. 
The Colorado Petrified Giant humbug. 
Return of Henry M. Stanley from African 

explorations, August. 

Death of Brigham Young, Aug. 29. 

Death of Oliver P. Morton, Nov. 1. 

Earthquake shocks in New England and 
Middle States. 

Ku-Klux bill passed by Congress. 

Death of Benjamin F. Wade, March 2. 

Development of the telephone and phono- 
graph. 

Bankrupt Repeal Bill passed, May 10. 

Death of William Cullen Bryant, June 12. 

Indian outbreak in Washington Territory, 
July. 

Chinese Embassy visits the United States. 

Silver Bill passed by both Houses of Con- 
gress. 

Yellow fever in the South. 

Gold sold at par — the first time since 
1862— Dec. 17. 

1879 Resumption of specie payments, Jan. 1. 
Death of Richard Henry Dana, Feb. 2. 
Great fire at Reno, Nev., March 2. 

New Constitution of California adopted, 

May 2. 
Death of William Lloyd Garrison, May 24. 
Terrible tornado in Kansas, Nebraska and 

Missouri, May 30. 
Bill to erect a monument on site of 

Washington's birthplace, passes both 

Houses, June 10. 
Waterspout in Black Hills causes great 

loss of property and life, June 12. 
Disastrous storms east and west, July. 
Great fire at Deadwood, Dak., Sept. 26. 
Death of Gen. Josepn Hooker, Oct. 31. 
Death of Zaehary Chandler, Oct. 31. 
Caleb Cushing dies at Madrid. 
"Exodus" of negroes from South to West. 
James Russell Lowell made Minister to 

England. 
Fall elections favor Republicans. 

1880 Death of Frank Leslie, Jan. 10. 

City Hall, Albany, destroyed by fire, 
Feb. 10. 

Terrific tornado sweeps over parts of 
Western and Southern States, April 8. 

Great forest fires in Southern New Jer- 
sey, April and May. 

Collision on Long Island Sound destroys 
the steamers "Narragansett" and 
"Stonington." 

Centennial celebration of the capture of 
Andre, Sept. 23. 

Garfield and Arthur nominated by Chicago 
Republican Convention, June 9 ; Han- 
cock and English by Cincinnati Demo- 
cratic Convention. 

At the General Election, the Republican 
candidates secured 213 out of 369 elec- 
toral votes, Nov. 6. 

1881 Electoral College vote counted, Feb. 9. 
Three per cent, funding bill passed, 

March 2. 

Steamer "Corwin" sails for the Arctic re- 
gions in search of the "Jeannette," 
March 4. 

Revised New Testament issued, May 20. 

Star route frauds exposed, May 26. 

The great comets of 1881 first seen, June 
20. 

Sitting Bull, chief of the Sioux, surren- 
ders, July 31. 

James A. Garfield inaugurated, March 4. 

Contest between Garfield and Senator 
Conkling (N. Y.) about New York col- 
lectorship, May. 

Commercial treaty with China signed, 
May 5. 

Great Britain pays £15,000 award for 
damage done to American fisheries in 
Fortune Bay affair. 

Assassination of President Garfield by 
Charles J. Guiteau, at Baltimore rail- 
way depot in Washington, July 2. 

Death of President Garfield at Elberon, 
N. J., Sept. 19; burial at Cleveland, 
Sept. 26. 

Vice President Arthur becomes President, 
Sept. 26. 

Special session of the Senate, Oct. 10. 

The celebrated Guiteau trial begins, Nov. 
14. 

News of destruction of "Jeannette," Arc- 
tic exploring vessel, Dec. 30. 

1882 Guiteau convicted, Jan. 25 ; sentenced 

Feb. 4 ; hanged June 30. 
Anti-Chinese bill (twenty years) passed 

March 23 ; vetoed by the President 

April 4. 
Senate passes Edmunds Anti-Polygamy 

Bill, Feb. 16 ; approved March 23. 
Apportionment bill passes the House, 

Feb. 17. 
Great Mississippi overflow,, wide destruc- 
tion and loss of life. 
Tariff Commission Bill passes both Houses, 

May 6-9 ; approved May 15. 
Bill extending National Bank charters 

passed both Houses, May 19. 
Violent cyclone at Grinnell, la., June 8. 
Second Anti-Chinese bill (ten years) 

passed; signed by President Arthur, 

May 6. 
Collision of the Scioto on Ohio river; 59 

persons drowned, July 4-. 
River and Harbor bill passed over the 

President's veto, Aug. 2. 
Return of the survivors of the North Pole 

expedition. 
Star Route trial ended by verdict of jury, 

Sept. 11, acquitting Turner, convicting 

Miner and Rerdell, and disagreeing as 

to Brady, the Dorsey brothers, and 

Vail. 
Steamer "Asia" founders on Lake Huron, 

100 lives lost, Sept. 14. 
Utah Commission completes registration 

of voters, September. 

1882 The Pendleton Civil Service Bill passes 

Senate, Dec. 27. 

1883 Civil Service Reform Bill passes the 

House, Jan. 4. 

Presidential Succession Bill passed Sen- 
ate, Jan. 9 ; not considered in the 
House. 

Burning of Newhall House, Milwaukee; 
59 lives lost, Jan. 10. 

Great flood in Ohio River; 50,000 people 
homeless, Feb. 10-15. 

Tariff and Tax Amendment Bill passes 
both Houses, March 2. 

Death of Alexander H. Stephens, aged 71, 
March 4. 

Death of Peter Cooper, aged 92, April 4. 

Cyclone at Beauregard, Miss., 83 lives 
lost; tornadoes in Iowa and Georgia, 
April 22. 

Opening of the Brooklyn Suspension 
Bridge, May 24. 

Pendleton Civil Service Aet passes both 
Houses, July 16. 

Steamer "Proteus" of the Greely Relief 
Expedition crushed by ice in - Smith's 
Sound, July 23. 

Terrific tornado at Rochester, Minn., 
many lives lost, Aug. 21. 

Northern Pacific Railroad formally opened, 
Sept. 8. 

Civil Rights Act of March 1, 1875, de- 
clared unconstitutional by U. S. Su- 
preme Court, Oct. 15. 

Gen. Sherman relinquishes command of 
the army, Nov. 1 ; Gen. Sheridan suc- 
ceeding. 

Two-cent letter postage goes into effect 
throughout the United States, Oct. 1. 

Serious riot at Danville, Va., between 
( negroes and white military, Nov. 3. 

Dakota adopted a constitution erecting 
Southern Dakota into a State, Nov. 6. 

Festivals in honor of the 400th anni- 
versary of Luther's birth, Nov. 10-11. 

48th Congress organized. 



1 



1884 House repeals the iron-clad oath law, 
Jan. 21. 

Germany returns resolutions ef the 
House laudatory of Ruskin, Feb. 15. 

United States Supreme Court affirms the 
constitutionality of Legal Tender Act. 
March 3. 

Mexican War pension bill passes House 
March 3. 

The Senate ratifies commercial treaty with 
Mexico, March 11. 

Defeat of Morrison Tariff bill, May 6. 

Congress appropriates $1,000,000 for New 
Orleans Exposition, May 8. 

Great panic in Wall street ; failure of 
Grant and Ward and others, May 6-14. 

Relief expedition rescues survivors of the 
Greely Arctic expedition, at Cape Sa- 
bine, June 22. 

President vetoes the Fitz-John Porter bill, 
July 2. 

Corner-stone of the Bartholdi Statue of 
Liberty laid, Aug. 6. 

The general election resulted in the elec- 
tion of Grover Cleveland, who carried 
20 States, securing 219 electoral votes 
against 182 for James G. Blaine. Nov. 
4. 

Opening of the 48th Congress, Dec. 1. 
18853 Grover Cleveland resigns the New Yc-i'k 
governorship, Jan. 6. 

Dedication of the Washington Monu- 
ment, the tallest structure known, 555 
feet, Feb. 21. 

Occupation of AspinwalL S. A., by United 
States troops. 

Inauguration of Grover Cleveland as 
President, March 4. 

New Orleans Exposition opened, Dec. 16. 

Treaty with Colombian Government, pro- 
viding a joint protectorate over the 
Isthmus, May 5. 

The Revised Old Testament and complete 
Bible published, May 18. 

Death of Gen. U. S. Grant, at Mt. Mc- 
Gregor, N. Y., aged 63, July 23. 

Grant memorial services held at West- 
minster Abbey, London, Aug. 4. 

Death of Vice-President T. A. Hendricks, 
aged 66, Nov. 25. 
188? The Presidential succession act signed, 
Jan. 19. 

Controversy between the Senate and Presi- 
dent over reasons for removing public 
officers, Jan. 25. 

400 Chinamen driven from Seattle, W. 
Ter., by a mob, Feb. 9. 

Death of General Winfield Scott Hancock, 
aged 61, Feb. 9. 

Blair Educational Bill passes the Senate, 
March 5. 

Bill for free and unlimited coinage of 
silver defeated, April 8. 

Chicago Anarchist riot; 6 police killed 
and 61 wounded, May 4. 

Anarchists indicted at Chicago, May 27. 

President Cleveland married to Miss 
Frances Folsom, June 2. 

Oleomargarine bill passes the Senate, 
June 20. 

Morrison Tariff Bill defeated, June 17. 

House of Representatives passed bill re- 
pealing the pre-emption, timber culture 
and desert land laws, June 7. 

Bill to repeal the Civil Service law in- 
definitely postponed by the U. S. Sen- 
ate, June 18. 

Congress requires the Treasury to issue 
small denomination silver certificates, 
July 24. 

The President warns office holders against 
attempts to control political move- 
ments, July. 

Death of Samuel J. Tilden, aged 74, 
Aug. 4. 

Chicago anarchists, to the number of 8, 
found guilty of murder, Aug. 20. 

Earthquake at Charleston, S. C, destroy- 
ing $5,000,000 worth of property and 
57 lives, Aug. 30-31. 

Surrender of the Apache chief Geronimo 
and his band, Sept. 4. 

Death of Ex-President Chester A. Arthur, 
aged 56. 

Bill to regulate the counting of electoral 
votes passed, Dec. 9. 

1887 Interstate Commerce Bill signed, Feb. 4. 
House defeats the Dependent Soldier Pen- 
sion Bill, Feb. 24. 

Belmont Retaliation Bill passed, March 2. 

Bill to redeem trade dollars passed^ 
March 19. . *< 

Inter-State Commerce commission ap- 
pointed, March 22. 

Mormon convention at Salt Lake City 
adopts a constitution, July 1. 

Defeat of the Scotch cutter "Thistle" by 
the American "Volunteer" in race for 
"America cup," Sept. 27 and 30. 

President and Mrs. Cleveland leave Wash- 
ington for a Western trip. 

Mormon convention of monogamists peti- 
tion Congress for admission of Utah as 
a State, Oct. 8. 

United States Supreme Court refuses to 
interfere with the finding of Illinois 
courts in anarchist cases, Nov. 1. 

Governor Oglesby commutes death sen- 
tences of Schwab and Fielden to life 
imprisonment, Nov. 10. 

Hanging, at Chicago, of the anarchists 
Parsons, Spies, Engel and Fischer, 
Nov. 11. 

Republican National Committee select 
Chicago for National Convention, June 
16, 1888. Dec. 8. 

1888 Terrible blizzard in Minnesota, Dakota 

and Iowa; 200 lives lost, Jan. 12. 

Inter-State Commission confirmed by the 
U. S. Senate, Jan. .16. 

Fisheries treaty with Great Britain signed 
at Washington, Feb. 15. 

Strike of engineers and firemen on the 
C, B. & Q. R. R. began Feb. 25. 
18*88 Deadlock in the House of Representatives 
over the Direct Tax Bill, April 9. 

Death of Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, 
aged 72 years, March 23. 

Knights of Labor appeals to Congress for 
a system of Government telegraph, 
April 12. 

Death of Roscoe Conkling, ex-U. S. Sen- 
ator, aged 60 years, April 18. 

Daily sales of U. S. bonds began, April 
23. ^ 

Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, nomi- 
nated by the President as Chief Jus- 
tice, April 30; confirmed by the Senate, 
July 20. 

Chinese Treaty ratified by U. S. Senate, 
May 7. 

Execution of murderers by electricity, 
after Jan. 1, 1889, passes N. Y. Sen- 
ate, May 8; approved by the Governor, 
June 4. 

The President approves of bill to invite 
a' conference of American States at 
Washington in 1889, May 24. 

Lieut. -Gen. Philip H. Sheridan confirmed 
as General of the Army, June 1. 

National Democratic Convention at St. 
Louis renominates President Cleveland, 
June 6. 

National Department of Labor bill ap- 
proved by the President, June 13. 

The President signed the Chinese Exclu- 
sion Bill, forbidding any Chinese la- 
borer who has been, or may now be, or 
may hereafter be, a resident within the 
U. S., and may depart therefrom, and 
who may not have returned before the 
passage of this act, to return to, or re- 
main in, the U. S., Oct. 1. 

Death of General Philip H. Sheridan 
aged 57 years, August 5. 



SUPPLEMENT XXIII. 



ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 



-a 



1888 Major-Gen. John M. -Schofield appointed 
"to the command of the army, August 

14. 

U. S. Senate rejects the Fisheries treaty, 
August 21. 

President's message to the U. S. Senate 
recommending enlarged powers under 
the Retaliation Act. August 23. 

Floods at Augusta, Ga., destroyed $1,- 
000,000 worth of property, Sept. 12. 

Bill prohibiting coming of Chinese la-, 
borers approved; Sept. 13. 

September wheat touched $2 on Chicago 
Board of Trade, Sept. 29. 
. U. S; Supreme Court sustains the con- 
stitutionality of the Iowa "Prohibitory 
Law,'' Oct. 22. 

The "Murchison" decoy letter to Lord 
Sackville "West made public, Oct. 24. 

Lord Sackville West, British Minister, dis- 
missed by the President, Oct. 20. 

National Election for President; the Re- 
publican candidates elected, Nov. 6. 

Official yellow fever bulletin gave total 
number of deaths 412, and of cases 
4,705, at Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 10. 

U. S. men-of-war "Galena" and "Yantic" 
sailed for Hayti to demand release of 
the Haytian Republican, Dec. 12. 

1889 Great storm in Pennsylvania; many lives 

lost at Pittsburgh and Reading, Jan. 9. 
Niagara Suspension Bridge blown down at 

3 a. m., Jan. 10. 
Department of Agriculture created, 

Feb. 4. 
The States of North and South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington, created by 
Congress, Feb. 20: 
Benjamin Harrison inaugurated President, 

March 4. 
Oklahoma proclamation issued, May 27. 
Opening of the Oklahoma country, 

April 22. 
Centennial of Washington's inauguration, 

April 30. . 
Murder of Dr. Cronin at Chicago, May 4. 
Destruction by flood of Johnstown, Pa. ; 
5,000 to 10,000 lives lost;, over $20,- 
000,000 worth of property destroyed, 
May 31. 
Judge D. S. Terry shot by U. S. Mar- 
shal Nagle, defending Justice Field, 
Aug. 14. 
International Marine Congress meets at 

Washington, Oct. 16. 
North and South Dakota admitted by 

proclamation, Nov. 2. 
Trial of Cronin suspects began Aug. 30, 
ended Dec. 16. Coughlin, Sullivan and 
Burke found guilty, and received life 
sentences; Kunze, imprisonment three 
years ; Beggs found not guilty. 
David J. Brewer appointed a Supreme 

Court Justice, Dec. 4. 
Death of Jefferson Davis, ' late President 
of the Confederate States, Dec. 6. 
1890 Appointment of Special World's Fair Com- 
mittee, Jan. 18. 
La grippe or influenza prevalent through- 
out the Northern and Western States. 
Death of Gen. Crook, at Chicago, March 

19. 

Act approved providing for the World's 

Columbian Exposition, at Chicago, 

April 25. , r n 

Death of Gen. Fremont, at New York 

City, July 13. 
First execution by electricity, at Auburn, 

N. Y., Wm. Kemmler, Aug. 6. 
First legislature of Oklahoma meets, 

Aug. 31. ., x 

Act forbidding the use of the mails for 

lottery purposes, approved Sept. 19. 
The McKinley tariff bill takes effect, 

Oct. 6. 
General election; next House of Repre- 
sentatives Democratic, Nov. 4. 
The 51st Congress convenes, Dec. 1. 
Sitting Bull and seven other Indians 
killed near Standing Rock Agency, 
Dec. 15. 
Battle of Wounded Knee, between the 
7th Cavalry and hostile Indians, Dec. 
28. 
1891 Death of George Bancroft, historian, at 
Washington, Jan. 17. 
Death of Wm. Windom at a banquet in 

New York, Jan. 29. 
International Monetary Congress met at 
Washington, Jan. 7. 
1891 Application before the U. S. Supreme 
Court for a prohibition to the IT. S. 
District Court on its decision in the 
Behring Sea difficulty by Canadian rep- 
resentatives, Jan. 12. 
Sioux Indian war ended by submission of 

the Hostiles, Jan. 15. 
Reciprocity treaty with Brazil announced, 

Feb. 5. . , ^ n . 

Death of Admiral David D. Porter, at 

Washington, Feb. 13. 
Death of Gen. Wm. T. Sherman, at Wash- 
ington, Feb. 14. . , , « 
Charles Foster, of Ohio, appointed Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, Feb. 21. 
Copyright bill passed Congress, March 3. 
Act creating Circuit Court of Appeals, 

paused March 3. 
French Spoliation Bill passed, March 3. 
The Copyright bill becomes a law, March 
4. 



The enlistment of Indians in the U. S. 

army authorized, March 6. ' # 

Proposed arbitration of Behring Sea dis- 
pute, March 11. 
Lynching of 11 Italians at New Orleans, 

March 14. 
Nicaragua Canal Party sails, March 14. 
American Society of Authors formed for 

the protection of writers, March 30. 
Recall of the Italian Minister, Baron 

Fava, March 31. 
25th anniversary of the founding of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, April 6. 
Ground broken for the Grant Monument, 
New York City, April 27. 
1891 Chinese Government refuses to receive 
the American Minister, H. W. Blair, 
April 28. ' 

Fort Berthold Reservation, N. D., opened 

for settlement, May 20. 
"The People's Party'* formed at Cin- 
cinnati, May 20. 
Statue of Abraham Lincoln unveiled at 

Lincoln Park, Chicago, May 23. 
Bronze statue of General Grant, at Ga- 
lena, 111., unveiled, June 3. 
The Czar of Russia presents Stanford 
University with a complete collection 
of Russian and Siberian minerals, 
June 12. 
Surrender of the Chilian ship, Itata, at ' 

Iquique, to the U. S., June 4. 
First shipment of block tin from Cali- 
fornia mines, June 15. 
International Postal Congress held . at 
Vienna decides to hold next Congress 
at Washington, June 25. 
Commercial treaty with Spain signed, 

June 26. 
Transfer of the Weather Bureau to the 

Agricultural Department, June 30. 
$500.00 accepted from the Itata for viola- 
tion of the U. S. Navigation laws, July. 
Libel filed against the arms and ammuni- 
tion on the Itata, at San Diego, July 12. 
Statue of Stonewall Jackson unveiled- at 

Lexington, Va., July 21. 
Smokeless powder used for the first time 

by the U. S. Government, July 25. 
The "Majestic" breaks the ocean rec- 
ord, time being 5d. 18h. 8m., Aug. 5. 
Cherokee strip in Indian Territory closed 

to Whites, Aug. 13. 
Rain-making experiment at Midland, 

Texas, Aug. 19. 
The "Teutonic" breaks the trans-Atlan- 
tic record of the "Majestic," time 5d. 
16h. 31m., Aug. 19. 
Indian lands of Oklahoma opened, Sept. 

22. 
Dedication of Pope Leo XIII: statue,, pre- 
sented to the Catholic University at 
Washington, Sept. 28. 
Leland Stanford, Jr., University at Palo 

Alto, Cal., opened, Oct. 1. 
Equestrian statue of General Grant at 
Lincoln Park, Chicago, unveiled, Oct. 
7. 
Commercial treaty with Germany con- 
cluded, Oct. 11. 
Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians sell one 
million acres of land to the Govern- 
ment at 55 cents an acre, Oct. 16. 
U. S. Government demands reparation 
from Chili for assault on the crew of 
the Baltimore, Oct. 26. 
Argument in the Sayward case, to test 
U. S. jurisdiction over Behring Sea, 
begun in the U. S. Supreme Court, 
Nov. 9. - 
Congress met; Mr. Crisp, of Georgia, 
chosen Speaker, Dec. 7. 
1892 Stevens County, Kan., war again breaks 
out, Jan. 5. 
Inter-State Commerce Commission ap- 
pointed by the President, Jan. 5. 
Terrible mine explosion at McAlester, 
Ind. Ter., nearly 100 lives lost, Jan. 7. 
Secretary Blaine notifies foreign coun- 
tries of retaliatory measures, as re- 
quired by the Tariff Law, Jan. 8. 
Special message to Congress from the 
President, recommending financial aid 
to the World's Columbian Exhibition, 
Feb. 24. 
The President submits correspondence 
with England to Congress, regarding 
Behring Sea controversy, March 9. 
Ex-Congressman W. R. Morrison selected 
as President of the Inter-State Com- 
merce Commission, vice Judge Cooley, 
resigned, March 21. 
Free Silver coinage debate in Congress, 

March 22-24. 
French Extradition Treaty signed, 

March 25. 
The Silver bill shelved, March 28. 
The Free Wool bill passed, April 7. 
Diplomatic intercourse with Italy re- 
newed, April 14. 
Sisseton Reservation, S. D., opened, 

April 15. . 

Revenue steamers ordered to Behring 

Sea, April 16. 
Copyright agreement with Germany 

signed, April 16. 
The President approves Behrmg Sea 

modus vivendi, April 18. 
U. S. Commercial Treaty between 
Switzerland and Italy, signed April 19. 
The President invites foreign nations 
to participate in an international Sil- 
ver Conference, April 21. 
The President lays Grant monument 
corner stone, New York City, April 27. 



Chinese Exclusion bill signed, May 5. 
Terrible floods in the Mississippi Val- 
ley, May 8-15. 
Wyoming appoints women to National 

Republican Convention, May 7. 
The Alliance party proposes a new cur- 
rency, May 8. , 
The Pope approves Archbishop Ireland s 

Educational Policy, May 10. 
Association of American authors formed, 

May 17. , 

Reciprocity with Guatemala goes into 

effect, May 30. 
James G. Blaine resigns as Secretary of 

State, June 4. 
Republican National Convention held, 

June 7. 
Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid 

nominated, June 10. 
Democratic National Convention held, 

June 21. 
Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson 

nominated, June 23. 
Peary Arctic relief expedition sails, 

June 27. 
Homestead, Pa., Steel Works closed, 

June 30. 
Prohibitionists nominate John Bidwell 

for President, July 1. 
People's Party nominate James B. Wea- 
ver for President, July 4. 
Slaughter of Pinkerton men at Home- 
stead, July 6. . . 
National Christian Endeavor Society 

Convention at New York, July 7. 
Pennsylvania troops take possession of 

Homestead, Pa., July 10. 
Bill to close the World's Fair on Sun- 
day passes both Houses, July 14. 
Great storms in Minnesota, July .30. 
The President proclaims Oct. 12 a Na- 
tional holiday, July 21. 
H. C. Frick, chairman Carnegie Steel 

Co., shot by Berkman, July 23. 

George Shiras confirmed by the Senate 

as Associate Justice XL S. Supreme 

Court, July 26. 

Inman Steamer "City of Paris" breaks the 

Ocean Record, 5d. 15h. 58m., July 27. 

Central Labor Union rejects anarchistic 

resolutions, July 30. 
Congress appropriates $2,500,00,0 to the 
World's Fair, Aug. 5. . 

Chinese sailors forbidden employment 

on American ships, Aug. 5. t 

International Monetary representatives 

appointed by the President, Aug. 7. 
Trouble among East Tennessee miners, 
Aug. 13. 
1892 Railroad strike of switchmen at Buf- 
falo, great destruction of property, 
Aug. 14. 
The President proclaims retaliation 

against Canada on canals, Aug. 20. 
Nancy Hanks again breaks the trotting 

record, 2.05%, Aug. 31. 
Death of George William Curtis, author 

and journalist, Aug. 31. 

Cholera brought to New York City by 

Hamburg steamer "Monrovia," Aug. 31. 

Nelson beats the stallion record, 2.13%, 

Aug. 31. . „ „. „ 

1S92 Death of J. G. Whittier, poet, Sept. ( 7. 

Nancy Hanks again breaks the trotting 

record, 2.04, Sept. 28. 
Formal opening of the Chicago Univer- 
sity, Oct. 1. . , .,, 
Dedication of the World's Fair build- 
ings, at Chicago, Oct. 21. 
Fire at Milwaukee destroys 315 build- 
ings, with $5,000,000 loss. 
Anarchist monument dedicated at Wald- 
heim Cemetery, near Chicago, Nov. 6. 
Great strike at Homestead, Pa., de- 
clared off, Nov. 19. 
Stamboul lowers stallion record at 

Stockton, Cal., -2.07%, Nov. 23. 
Death of Jay Gould, capitalist, Dec. 2. 
Dr, McGlynn restored as a priest, Dec. 

23. 
Immense gold fields discovered in Utah, 

Dec. 27. 
Prof. Briggs acquitted of heresy, Dec. 

29. 
Great floods in California, Dec. 29. 
George W. Vanderbilt gives a costly art 
gallery to the Fine Arts Society at 
New York,. Dec. 30. 
1893 Death of General Benjamin F. Butler, 
Jan. 11. 
Senate passes the Seal Protection Bill, 

Jan. 13. 
Death of ex-President R. B. Hayes, Jan. 

17. 
Hawaiian Provisional Government pro- 
claimed, supported by U. S. authori- 
ties, Jan. 17. 
Death of James G. Blaine, statesman, 

Jan. 27. 
Russian Extradition Treaty confirmed, 

Feb. 8. 
Conflict of rival Legislatures in Kansas, 

Feb. 21-25. 
Rank of American Ambassador estab- 
lished, March 1. 
Inauguration of President Cleveland, 

March 4. 
Behring Sea arbitration opened at Paris, 

France, April 10. 
President Cleveland opens World's Fair 

at Chicago, May 1. 
Chinese Exclusion Act goes into ef- 
fect, May 1. 



Governor Altgeld pardons Chicago an- 
archists, June 28. 
Extra session of Congress called June 

30. 
Great fire at World's Fair, 24 lives lost, 

July 10. 
Behring Sea arbitrators award in favor 

of England, Aug. 15. 
Great storm on South Atlantic coast,/, 

Aug. 28. 
Wabash railroad accident at Kingsbury, 

14 killed, 45 wounded, Sept. 22. 
Chicago Day at the World's Fair, at- 
tendance 716,881, Oct. 9. 
World's Fair closed at Chicago, Oct. 30. 
Repeal of" the Silver Purchase Clause 
Act. of 1890, Nov. 1. 
1894 New York Court of Appeals decides that 
foreign corporations may hold real 
estate in New York State, Jan.-. 16. 
Wilson Tariff Bill and Income Tax 

passes the House, Jan. 31. 
U. S. Warship Kearsarge, famous as th^ 
destroyer of the Confederate Ala- 
bama, wrecked on Roncador Reef, Feb. 
2. 
Death of George W. Childs, philanthro- 
pist and journalist, at Philadelphia, 
Feb. 3. 
Greater New York bill signed by the 

Governor, Feb. 28. 
President Cleveland vetoes the Bland 

Silver bill, March 30. 
Behring Sea proclamation issued, April 

10. 
Unconstitutionality of the South Caro- 
lina Dispensary law declared, April 19. 
136,000 coal miners ordered to strike in 

Ohio, April 20. 
Coxey's army invaded Washington, D. 

C, April 29. 
Dr. Talmage's Tabernacle in Brooklyn 

destroyed by fire, May 13. 
177 buildings burned by fire at Boston, 

May 15. 
American Railway Union boycotts Pull- 
man Car Company. Affected 50,000 
miles of railroad, June 25. 
Armor-plate frauds detected, June 29. 
U. S. Court enjoins strikers from inter- 
fering with railroad trains, July 2. 
Railroad mobs destroy property in and 

near Chicago, July 6-10. 
Railroad strike declared off, July 13. 
Utah Enabling Act signed, July 17. 
American marines landed at Sooul 

Corea, July 27. 
Work resumed at Pullman, 111., Aug. 2. 
Hawaiian Republic officially recognized, 

Aug. 9. 
68 factories close at Fall River, 20,000 

men idle, Aug. 13. 
United States recognizes the sover- 
eignty of Nicaragua over the Mosquito 
Coast, Aug. 26. 
New Tariff becomes a law, without the 

President's signature, Aug. 27; 
Earthquake with great loss of . life at 

Uvalde, Texas, Aug. 31. 
Reciprocity Treaty with Cuba cancelled 

by Spain, Sept. 3. 
President Cleveland's Hawaiian letter 

first published, Sept. 5. 
Amnesty granted polygamists in Utah, 

Sept. 27. 
Death of Prof. David Swing at Chicago, 

Oct. 3. . - 

Death of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Oct. 7. 
Government offers to arbitrate in the 
Japan-China war, Nov. 6. 

1895 Famous Mora case settled with Spain. 
Cotton States Exposition at Atlanta, Ga., 

opened. 

1896 Utah, 45th State, admitted, Jan. 6. 
William McKinley elected President of 

the U. S., Nov. 3. 

1897 U. S. Senate passed resolution for recog- 

nition of belligerency of Cuba, May 20. 
Great Gold Discoveries of Klondyke, 
July 15. 

1898 U. S. Battleship Maine destroyed by ex* 

plosion in Havana harbor, Feb. 15. 

Independence of Cuba recognized by reso- 
lution of Congress, April 19 ; and 
President's proclamation calling for 
125,000 volunteers, April 23. 

Commodore Dewey destroyed Spanish 
fleet in Manila Bay, May 1. 

Squadron under Schley and Sampson 
destroyed Spanish fleet under Cervera 
off Santiago de Cuba, July 3. 

Peace protocol signed, and Presidents 
proclamation issued suspending hostili- 
ties, Aug. 12. 

1899 Beginning of war for suppression ot 

Aguinaldo and his followers ; Filipino 
Insurgents inaugurated general engage- 

. ment, Feb. 4. 

Peace Treaty with Spain ratified by tne 
U. S. Senate, Feb. 6. 

1900 City of Galveston, Tex., destroyed by hur- 

ricane, Sept. 8 ; 6,000 lives lost. 
Twelfth Census of U. S. gives population 
76,295,220. ■ 

1901 President Wm. McKinley inaugurated for 

second term, March; assassinated, Sept. 
- .6; died, Sept. 14. 

1902 Great anthracite coal-miner strike began, 

1903 Iroquois Theatre, Chicago, burned Dec. 

30, 600 lives lost. 
Panama Canal property bought by U. b., 
Feb. 16. 

1904 Theodore Roosevelt elected President, 

Nov. 6. 



1905 Wireless message sent from Kansas City 

to Cleveland, a distance of 725 miles, 
Jan. 15. 

1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, April 

18-20. 

1907 Great financial depression, Oct. 

1908 Boyertown, Pa., theatre burned, 175 lives 

lost, January. 
Wm. H. Taft elected President, Nov. 3. 

1909 Discovery of North Pole by Commodore 

Peary. ' 

Payne-Aldrich tariff law approved, Aug. 

5. 
1912 Devastating floods in Mississippi Valley ; 

over 200,000 people rendered homeless. 
1912 Woodrow Wilson elected president, 

Nov. 5. , ' -, 

1914 Marines landed at Vera Cruz, 

Mexico, April 21. 

1915 .Steamer Eastland sunk Chicago 

harbor, 871 lives lost, July. 
1915 W. J. Bryan, Secretary of State, 
resigned.